Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from the Stem Powder of Cissus populnea and the Leaves of Sesamum radiatum, Herbal Medications for Male Infertility Factor



E.A.S. Osibote, M. Ogunlesi, W. Okiei, T. Asekun and O.B. Familoni
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

One of the causes of male infertility factor is venereal diseases. Cissus populnea and Sesamum radiatum are two tropical medicinal plants used to correct male infertility factor. The aim of this study was to extract the essential oil from the stem powder of C. populnea and the leaves of S. radiatum and screen them for antimicrobial activity. The essential oil from the two plants were obtained by hydro-distillation and were both found to inhibit the growth of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including Citrobacter sp., Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus. The essential oil from C. populnea was in addition found to be active against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 while the essential oil from S. radiatum was found to be active against Serratia marcescens. The essential oil samples from the two plants were both inactive against Candida albicans. The results confirm the antimicrobial properties of the essential oil from the two plants and hence, these plants may correct male infertility factor arising from bacterial infection.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

E.A.S. Osibote, M. Ogunlesi, W. Okiei, T. Asekun and O.B. Familoni, 2010. Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from the Stem Powder of Cissus populnea and the Leaves of Sesamum radiatum, Herbal Medications for Male Infertility Factor. Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 4: 14-20.

DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2010.14.20

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjmp.2010.14.20
 

INTRODUCTION

Cissus populnea Guill and Per belongs to the Vitaceae family. It is used extensively in medicinal preparations in West Africa. In Benin Republic, it is used as a diuretic and in Ghana it is used as a post-harvest ethnobotanical protectant (Belmain et al., 2000). The aqueous extract of the stem bark is used as a fertility enhancer in males in South Western Nigeria (Ojekale et al., 2006). The stem bark has been shown to contain tannins, flavonoids, saponins and steroids (Ojekale et al., 2006). Extracts from the root of the plant have been used for the management of skin diseases, boils, infected wounds (Kone et al., 2004) and for treating urinary tract infections (Ojekale et al., 2006) thus suggesting antibacterial activity. Anthraquinone derivatives, steroidal and cardiac glycosides have been reported present in the root extract while alkaloids and tannins were found to be absent (Moody et al., 2003).

Sesamum radiatum Schum. and Thonn belongs to the Pedaliaceae family (Hutchinson and Dalziel, 1954). The decoction of the leaves is used for the treatment of catarrh, eye pains, bruises and erupted skins (Bankole et al., 2007). The decoction of combined roots and leaves has been reported to exhibit anti-viral and anti-fungal activity (Gill, 1992). The aqueous extract of the leaves has been reported to be rich in phenols, flavonoids, lignans and sterols (Shittu et al., 2006). The phenols would be expected to exhibit antimicrobial activity (Konan et al., 2008).

The two plants investigated are used in treating male infertility factor in South-Western Nigeria. It has been reported that venereal diseases could be responsible for male infertility factor (Greendale et al., 1993). It is thus possible that these plants may exhibit antimicrobial activity which may cure venereal diseases and thus correct male infertility factor arising from bacterial infection. This is the reason for this investigation of the antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from these plants.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Collection of Plant Materials
Several batches of the fresh stem of C. populnea and fresh leaves of S. radiatum were obtained from Mushin market in Lagos between the months of October 2005 and May 2007. They were identified and authenticated by Mr. T.K. Odewo and Mr. Seun Osiyemi both of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN), Ibadan. A voucher specimen for C. populnea with the number FHI 108222 was deposited at the Herbarium in FRIN on 27th May, 2008 while the voucher specimen for S. radiatum with number FHI 107823 was deposited at the Herbarium in FRIN on 12th September, 2007.

Hydro-Distillation of Samples
The plant parts were cut into small pieces and air-dried at room temperature in a dust-free environment for 3 weeks. The dried materials were powdered and the essential oil from each plant was extracted by hydro-distillation in batches of 100 g mixed with 3 L of water. The essential oil was extracted into hexane and the solution obtained was concentrated by evaporation of the hexane. The volume of the essential oil was 0.3 cm3 and weighed 350 mg.

Preparation of Test Organisms
The test microorganisms used were collected from the stock cultures of the Medical Microbiology and Parasitology Department of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Idi-Araba, Surulere, Lagos. They included Candida albicans (a yeast) and Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, namely Citrobacter sp., Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli ATCC25922, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923.

The essential oil samples from the two plants were screened for antimicrobial activities using the agar disc diffusion method (Dosso and Kette, 1995). The test organisms were subcultured on Blood Agar and Mac-Conkey Agar (Oxoid, UK). Suspensions of the microorganisms were prepared in sterile normal saline and adjusted to 0.5 McFarland standards. The resulting suspension contained approximately 1x108 cfu cm-3. Each medium plate was uniformly seeded with a sensitive strain of each microorganism. The sample of each essential oil was dissolved in hexane to give a concentration of 260 μg cm-3 and sterile paper discs, 6 mm diameter, were soaked in each solution. The discs were transferred to the inoculated plates immediately. After refrigeration at 4°C for 1 h, the plates were incubated at 37°C for 24 h. The 0.05% ciprofloxacin in hexane and neat hexane were used as controls. Zones of inhibition around the discs were measured in millimeter and used as an assessment of antimicrobial activity.


Table 1:

The results of antimicrobial screening of the samples of essential oil obtained from the stem of Cissus populnea and the leaves of Sesamum radiatum

Image for - Assessment of Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil from the Stem Powder of Cissus populnea and the Leaves of Sesamum radiatum, Herbal Medications for Male Infertility Factor

1+: 5-9 mm zone of inhibition; 2+: 10-19 mm zone of inhibition; 3+: > 20 mm zone of inhibition

RESULTS

The results of antimicrobial screening of the samples of essential oil obtained from the stem of C. populnea and the leaves of S. radiatum are shown in Table 1. Hexane did not inhibit the growth of any of the microorganisms. The essential oil obtained from the stem of C. populnea inhibited the growth of ten microorganisms. It strongly inhibited E. coli, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus, exhibiting the same extent of inhibitory zone of 3+ as the control, 0.05% ciprofloxacin. There was significant but lower activity with inhibitory zone of 2+ against Citrobacter sp., E. faecalis, E. coli ATCC 25922, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, S. albus and S. aureus ATCC 25923. There was no activity against C. albicans and S. marcescens.

The essential oil from the leaves of S. radiatum inhibited the growth of nine microorganisms, with no activity against C. albicans, E. faecalis and S. aureus ATCC 25923. The activity against the other microorganisms namely Citrobacter sp., both strains of E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa, S. marcescens, S. albus and S. aureus all showed inhibitory zone of 2+. The essential oil from S. radiatum was consistently less potent than the ciprofloxacin control.

In comparison, the essential oil obtained from C. populnea inhibited all the Gram-positive microorganisms tested namely E. faecalis and the three staphylococcus strains while the essential oil from the leaves of S. radiatum inhibited the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria tested namely S. albus and S. aureus, showing no inhibitory action against S. aureus ATCC 25923 and E. faecalis. The essential oil from C. populnea exhibited higher activity against E. coli, P. aeruginosa, both strains of S. aureus and E. faecalis but no activity against S. marcescens compared to the sample from S. radiatum.

DISCUSSION

The results show that the samples of the essential oil from the two plants have great potential as antimicrobials hence might be able to correct male infertility factor arising from infection by the bacterial species. Extracts obtained from C. populnea have been reported to be useful for treating skin diseases, boils (Kone et al., 2004) and urinary tract infections (Ojekale et al., 2006).

In a screening of 50 medicinal plants used in North Cote-d’Ivoire as traditional remedies for bacterial diseases, C. populnea was among the ten plant species which exhibited promising level of activity against bacteria including strains resistant to aminosides, macrolides, penicillin M, lincosamide and streptrogramin B (Kone et al., 2004). The ethanolic root extract of C. populnea was used in the study. The bacteria used in the study included Gram-positive strains, S. aureus, E. faecalis, B. subtilis and Streptococcus pyogenes as well as Gram-negative strains such as E. coli and P. aeruginosa. The root extract was not active against E. coli and P. aeruginosa but was found to be active against a methicillin-resistant hospital strain of S. aureus and some aminoside-resistant hospital strains of E. faecalis. In our study, the essential oil of C. populnea was found to be significantly active against E. faecalis, the three staphylococcus strains and even against E. coli and P. aeruginosa which were not inhibited by the root extract (Kone et al., 2004).

In a study on the antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of the dried leaves of S. radiatum against five microorganisms, namely S. pneumoniae, C. albicans, S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa, it was observed that the ethanolic extract exhibited mild inhibitory effects on S. pneumoniae and C. albicans while the aqueous extract of the same concentration did not show any inhibitory effects (Shittu et al., 2006). The essential oil in our study did not exhibit activity against C. albicans but was active against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa.

The aqueous extract (Shittu et al., 2006) was obtained by boiling the aqueous suspension of the powdered leaves for 3 h and thus some of the constituents of essential oil in the leaves would have been extracted and thus would be expected to show some inhibitory effects against some of the microorganisms tested as was observed in the study being presented in our report. However, the aqueous extract was lyophilized and this process might have resulted in extensive loss of the essential oil constituents. This may explain the inactivity of the aqueous extract.

Several medicinal plants which are used for the management of male infertility factor in Nigeria are also used as antimicrobials. Such plants include Abrus precatorius, Adenia venata, Agelenopsis chevaleri, Aloe barteri, Areca catechu, Craterispermum laurinum, Circuligo pilosa, Datura stramonum, Ritchiea brachypoda, Saba florida, Securidaca longepedunculata, Tabernaemontana pachysiphen, Tribulus terrestris and Withania somnifera several of which are used for treating venereal diseases and urinary tract infections (Odugbemi, 2008a). Mucuna pruriens which is also used as a male fertility enhancer is used as a phytomedicine for genito-urinary diseases (Odugbemi, 2008b). Some phytomedicines classified as aphrodisiacs are alleged to be antimicrobials in herbal preparations. In a review on Infections and male infertility, Megory et al. (1987) stated that bacteria could affect semen quality and cause changes which could impair fertility function. Infections could cause inflammation of the accessory gland or total damage to the gonads and adrexa (Megory et al., 1987). Greendale et al. (1993) reported that venereal diseases could reduce fertility in male subjects. Thus the use of antimicrobials is relevant in the management of male infertility.

The essential oil from Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and Perry, a herbal aphrodisiac has been reported to exhibit significant antimicrobial activity against a collection of 25 different genera of test bacteria and 20 different isolates of Listeria monocytogenes (Deans et al., 2006). It was also reported to exhibit high levels of inhibition against three fungal strains of a plant pathogen (Deans et al., 2006). Terminalia catappa another herbal aphrodisiac has also been reported to show promising antibacterial properties. In the antimicrobial screening of nine Peruvian medicinal plants, the leaves of Terminalia catappa and aerial parts of Phyllantus amarus showed the most promising antibacterial properties inhibiting all the bacterial strains tested with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 16 mg cm-3 (Kloucek et al., 2005). The microorganisms used were Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, B. subtilis ATCC 6633, Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, E. faecalis ATCC 2912, E. coli 25922, P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, S. aureus ATCC 25923, S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 and Streptococcus pyogenes ATCC 19615. The ethanolic extracts of T. catappa demonstrated activity in the following decreasing order: S. epidermidis ATCC 12228 > S. aureus 25923 > B. cereus > B. subtilis = P. aeruginosa > E. coli 25922 = E. faecalis > S. pyogenes ATCC 19615 = B. fragilis. In our study the essential oils from the two plants were active against the two strains of E. coli one of which was strain ATCC 25922 as well as P. aeruginosa. In addition, the essential oil from C. populnea was active against E. faecalis and S. aureus. Thus these results are similar to those on T. catappa. High antifungal but no antibacterial activity of methanol and methylene chloride extracts from T. catappa aerial part was observed (Goun et al., 2003). However, Pawar and Pal (2002) detected appreciable antimicrobial activity of the chloroform and methanol extracts of the roots of T. catappa against E. coli and S. aureus.

Tribulus terrestris, a herbal aphrodisiac, analgesic, diuretic, anti-hypertensive agent also used for the management of urinary disorders, impotence and gonorrhea was investigated for antibacterial activity (Kianbakht and Jahaniani, 2003). The methanolic extracts of Iranian plant parts, fruits, stems, leaves and roots, showed considerable activity against all the bacteria used in the study, namely S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. coli and P. aeruginosa. However, the ethanolic extracts of Yemini plant did not exhibit antibacterial activity against any of the reference bacteria (Ali et al., 2001). However, some researchers reported that all plant parts of the Turkish T. terrestris showed activity against several reference bacteria and some researchers and noted that the ethanolic extracts of the fruits and leaves of Indian T. terrestris were active against E. coli and S. aureus (Kianbakht and Jahaniani, 2003).

The reports on the studies on T. terrestris support antibacterial activity in plant parts (except in the Yemeni plant) and hence its usefulness in the management of urinary tract infection especially the activity against E. coli, a microorganism which has been implicated in urinary tract infection (Tena et al., 2008).

The report of our study on eleven bacterial samples and the bioactivity of the essential oils from the two plants on several of these microorganisms show that these essential oils are broad-spectrum antibacterial agents which may be useful in inhibiting the growth of some microorganisms which can be causative agents of infertility in male subjects.

CONCLUSION

The essential oil from the stem of C. populnea and the leaves of S. radiatum have been shown to demonstrate significant antibacterial activity against several bacterial strains including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative microorganisms.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors express appreciation to Prof. T. Odugbemi of the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology of the College of Medicine, University of Lagos, for providing the microorganisms and the laboratory facility for the antimicrobial screening and Mrs. T. Ogunsanya for demonstrating the antimicrobial assay.

REFERENCES

1:  Awadh Ali, N.A., W.D. Julich, C. Kusnick and U. Lindequist, 2001. Screening of Yemeni medicinal plants for antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. J. Ethnopharmacol., 74: 173-179.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Bankole, M.A., L.A.J. Shittu, T.A. Ahmed, M.N. Bankole, R.K. Shittu, T. Kpela and O.A. Ashiru, 2007. Synergistic antimicrobial activities of phytoestrogens in crude extract of two sesame species against some common pathogenic microorganisms. Afr. J. Traditional Complimentary Alternative Med., 4: 427-433.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Belmain, S.R., P. Golo, H.F. Andan, H. Atariga, F.A. Chare and P. Carr, 2000. Toxicity and repellency of ethnobotanicals used in Ghana as post-harvest protectants, in Abstracts of presentations on selected topics at the XIth International Plant Protection Congress (IPPC). Phytoparasitica, 28: 87-90.

4:  Deans, S.G., R.C. Noble, R. Hiltunen, W. Wuryani and L.G. Penzes, 1995. Antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. and Perry: Impact upon bacteria, fungi and fatty acid levels in ageing mice. Flavour Fragrance J., 10: 323-328.
CrossRef  |  

5:  Dosso, M. and H.F. Kette, 1995. Documents techniques ANTIBIOTIQUES. Faculte de Medecine d'Abidjan, Universite nationale de Cote-d'Ivoire, Cote-d'Ivoire, Departement de Microbiologie, Laboratoire de Bacteriologie-Virologie, pp:178.

6:  Gill, L.S., 1992. Ethnomedical Uses of Plants in Nigeria. Uniben Press, Nigeria, Pages: 212

7:  Goun, E., G. Cunningham, D. Chu, C. Nguyen and D. Miles, 2003. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Indonesian ethnomedical plants. Fitoterapia, 74: 592-596.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Greendale, G.A., S.T. Haas, K. Holbrook, B. Walsh, J. Schachter and R.S. Phillips, 1993. The relationship of Chlamydia trachomatis infection and male infertility. Am. J. Public Health, 83: 996-1001.
Direct Link  |  

9:  Hutchinson, J. and J.M. Dalziel, 1954. Flora of Tropical West Africa. 2nd Edn., Crown Agents, London, pp: 189-195

10:  Kianbakht, S. and F. Jahaniani, 2003. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of Tribulus terrestris L. growing in Iran. Iran. J. Pharm. Ther., 2: 22-24.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Kloucek, P., Z. Polesny, B. Svobodova, E. Vlkova and L. Kokoska, 2005. Antibacterial screening of some Peruvian medicinal plants used in Callerίa District. J. Ethnopharmacol., 99: 309-312.
CrossRef  |  

12:  Konan, A.B., J.Y. Datte and P.A. Yapo, 2008. Nitric oxide pathway-mediated relaxant effect of aqueous sesame leaves extract (Sesamum radiatum Schum. and Thonn.) in the guinea-pig isolated aorta smooth muscle. MBC Complement. Altern. Med., 8: 23-23.
CrossRef  |  

13:  Megory, E., H. Zuckerman, S.Z. Schwartz and B. Lunenfeld, 1987. Infections and male infertility. Obstet. Gynecol. Survey, 42: 283-290.
Direct Link  |  

14:  Moody, J.O., O.O. Ojo, O.O. Omotade, A.A. Adeyemo, P.E. Olumese and O.O. Ogundipe, 2003. Anti-sickling potential of a Nigerian herbal formula (Ajawaron HF) and the major plant component (Cissus populnea L. CPK). Phytother. Res., 17: 1173-1176.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Odugbemi, T., 2008. A Textbook of Medicinal Plants from Nigeria. University of Lagos Press, Lagos, Nigeria, ISBN: 978-978-48712-9-7, Pages: 628
Direct Link  |  

16:  Odugbemi, T., 2008. A Textbook of Medicinal plants from Nigeria. University of Lagos Press, Nigeria, ISBN: 978-978-48712-9-7, pp: 588

17:  Ojekale, A.B., O.A. Lawal, A.K. Lasisi and T.I. Adeleke, 2006. Phytochemistry and spermatogenic potentials of extract of Cissus populnea (Guill and Per) Stem bark. TSW Holistic Health Med., 1: 176-182.

18:  Pawar, S.P. and S.C. Pal, 2002. Antimicrobial activity of extracts of Terminalia catappa root. Indian J. Med. Sci., 56: 276-278.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Shittu, L.A.J., M.A. Bankole, T. Ahmed, K. Aile and M.A. Akinsanya et al., 2006. Differential antimicrobial activity of the various crude leaves extracts of Sesame radiatum against some common pathogenic microorganisms. Sci. Res. Essay, 1: 108-111.
Direct Link  |  

20:  Tena, D., A. Gonzalez-Praetorius, J. A. Saez-Nieto, S. Valdezate and J. Bisquert, 2008. Urinary tract infection caused by capnophilic Escherichia coli. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 14: 1163-1164.
CrossRef  |  

21:  Kone, W.M., K.K. Atindehou, C. Terreaux, K. Hostettmann, D. Traore and M. Dosso, 2004. Traditional medicine in North Cote-d'Ivoire: Screening of 50 medicinal plants for antibacterial activity. J. Ethnopharmacol., 93: 43-49.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved