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Cultural Changes at Hutchinson-Essar Post Acquisition



Neeraj Kumari
 
ABSTRACT

Background and Objective: Vodafone that has recently acquired Hutchison Essar has undergone a massive change. The change is visible in its brand name, marketing strategies, financial structure, management, as well as human resources. This change required huge input from both the sides- the acquiring and the acquired side. The study aimed to understand the cultural change in the working environment of Hutchinson-Essar resulting from an acquisition by Vodafone. Materials and Methods: The study is supported by statistical analysis (correlation and factor analysis) using questionnaires based on cultural and emotional changes of the employees in Vodafone. The sample size is a group of 60 employees from Vodafone. Factor analysis is used to found that confrontation, trust, authenticity and experimentation are the major driving forces of culture in Vodafone. Results: The results show that the three parameters namely communication, rewards & recognition and development have not been developed after the changes in Vodafone. The factor analysis highlights that four determinants are the major driving forces of organizational culture in Vodafone. They are as follows: Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity and Experimentation. Conclusions: The organization has so far been successful in achieving 4 values (Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity and Experimentation) and has maintained them at a good appreciable level. But there are other 4 values (Openness, Proactiveness, Autonomy and Collaboration) which are needed to be cultivated so that the total cluster of these 8 organizational values can be achieved. The management should also focus on streamlining a few important emotional factors like communication, rewards and recognition, as well as development of the employees that drive the employees to achieve their desired output.

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  How to cite this article:

Neeraj Kumari , 2017. Cultural Changes at Hutchinson-Essar Post Acquisition. Research Journal of Business Management, 11: 91-101.

DOI: 10.3923/rjbm.2017.91.101

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjbm.2017.91.101
 
Received: January 13, 2017; Accepted: February 24, 2017; Published: March 15, 2017

INTRODUCTION

Changing an organization’s culture is one of the most difficult leadership challenges. That’s because an organization’s culture comprises an interlocking set of goals, roles, processes, values, communications practices, attitudes and assumptions.

Changing a culture is a large-scale undertaking and eventually all of the organizational tools for changing minds will need to be put in play. However the order in which they deployed has a critical impact on the likelihood of success.

The eight parameters; Opennes, Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity, Proactive, Autonomy, Collobration and Experimenting (OCTAPACE) are described as follows.

Openness: Openness can be defined as a spontaneous expression of feelings and thoughts and the sharing of these without defensiveness. Openness is in both directions, receiving and giving. Both these may relate to ideas (including suggestions), feedback (including criticism) and feelings. For example, openness means receiving without reservation and taking steps to encourage more feedback and suggestions from customers, colleagues and others. Similarly, it means giving, without hesitation, ideas, information, feedback, feelings, etc. Openness may also mean spatial openness, in terms of accessibility. Installing internal E-mailing may be a step in this direction: Everyone having a computer terminal has access to information which he may retrieve at any time. Offices without walls are another symbolic arrangement promoting openness. In some organizations, even the chief executive does not have a separate exclusive cabin; floor space is shared by other colleagues at different levels in the organization. Analysis of the joint impact of openness and innovativeness, suggests that, for radical innovators it is external search breadth (rather than depth) that has a positive association with the use of informal appropriation mechanisms. In contrast, for radical innovators, external search depth (rather than breadth) is associated with the use of formal appropriation mechanisms. For incremental innovators, external search breadth (rather than depth) is associated with the use of both formal and informal appropriation mechanisms1.

Confrontation: It can be defined as facing rather than shying away from problems. It also implies deeper analysis of interpersonal problems. All this involves taking up challenges. The term confrontation is being used with some reservation and implies putting up front as contrasted with putting one’s back (escaping) to the problem. A better term would be confrontation and exploration (CE). Let us use the term confrontation in this sense of confrontation and exploration, i.e., facing a problem and working jointly with others to find a solution to the problem. The outcome of confrontation will be better role in clarity, improved problem solving and willingness to deal with problems and with ’difficult’ employees and customers. There will be willingness of teams to discuss and resolve sensitive issues. The indicators, which are also outcomes, can be improved by periodical discussions with clients, bold action and not postponing sticky matters.

Trust: It is reflected in maintaining the confidentiality of information shared by others and in not misusing it. It is also reflected in a sense of assurance that others will help, when such help is needed and will honor mutual commitments and obligations. Trust is also reflected in accepting what another person says at face value and not searching for ulterior motives. Trust is an extremely important ingredient in the institution building processes. The outcome of trust includes higher empathy, timely support, reduced stress and reduction and simplification of forms and procedures. Such simplification is an indicator of trust and of reduced paper work, effective delegation and higher productivity.

Authenticity: Authenticity is the congruence between what one feels, says and does. It is reflected in owning up one’s mistakes and in unreserved sharing of feelings. Authenticity is closer to openness. The outcome of authenticity in an organization is reduced distortion in communication. This can be seen in the correspondence between members in an organization. It is an important component of the OCTAPACE profiling as without authenticity the originality of organizations work, its employees are lost. It can be achieved if the above three components are well achieved.

Proactive: Being proactive means taking the initiative, preplanning and taking preventive action and calculating the payoffs of an alternative course before taking action. The proactiveness can be contrasted with the term react. In the latter, action is in response to (and in the pattern of) an act from some source, while in the former the action is taken independent of the source. For example, if a person shouts back at his friend’s accusation he shows reactive behavior. However, if he does not use this pattern (of shouting) but responds calmly and suggests that they discuss the problem together, he is showing proactive behavior.

Autonomy: Autonomy is using and giving freedom to plan and act in one’s own sphere. It means respecting and encouraging individual and role autonomy. It develops mutual respect and is likely to result in willingness to take on responsibility, individual initiative, better succession planning. The main indicator of autonomy is effective delegation in organization and reduction in references made to senior people for approval of planned actions. The study shows the influence of three dominant institutional logics (professional, market and corporate) in these divergent trajectories, elucidating the role of mediating influences, operating below the level of the field but above that of the actor, that worked to constrain or facilitate agency. The consequence for actors was a divergent realization of the relationship between the three logics, with very different consequences for their ability to advance their interests2.

Collaboration: Collaboration is giving help to and asking for help from, others. It means working together (individuals and groups) to solve problems and team spirit. The outcome of collaboration includes timely help, team work, sharing of experiences, improved communication and improved resource sharing. The indication could be productivity reports, more meetings and involvement of staff, more joint decisions, better resource utilization and higher quality of meetings.

Experimenting: Experimenting means using and encouraging innovative approaches to solve problems; using feedback for improvement; taking a fresh look at things and encouraging creativity. People are so caught up with their daily tasks that they often use only traditional, tried and tested ways of dealing with problems. While these methods save time and energy, they also blind us from perceiving the advantage of new ways of solving a problem. The more people work under pressure, the less is our inclination to try a different approach as the risk seems to be too high. And yet, complex problems require new approaches to their solutions.

It is shown that transformational leadership is positively related to psychological empowerment. The study also found partial mediation of organizational culture between transformational leadership and psychological empowerment3. The dominant type of Organizational Culture (OC) in the organization did not predict all its Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) practices but described rather well how adaptation in the sphere of CSR took place as a result of economic downturn. The study demonstrated that CSR activities that relate to dominant OC types are less likely to be reduced in a recession; moreover, some were even intensified. On the other hand, there were certain CSR activities that reflected less prevalent types of OC, nevertheless these were not withdrawn either4. Analyzing 6,742 merger announcements released by publicly traded U.S. companies between 1984 and 2005; study shows that following merger announcement the market prices a factor mitigating the acquisition cultural risk rather than the magnitude of specific organizational culture differences. Moreover, the market prices stocks of companies involved in high-risk mergers lower than of companies in low-risk mergers5. Expectations on the part of both parties to the merger can act to moderate the effects of culture clash in M&As on acquired management attitudes and behavior and thereby influence post-merger turnover and integration success6. Organizational practices significantly related to workforce agility prove that organizational practices are capable of improving the agile attributes and behavior of the workforce. In detail, team work has the greatest influence on workforce agility, followed by Reward system, employee involvement, organizational learning and training and ISs7. Two situations are presented. The first poses a view of culture during mergers in which contest over meaning is central and whereby the representation of a cohesive organizational culture is appropriated for political purposes. The second situation illustrates cross-cutting cultures in action, presenting the development of a "Working culture" a notion based on flitting cross-organizational allegiances in the interest of confronting a central team8.

The research underwent a systematic process of finding out cultural and emotional changes post-acquisition by analyzing the responses achieved through questionnaires.

The study aims to understand the cultural change in the working environment of Hutchinson-Essar resulting from an acquisition by Vodafone and also to do OCTAPACE profiling in Vodafone after the acquisition of Hutchinson-Essar. The study finds out the factor analysis of the parameters of emotional transformations in the employees of the organization after its acquisition.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research design: The descriptive research design is adopted in the study to assess the organizational change in culture and emotional transformations in the employees of this organization after its acquisition. The research underwent a systematic process of finding out cultural and emotional changes post-acquisition by analyzing the responses achieved through questionnaires. The study was carried out at Hutchinson-Essar in December, 2008.

Sampling technique: Purposive sampling/ stratified random sampling has been adopted.

•  Sample size (n):The sample size is 60.

Research tool and techniques: In the study two questionnaires are taken. The first questionnaire has been designed carefully to minimize ambiguity and generate responses from all executive level of employees of the organization. This questionnaire aims at studying the changes in emotional identification of employees with either of the merging sides. This questionnaire consists of following dimensions:

•  Employee engagement: This parameter may be defined as a concept which is viewed as a discretionary effort when employees in an organization have choices, in which they can act and develop their organization’s interests
•  Rewards and recognition: This parameter may be defined as a communication tool that reinforces and rewards the most important outcomes people create for the business of their organization
•  Work-life balance: This expression may be defined as a parameter which denotes the balance between an employees’ personal and professional life
•  Development: This development means an employee development which is a joint and on-going effort on the part of an employee and the organization to upgrade his knowledge, skills and abilities
•  Communication: It may be defined as process of transmitting information, ideas, thoughts, opinions and plans between various parts of an organization
•  Team work and co-operation: This parameter may be defined as an important aspect of an employee’s emotional identification and may be defined as an employee’s participation and contribution in a team effort

The second questionnaire is a standard questionnaire of OCTAPACE, designed by Udai Pareek. It measures the following eight values which are an integral aspect of the culture of an organization. It consists of following dimensions:

•  Openness: This may be defined as the willingness to share spontaneous expressions of feelings and thoughts without defensiveness
•  Collaboration: It may be defined as giving and seeking help from the individuals working together in an organization
•  Trust: This is a very significant value and is reflected in maintaining the confidentiality of the information shared by others by not misusing it. This is bi-directional as it emerges out of both employer and employee
•  Authenticity: It may be defined as congruence between what one feels, says and does. It is reflected in owning up one’s mistakes and in unreserved sharing of feelings
•  Proactive: This value means taking the initiative, preplanning and taking preventive actions and calculating the payoffs of an alternative course before taking an action
•  Autonomy: It may be defined as using and giving freedom to plan and act in one’s own sphere
•  Confrontation: It may be defined as facing rather than shying away from problems and represents deeper analysis of inter-personal problems
•  Experimentation: It means using and encouraging innovative approaches to solve problems, using feedback for improving, taking a fresh look at things and encouraging his creativity

Scaling technique: A 4-point Likert scale is used in the questionnaire administered for the study.

Data analysis and interpretations: The analysis for achieving the above set of objectives is a process under which the facts were collected with the help of a structured questionnaire as well as a standardized questionnaire by Udai Pareek known as OCTAPACE. In both the questionnaires there is a set of parameters on the basis of which the cultural and emotional aspects emerging due to the change in Hutchinson-Essar resulting from an acquisition by Vodafone have been measured.

The cultural dynamics have been measured with the help of OCTAPACE, which is a standardized questionnaire having a set of eight unidirectional aspects. This profiling can be discussed in detail as follows.

OCTAPACE-profiling: The OCTAPACE profile is a 40 item instrument that gives the profile of organization’s ethos in eight values. These values are:

•  Openness
•  Confrontation
•  Trust
•  Authenticity
•  Proactive
•  Autonomy
•  Collaboration
•  Experimentation

The instrument contains two different parts. In part I, values are stated in items 1-24 (three statements of each of the eight values) and the respondent is required to check (on a 4-point scale) how much each item is valued in his organization. This four point scale can be shown as:

•  Very low value
•  Rather low value
•  Fairly high value
•  Highly valued

Part 2 contains 16 statements on beliefs, two each for eight values and the respondent checks (on a 4-point scale as stated above) how widely each of them is shared in the organization. In addition to checking the items on the extent of their importance or sharing in the organization, the respondent can also check how much they should be valued or how much the beliefs are useful. Thus with the help of this profiling, present as well as desired and ideal profiles can be obtained. The scoring that is followed in this profile can be shown as follows.

Scoring: To make scoring easier, an answer sheet is provided. From the key (appended), the items marked with an asterisk are first reversed so that:

•  4 becomes 1
•  3 becomes 2
•  2 becomes 3
•  1 becomes 4

This makes all items unidirectional. The rows are then added. The eight rows represent the eight aspects (OCTAPACE) in the same order. The scores on each aspect range from 5 to 20. In a group, participants can themselves score their completed answer sheets:

•  Openness: 1, 9, 17, 25*, 33
•  Confrontation: 2, 10, 18, 26*, 34
•  Trust: 3, 11, 19, 27, 35*
•  Authenticity: 4, 12*, 20, 28*, 36
•  Proactive: 5, 13, 21, 29, 37
•  Autonomy: 6, 14*, 22*, 30*, 38
•  Collaboration: 7, 15, 23*, 31*, 39
•  Experimentation: 8, 16, 24, 32, 40*

Organizational learning does not imply repetitive action; it implies applying past experience to current problems to reach beyond. This can be called creativity. Other terms such as innovations, experiments, new approaches, etc. also convey the same meaning. There are several aspects of creativity in an organization. Creativity is reflected in new suggestions generated by employees and attempts at improving upon previous ways of working. Creativity is trying out a new idea to which one has been exposed while innovating new methods and then thinking about a problem while ignoring so called constraints. The last one is also called lateral thinking, i.e., thinking aimed at generating alternatives. There is enough evidence that such thinking contributes towards the development of new products, new methods and new processes.

Whereas, the emotional and inter group dynamics have been measured with the help of a structured questionnaire with 25 questions and 6 parameters. The questions in these questionnaires were given to 60 respondents who are present Vodafone employees. The group of respondents included both pre-acquisition as well as post-acquisition employees. The statistical analysis on the basis of 6 parameters done with the help of SPSS can be shown with the help of correlation, mean and standard deviation values achieved so far.

Correlation values of all major components
Interpretations: If we compare these three major extracted components with the rest of the components with the help of the Table 1 showing correlation between all major 6 components, then we may deduct certain results based on significance. The correlation of these significant extracted components with other components can be compared. Firstly, let us consider Employee Engagement, if we take a look at total correlation table we’ll find that employee engagement is positively related with work-life balance at a high significance level of 0.015. This correlation indicates that there is a positive linear relationship between employee-engagement and work-life balance and therefore if the level of employee engagement in this organization is high, the work life balance will also rise towards a positive slope. While, there is no significant correlation between employee engagement and other components of the questionnaire.

Factor analysis
Interpretations: The above Table 2 represents the factor analysis of all the six components considered in this study. The component matrix Table 2 shows the extracted three components from all the six components.

Table 1: Correlation values of all major components
*Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed)

Table 2: Component matrix of six parameters studied for organizational culture

These three major and significant components on the basis of whole analysis are team-work and co-operation with the highest value of 0.624, second component is Communication with highest value 0.725 and finally in the third component it is Employee Engagement with the highest value 0.638. Therefore, three major components extracted so far with the help of Factor Analysis are Team-work and cooperation, communication and Employee Engagement.

RESULTS

OCTAPACE profiling
Interpretations: The above Table 3 represents the distribution of the mean attained after the OCTAPACE profiling in Vodafone after the acquisition has taken place. It is important to measure the value of these 8 items in this organization because after this major change it becomes imperative to know that whether the new culture supports and encourages these 8 necessary values or not.

The above data has been collected by getting the scores from the questionnaire, measuring the total scores according to the values given in the key appended. These values are then put together and their mean is calculated. These means are represented in the above bar chart. They can be discussed in detail as follows.

Openness: There is a substantially low level of openness in this organization reflecting that the employees do not express their views freely and openly to the matters in their working place. This figure also represents that there is no reprisal for upward communication and therefore openness is from both the directions that is receiving and giving. This openness may relate to ideas, suggestions, feedback and feelings. The standard mean should be 15 and hence this figure is low.

Confrontation: The confrontation level in the bar graph shows that maximum numbers of employees are not afraid to face the problems. They face the problems in their professional life with full confidence and positive attitude.

Table 3: OCTAPACE profiling for the total sample (n = 60)

The figure shows that they voluntarily seek to handle problems in a win-win style and therefore one of the important eight values have remained intact even after this big change in the organization.

Trust: As evident from the graph above, the level of trust in this organization is comparatively good as the mean value is 13.3 as compared to the standard mean value of 13. This shows that the level of trust from the management and the employee’s side in this organization is high and the people trust each other in a very high spirit. There is no risk of information to be misused as the level of empathy is high in this organization.

Autonomy: The level of autonomy is comparatively low at 13.2 in this organization as compared to the standard value of 13.5. This clearly reflects the fact that the employees are not provided with autonomy in their working culture. This also shows that the culture does not favor and support any freedom to employees for taking their own professional decisions. As a result the employees have little power in their hands to change or decide their way they are working.

Proactive: The mean value of proactiveness in this organization is again very low at 13.4 whereas the standard value should be 15 as given by Udai Pareek. This shows that few employees in this organization take initiative, preplan their work schedule and take preventive actions before any contingency arrives. They generally do not believe in being proactive rather than being reactive which is not a good professional quality. This value is not maintained at a decent level in this organization after the acquisition.

Authenticity: The level of authenticity is decent in this organization at the level of 13.9, as against the standard value of 12. This reflects the fact that there is a congruency between what an employee says, feels and does. It also shows that the respondents have a habit of owning up their mistakes in a positive attitude. Their ways are original and authentic.

Collaboration: The level of collaboration in this organization is low at the level of 14, as against the standard value 15. This reflects the fact that the employees in this place are not ever ready to help each other happily. As very much reflected from the punch line of Vodafone-"HAPPY TO HELP" but they do not practice this value in a true sense. The employees are not mutually dependant on each other. This also shows that team work is not a much motivating factor in this organization and employees do not share resources for synergy.

Experimentation: The value of 14.1 shows that the value of experimentation is given high importance in this organization and the top management allows its employees to learn new ways of working through experimentation. They are allowed to try new and innovative ways to work beyond the assigned parameters.

While the standard means as given by Udai Pareek for this profiling are as follows as shown in Table 4:

Findings: The major findings of the analysis can be discussed as follows.

Correlation:

•  The results show that two factors determining the emotional identification of employees that is employee engagement and work life balance are positively correlated. They are the deciding factors of emotional identity of the employees
•  Work life balance and team work and cooperation are negatively correlated
•  Communication and work life balance are also negatively correlated

Factor analysis:

•  Three major factors that emerged out of the factor analysis that have been identified as a major players in determining emotional identification of employees after change in this organization are: Employee Engagement, Team work and Cooperation and Communication

OCTAPACE analysis: The analysis of the OCTAPACE instrument highlights that four determinants of this instrument are the major driving forces of culture in Vodafone with higher values in accordance with the standard values.

Table 4: Standard means given by Udai Pareek for OCTAPACE profiling

They may be summarized as follows: Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity and Experimentation. These factors are the prominent factors in determining the cultural change in the organization after the acquisition.

DISCUSSION

A culture influenced TQM model has been developed. The model demonstrates a linkage between cultural dimensions and TQM interventions, thereby suggesting that OC characterised by "openness", "confrontation", "trust", "authenticity", "proactive", "autonomy", "collaboration" and "experimentation" has a significant and positive impact on TQM implementation9. The results of the correlation values done with the help of factor analysis shows that the components which acts as the driving force in this organization are team-work and co-operation, communication and employee engagement. This result indicates that the emotional identification of employees which has changed after the acquisition now, is largely determined by these three components, whereas the other factors are also contributing but not to that large an extent. Hence, the finding to one objective of this study says that the change in emotional identification of employees is determined by these three major factors.

The study discusses success factors of cultural integration and cultural change processes in mergers and acquisitions. It is argued that cultural integration is furthered by mutual trust. Trust can be built by shared goals, by dialogue, by looking for shared norms, monitoring and handling deviance. Cultural change processes were found to be dependent on legitimization of the changes, clarification of goals and changes in what is expected of organizational members, monitoring and guidance, conditions of psychological safety and feedback on success and failure outcomes that is worked upon in a learning mode10. The results of the OCTAPACE profiling shows the key findings, that in this organization the culture change is predominantly shown by high mean value of confrontation, trust, authenticity and experimentation. This clearly means that when the culture has changed after the acquisition these 4 values were the major players in determining this change. While the other four factors that is collaboration, autonomy, proactiveness and openness have taken a back seat as of now. Hence, it can be carefully said that the culture change in this organization post-acquisition has been dominated by the four key values of OCTAPACE. The study evaluated the nine HRM practices (General climate, OCTAPACE Culture, Selection Process, Job Definition, Career Planning, Employee Participation, Performance Appraisal, Training and Development and compensation). It showed that there is direct relationship between HRM practices and organizational performance11.

Culture differences between the merging firms are a key element affecting effectiveness of the integration process and consequently the success of M&As. Furthermore, although managers agree that cultural differences create organisational challenges, yet the attention given to cultural integration issues during M&As are at best tenuous and in some cases reactive12. Most individuals perceived that the merger had impacted significantly on them personally. There was, however, a perceived lack of congruence between the orga

nizational cultures of merging partners, resulting in culture clashes and significant changes to the organizations’ organizational cultures. More specifically, outcomes for both individuals and the subsequent acculturation following the mergers were related to the approach adopted to manage the merger process: incremental, immediate or indifferent13.

Recommendations: The complete analysis of the organization’s values, culture and inter-group dynamics as evident from the results and the analysis deserve certain recommendations for the management level to overcome the hindrances in the path towards complete achievement of successful change management. Therefore, based on the results certain suggestions deserve serious consideration.

The results obtained after OCTAPACE profiling suggests that the organization has so far been successful in achieving 4 values and has maintained them at a good appreciable level. But there are other 4 values which are needed to be cultivated so that the total cluster of these 8 organizational values can be achieved. They can be listed as follows:

•  Considering Openness for an instance is an important organizational attribute and should be maintained so that the employees do not feel hesitated in expressing their concerns both positive and negative to the management. Without openness and transparency in the system no positive output can be achieved. The employees will not feel themselves secured in the hands of the administration and vice-versa. Hence, the management should make an effort to increase the level of Openness in this organization
•  The level of Proactiveness is very low in this organization and that has to be maintained at the substantial level because it is a crucial aspect of any organization’s culture. Without being proactive the high performance culture will not be maintained as the employees are not ready to face contingencies prior they occur. Hence, management by its dynamic strategy has to initiate planned action, define its perspectives, make structural readjustments and motivate the employees to be proactive in taking initiatives to enhance their performance
•  The score of Autonomy is also found to be low. Therefore, the management should make an effort so that the autonomy in the work place can be maintained at the standard level as it is an important aspect of the good working culture. It enhances innovativeness and provides motivation among employees
•  Further, the score of Collaboration should also be maintained at the standard level because without support and collaboration no individual can successfully work. We all are a part of a society and the objectives of a group can only be achieved by collaborating with each other in their work. Vodafone should maintain this value because it is the major selling proposition of this company which says that they are happy to help

The results show that communication, rewards and recognition, as well as development of employees in Vodafone are not significant developed components after the changes in the organization. The Factor-analysis shows this result and hence the drive of the management should also focus on streamlining these important emotional factors that drive the employees to achieve their desired output.

CONCLUSION

It was concluded that the results of the correlation values done with the help of factor analysis shows that the components which acts as the driving force in the organization are team-work and co-operation, communication and employee engagement. It indicates that the emotional identification of employees which has changed after the acquisition now, is largely determined by these three components. The factor analysis highlighted the four determinants and may be summarized as follows: Confrontation, Trust, Authenticity and Experimentation and these are the major driving forces. These factors are the prominent factors in determining the cultural change in the organization after the acquisition. Since there are certain limitations still underlying in its way, the management has to undergo these hurdles and achieve an all rounded sphere success in this world of numerous acquisitions and mergers, so that the empire of Vodafone may expand and the brand becomes universal.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT

This study discovers the cultural planned change in organization Vodafone which has been studied with the help of the instrument called Openness Confrontation Trust Authenticity Proactive Autonomy Collobration Experimenting (OCTAPACE) developed by an eminent HR leader Udai Pareek. This instrument will help the researcher to understand the cultural change in the organization on the basis of eight parameters distinctly defined in it. Thus a new theory on cultural change may be arrived at.

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