In modern society, every service organization needs to be involved in a queuing
system or queue in some way. Examples include a retail check-out line, waiting
for a bank teller and queuing for healthcare services. You can also easily image
the long lines at the motorway toll booths or even in a business, whether it
is manufacturing, service or government agency.
Problems occur when customers and consumers queues overwhelm the available
staff service members. Therefore, a queuing system becomes very important and
is a model widely used. The queuing system is connected with the quality of
services of the organization. Management systems assist customers in the form
of queue number dispensing machines to faster service and happier consumers.
This enhances the quality of life which is extremely important for the organizations
customers and most probably leads to customer retention and return (Rompho,
2012). Agencies with management queue systems help to plan services and help
with the ability to manage even with limited resources. This can also significantly
shorten the waiting time of the customers or clients as well (Bouzada,
Thailands Provincial Electricity
Authority (PEA) is a government agency under the Ministry of Interior. The main
task is organizing production and distribution of electricity being delivered
to businesses and industries in 73 provinces across the country, except Bangkok,
Nonthaburi and Samut Prakan.
Currently the PEA has expanded its operations into 67,446 villages, representing
99% of the total villages of 68,162. Only 716 villages in Thailand are not presently
serviced by the PEA.
PEA uses a queuing system for customer support, to plan services and helps
management deal with their limited resources. This can also significantly shorten
the waiting time of the customers or clients as well (Bouzada,
Organizational Leadership is a key factor in managements decision to
bring the resources of the organization to achieve the most effective and efficient
service (Sarros et al., 2011). If the management
queuing system uses appropriate technology and innovation management, it will
effectively achieve the desired goals.
According to the above literature, variables that affect performance are and
management and queuing at the PEA offices. Focus on the customer needs requires
the use of resources and technology which can be effectively applied in the
service process which in turn will increase their potential for increases competitiveness.
Performance is a factor in the increase of organizational competitiveness empowering
human resource management. Organizational competitiveness helps improves performance
by a factor of personnel to lead to the development of various organizations
to try out performance as a factor in the management of the organization in
areas such as human resource management. Development services. Or development
of management leadership etc.
The conceptual framework on the idea of competency begins with
David McClelland who is often cited as the source or founder of the modern competency
movement for his 1973 study, Testing for Competence Rather than for Intelligence.
In his study, he argues that aptitude and intelligence tests are not all that
valid and continue that it is difficult, if not impossible to find a characteristic
that cannot be modified by training and/or experience. The study concluded that
personnel exhibiting good performance is something called competencies or competency
(Akaraboworn, 2006) which is the definition of performance.
Boyatzis (1982) says competency means that there is something
inside a person determines a person's behavior to achieve the goals in an organizational
environment. And individuals committed to the desired result consistent with
McClelland (1973) stated that competency is a personality
that is hidden within an individual which can push the individual to make the
performance better or comply with the requirements of the job.
Performance Classifications-Several scholars have a different attitude which
includes: (1) Core Competency refers to a persons individuality which
reflects their knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs and habits which supports
the organization as a whole helping organizations to achieve their goals. (2)
Job Competency refers to a person's personality which reflects their knowledge,
skills, attitudes, beliefs and habits that motivates them. This can produce
managements result leading to higher standards. (3) Personal Competency refers
to a persons individuality which reflects their knowledge, skills, attitudes,
beliefs and habits which make them unique from other individuals. as can be
accommodated. scorpion or reptile with which we have so often called a personal
performance that can be personalized (Santhong, 2004).
Additionally, Akaraboworn (2006) states that competency
consists of three categories: (1) Core competency is a behavior that everyone
in the organization must have which reflects the culture and core values of
the organization. (2) Professional Competency is the ability of management personnel
in the organization to assure worker compliance and understands the companys
strategic plan and vision for the organization. (3) Technical Competency is
the technical skills needed to accomplish a task which varies by and can be
divided into two main parts, including Core Technical Competency and Specific
Phuvidyaphan (2004) divided Competency into three categories:
(1) Core Competency refers to the expression of the personality or behavior
of all employees in the organization. This reflects the knowledge, skills, attitudes,
beliefs and habits of the organization as a whole. If every employee in the
organization has this type of ability it will contribute in supporting the organization
to achieve its goals and strategies. (2) Managerial Competency is knowledgeable
management which empowers all levels of management and staff to varying degrees
depending on the role and responsibilities (Role-Based) of the different administrative
positions. It also entails responsibility and which personnel in the organization
need to work to get the job done and be consistent with the strategic vision
of the mission of the organization. (3) Functional Competency is competency
at work which is reflected in knowledge, skills and characteristics of different
jobs (Job-Specific) position such as an electrical engineer which should have
knowledge of electrical engineering.
Occupations have different Functional competencies which are job-specific
competencies that drive proven high-performance, quality results for a given
position. This is reflected by the individuals knowledge, skills, behaviors
and attributes as well as the actual duties or staff responsibilities of the
duties assigned. It is not necessary that the people who work in this role must
have the ability as well. Contrary to increase the competitiveness of the enterprises
to be found. Immediate positive impact on performance, knowledge management
and innovation to the organization (Gummesson, 1999;
Ichijo et al., 1998; Beckman,
1999; O'Dell and Grayson, 1998) results. Research
by Protogerou et al. (2008) studied the Dynamic
Capabilities And Their Indirect Impact on Firm Performance and their empirical
findings suggest that dynamic capabilities are antecedents to functional competences
which in turn have a significant effect on performance, thus leading to the
||H1: Competency directly affects innovation management
Organizational Management is a system of organizational management. Need to
be brought into the system. In the process of providing services. And process
management services and Hellriegel et al. (2001)
have defined. Management is responsible for the management organization in order
to structure the relationship between customers and agencies so that the member
organizations are able to implement a plan to achieve the objectives that have
Corporate management tasks include: (1) The organizational structure for both
the planning department and jobs, including the details of each position on
the organization chart that was created in the layout tree (Tree), the user
can determine the employee for each job. In addition to the organizational chart
automatically when the data changes in each position. To allow the user to set
the budget for each department based on different levels such as the position
or the total or (2) To employees or applicants. To match the jobs that are needed.
By properties. Including an evaluation of the training. When a job modifying
the system will modify the Plan Organization of Human Resource and recruitment
process automatically (3) The technology used in the organization. As a tool
support the work leading to the ability to investigate the needs of their clients.
Sexton and Barrett (2004) refers to technologies, tools
and equipment for routine operations which can transfer the import of raw materials
and information to lead to the desired result, is products and services. It
also helps in the analysis of how the organization will use to process, however,
also be used to identify the customer and prioritize customer.
Technology has a direct effect on growth and is vital to customer service (Kandampully,
2002). The ability to use technology is also a factor affecting the overall
success and continued innovation especially (Sexton and
Barrett, 2004), where the technology is used as a base of knowledge related
to areas such as services and finance. Systems and links. Adding value and ethics,
marketing, manufacturing and maintenance of commercial and corporate work. Liyanage
and Poon (2003) bringing the technology into the organization to help bring
the market to its subscribers by Kay (2007) and from
studies of Marcoulides and Heck (1993) on Organizational
culture and Performance: Proposing and Testing a Model.
The study found that corporate culture can predict the performance of both
direct and indirect variables. The organizational structure is related to the
organization and climate of the organization. Corporate values associated with
the work of the organization. Atmosphere and attitude of the employees in the
organization. Organizational climate in relation to employee attitudes and organizational
performance. Atmosphere in relation to the organization of employee attitudes
and job performance. Employee attitudes correlated with performance. Thus leading
to the following hypotheses:
||H2: Organization management directly affects the performance
of queue management
||H3: Organization management directly affects innovation management
Role of management innovation is to make management services easy to use. The
results showed that innovation consists of the ability to market and corporate
strategy. Existing resources and networks with strong leadership and organizational
cultures (Goyal and Pitt, 2007) contribute to success,
growth and increased profitability of the company (Christensen,
1997; Thomke, 2001).
Inauen and Schenker-Wicki (2011) has developed a measure
of innovation management which consists of OECD activities in the development
of new knowledge and innovation.
A company which has innovation will involve employees in Research and Development
and communication technologies projects (OECD, 2002;
Eurostat, 2006; Inauen and Schenker-Wicki,
Wong and Chin (2007) studied Organizational
Innovation Management (OIM) and developed measures which include the following:
(1) Faith in corporate culture, (2) Dimensional structure of innovative corporate
structure is flexible, simple, uncomplicated emphasize decentralization, (3)
Human resource competency is a component of organizational commitment and leadership
management; attitudes and abilities of employees as well, (4) Strategies for
innovation. Development and innovation strategy for the organization, (5) Mechanisms
to support innovation. Mechanism for resource management. To accept the opinions
of others and achieve continuous improvement, (6) the development of cognitive
skills. Development of knowledge in the organization. To develop and exchange
knowledge with external organizations and (7) Growth of cumulative knowledge.
The organization of learning. Communication skills and knowledge utilization.
Accumulation of knowledge in the organization. The queuing system administration
effectively to achieve the desired goal.
Organizational System Using appropriate technology and innovation management.
Whether it is management innovation rate logging. Managing time in the service
and management of the service provider. Cooperation of employees. Relationship
to knowledge management and human resource management in organizations. Associated
with knowledge management in organizations (Scarbrough,
2003) to search for individual employee development. Italian exchange knowledge
together. Affect knowledge in organizations (Scarbrough,
2003) the exchange of knowledge between employees are driven to new production
methods. And has a direct impact on reducing the time of delivery (Kazi
and Wolf, 2006) on the basis of learning technology strategy. Environment
and organizational context.
The production technology and the creative process knowledge can affect. Competitiveness
of the organization (Ahmad and Schroeder, 2011), the
key factors to the rapid development of the practice team (Anderson
and West, 1998) by Bain et al. (2001) said
that the gathering of knowledge. Skills and abilities of the individual with
the view that the concept of different conditions to achieve innovation.
The study of Amabile (1996), Creativity and Innovation
in Organizations has found creativity and innovation in the workplace
can lead to the creation of new ideas. Utilization. To the new business and
new programs in order to deliver products and services to customers. To discuss
the structure of creativity. For innovation. Psychological processes. To promote
the organization. Important to study the characteristics of the innovation.
As a result, the team and focus on creating the conditions necessary for them
as a way of innovation (Panuwatwanich et al., 2008).
Viriyapan (2009) shows that the management team can
affect the success or failure of the collaboration will be seen that the success
of the business, such as Japan. It uses a system of team. Whether the company
Sony, Hitachi, Toyota, Nissan, NEC, Honda, etc. They also have a team and team
management efficiency and effectiveness. It can become a world leader in the
||H4: Management innovation directly affects the queuing
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The sample group for this research includes 848 managers within the Thai Provincial
Electricity Authority (PEA).
Data collection: In this study the samples used in this study were the
management of the Provincial Electricity Authority 344 people.
Questionnaires design: Questionnaire was constructed to be a tool to
measure Concept definition and practice. The instrument or questionnaire used
the 7-Point Likert Scale as the measurement scale and the conceptual framework
for determining the internal consistency measured by coefficient alpha. (α-coefficient)
of Akron BAC (Cronbach) to calculate the average value of the correlation coefficient
was found that alpha coefficients ranged from 0.763 to 0.908 which is considered
a highly reliable. All values lower than 0.50 were eliminated from the measurement.
Dependent variable: Efficient queuing management consists of the service
users. Developed a measure of Jedsadapornpun and Somjit
(2009) Number of service stations. Developed a measure of Thesarat
and Sindhuchao (2008) and the type of queuing. Developed a measure of Kamolsuk
(2012). The construction of measurement tools or questionnaires used the
7-Point Likert Scale for measurement (Likert, 1972).
Innovation management includes knowledge management. The development of a measure.
(Scarbrough, 2003) creativity. The development of a
measure. (Kaufman et al., 2009) and team innovation.
Developed a measure of Inauen and Schenker-Wicki (2011)
and Panuwatwanich et al. (2008). The construction
of measurement tools or questionnaires used the 7-Point Likert Scale for measurement
Independent variables: Core competencies include the duty performance
and personal performance. Developed a measure of Smithikrai
(2007), Akaraboworn (2006) and Santhong
(2004). The construction of measurement tools or questionnaires used the
7-Point Likert Scale for measurement (Likert, 1972).
Organizational management includes the organizational structure, human resource
management and technology development, measures of Pongsriroj
(2000), Rungtusanatham et al. (1999), Khan
and Khan (2010), Hongladarom (2006), Sexton
and Barrett (2004) and Kandampully (2002).
Partial Least Squares has been applied for analysis of quantitative data by
the researcher. It is data analysis for Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) relating
to the determination of Manifest Variable and Latent Variable and testing of
research hypothesis exhibiting in structural model analyzed by using the applications
of PLS-Graph (Chin, 2001).
According to the analysis result of scale validity and reliability, scale investigation
has been conducted using internal consistency measurement coefficient alpha.
(α-coefficient) of Akron BAC (Cronbach) to calculate the average value
of the correlation coefficient was found that alpha coefficients ranged from
0.606-0.905 which is considered to have high reliability.
In case of measure variables with reflective analysis, convergent validity
has been conducted. Loading is used as consideration criteria and must be positive
quantity and indicator loading has been more than 0.707 and all values have
been statistically significant (|t|≥1.96) representing convergent validity
of scales (Lauro and Vinzi, 2004; Henseler
et al., 2009; Piriyakul, 2010) and analysis
result as shown in Table 1.
|| Convergent validity statistics in latent variable measurements
in the reflective model
||Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the independent variables
of, leadership, management skill, organizational innovation and their affects
on the dependent variable, organizational performance. CR: Composite reliability;
R2: Square of the correlation; AVE: Average variance extracted
|Statistical significance level is at 0.01 and diagonal figures
Performance factor (CORE), the factors underlying the external variable core
(COC) performance obligations (COF) and wear personal (COP) values loading from
0.707 and a significant level of confidence percentage 95 (t-. stat>1.96)
which considers such factors. Affects innovation management.
Management factors (MGT), the factors underlying the variables of the organizational
structure (MGS) Human Resource Management (MGH) Technology (MGT) is loading
from 0.707 and a significant level of confidence percentage 95 (t.-stat>1.96)
which considers such factors. Affects innovation management.
Management innovation factor (INNO), the factors underlying the variables of
knowledge management (INK) creativity (INC) innovation teams (INT) values loading
from 0.707 and a significant level of confidence, 95 percent (t-stat>1.96)
which considers such factors. Affect management performance queuing. So the
researchers took the variable variable core (COC) performance obligations (COF)
and wear personal (COP) organizational structure (MGS) Human Resource Management
(MGH) Technology (MGT) Knowledge (INK). Creativity (INC) and Innovation team
(INT) was used to analyze the structural equation.
The above reflective model shows the discriminant validity of the internal
latent variables and the correlation of variables. It also depicts the scale
reliability which has been analyzed from Composite Reliability (CR) as well
as the Average Variance Extracted (AVE) and R2. The CR value should
not go below 0.60 and the AVE values should also drop below 0.50 and R2
values should not be under 0.20 (Lauro and Vinzi, 2004;
Henseler et al., 2009; Boondhavan
and Montree, 2010).
Table 2 below shows the results of factor analysis affecting
the PEA organizational performance. The data also shows the CR values are higher
than 0.60, with all AEV values higher than 0.50 for all values and R2 values
higher than 0.20, representing the reliability of the measurement. It found
that data sets in the
have higher values than all of the corresponding values in the Cross Construct
Correlation in the same column, representing discriminant validity of
the measure in each construct and with a greater value than 0.50 of AVE as shown
in Table 2.
The model generated below was done using Partial Least Square-Graph software.
It mirrors the variables found in Fig. 1 but instead generates
hypothesis testing results
from all of the research variables. This data is shown on Fig.
1 and in Table 3.
It shows that empirical output supports the four hypotheses (H1, H2, H3 and
H4). Figure 1 shows the output plotted to the final model
of the PLS-Graph. Additionally, a Hypothesis Test Result affects management
with a coefficient of 0.306 and a t-stat of 4.523 and supports the hypothesis.
Results for the structural model of the
independent variables of; leadership, management skill, organizational
Innovation and their affects on the dependent variable, organizational
performance. CR = composite reliability; R2
= square of the
correlation; AVE = average variance extracted. Test results hypothesis
by hypothesis in Table 3
., core: Capacity, inno: Organizational
management, mgt: Organizational management, effc: Management performance
|| Hypothesis testing result of hypothetical research
|** Indicates p = 0.01, * indicates p = 0.05., Coefficient
refers to the beta (β). t-stat is the t-value
Matrix (Table 3) clearly shows in a more comprehensible format
that H1 innovative performance H2 also shows management affects organizational
innovation management with a 0.536 coefficient and a t-stat of 8.655 supporting
the hypothesis. H3 results state that management, organization management and
queuing directly and positively influence performance with a coefficient of
0.369 and a t-stat of 5.018. This supports the hypothesis also. Last, H4 results
depict that management innovation positively influences the queuing performance
with a coefficient of 0.357 and a t-stat of 5.019. This confirms the hypotheses.
Figure 1 shows the research framework and the structural
model of variables that influence the Queuing System Performance at Thailands
Provincial Electricity Authority. Variables included Capacity, Organizational
Management and Innovation Management of 344 surveyed the management of the Provincial
Electricity Authority. The samples were analyzed to answer the research hypothesis
criteria of the following four assumptions (Table 3).
Furthermore, the structural analysis model framework was used to research the
t-test coefficients and their relationship of each path of the t-test hypothesis
with significance greater than 1.96 **. This explains the results obtained from
analysis as shown in Table 1 and 2 as well
as the test results presented in Table 3:
||Hypothesis 1 (H1): Innovative performance affects management.
The test result found that Innovative performance affects the management
with a coefficient of 0.306, a fact validated by the hypothesis significance
||Hypothesis 2 (H2): Management affects organizational innovation
management. The test result found that management affects the organizational
innovation management with a coefficient of 0.536, a fact validated by the
hypothesis significance p≤0.01
||Hypothesis 3 (H3): Management, Organization Management and Queuing
affects performance. The hypothesis tested results found that Management,
Organization Management and Queuing influenced on performance which showed
a coefficient of 0.369, a fact validated by the hypothesis significance
||Hypothesis 4 (H4): Management innovation affects the queuing performance.
The hypothesis tested results shows that management innovation influenced
on the queuing performance which showed a coefficient of 0.357, a fact validated
by the hypothesis significance p≤0.01
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Based on the research subject, Structural Equation Modeling analysis of queuing
system performance at Thailands
Provincial Electricity Authority (PEA), issues to be discussed are as follows.
An individuals competency is hidden within each persons character
which can motivate the individual to make their performance better. Criteria
in their job competency includes: (1) Core Competency refers to a persons
individuality which reflects their knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs and
habits which supports the organization as a whole helping organizations to achieve
their goals, (2) Job Competency refers to a person's personality which reflects
their knowledge, skills, attitudes, beliefs and habits that motivates them.
This can produce management results leading to higher standards, (3) Personal
Competency refers to a persons individuality which reflects their knowledge,
skills, attitudes, beliefs and habits which make them unique from other individuals.
Scorpion or reptile with which we have so often called a personal performance
that can be personalized (Santhong, 2004).
The results of the study showed that the core competency affects organizational
innovation. If management performance in competent with the ability for strategic
vision and planning and implement organizational goals effectively. Performance
will be a factor that enhances the capabilities of the organization according
to Gummesson (1999), Ichijo et
al. (1998), Beckman (1999) and O'Dell
and Grayson (1998) which found that competency directly affects the organizational
performance, knowledge management and innovation in the enterprise. It also
helps to increase the performance of the organization (Protogerou
et al., 2008).
Patanapongse (2004) found that attitudes, behaviors,
knowledge and skills contribute to high quality, efficiency and effectiveness
in the performance of the personnel in the organization. All staff members should
be able to complete basic functions are the same and equal. Have developed their
own distinct special abilities beyond the capabilities of the duties. Depending
on the potential. Emotional quotient: EQ and Intelligence quotient: IQ and Knowledge
and Skills and the Attributes which he will express a way of thinking and work
habits that will affect the performance of the individual. And continuous self-development.
Organizational management factors. Enterprise management systems. Need to be
brought into the system. In the process of providing services and process management
services. Technology systems in enterprises. As factors that promote and support
enterprise management and planning process. Organization. Command-and-control
study found that corporate management affect innovation in organizations. This
is consistent with Sexton and Barrett (2004) said that
technology helps in the analysis of how the organization will use to process,
however, also be used to identify the customer and prioritize customer.
Kandampully (2002) found that the introduction of
technology in organizational management had a direct effect on growth and is
vital to providing the Sexton and Barrett (2004) studied
the organizational form of learning in the process that led to the success of
information technology (An Empirical Study of the Learning Organization Model
in Information. Technology Enabled Process Improvement).
The results showed that the model of organizational learning is a tool for
successful process in information technology. The analysis of the response data
illustrates the relationship between the results of the development process
to the sum of the observations. The pressure caused by the changes in technology
is in line with the study showing patterns of the organizational learning case
study Mapping the learning organization:
Exploring a model of organizational learning
with the experimental variables of organizational learning to create a driving
force in the organization. Variables used in the study are leadership, culture,
mission and strategy. Operations management. Organizational structure. Atmosphere
in the organization, motivation, learning, innovation and the extent of learning
This study tested the role of learning, innovation and the extent of external
learning. This is driven by the organizations
operational results which are demonstrated by the influence of culture, leadership,
strategy, mission and corporate structure. This also includes operations management,
working environment and motivation. Less influential hypothesis. But there are
variables that are not in anticipation of the assumptions is that the system
has no influence on the organization learning.
Innovation management role of innovation management in service management is
a tool that has facilitated the study found that management innovation affecting
the performance management, queuing in line with Goyal
and Pitt (2007) innovation that results are caused by the process. It depends
on the ability to market and corporate strategy as well as existing resources
and networks with strong leadership and organizational cultures in which these
factors have driven success. This also contributes to growth and increased profitability
of the company (Christensen, 1997; Thomke,
Dr. Amabile is the author of "Creativity in Context" and "Growing Up Creative,"
as well as more than 150 scholarly studys, chapters, case studies and presentations.
She serves on the editorial boards of Creativity Research Journal, Creativity
and Innovation Management and the Journal of Creative Behavior. Industry and
Background Note. Creativity and Innovation in Organizations. by Teresa M. Amabile.
15 pages. Publication Date: Jan 05, 1996. Prod.
This is consistent with the study of Amabile (1996),
Creativity and Innovation in Organizations has found that creativity
and innovation implementation is the establishment of new ideas. Utilization.
To the new business and new programs in order to deliver products and services
to customers. To discuss the structure of the creative part of Wong
and Chin (2007) studied Organizational Innovation Management
(OIM) and developed measures which include the following: (1) Corporate culture
and beliefs (2) Dimensional structure of innovative corporate structure is flexible,
simple, uncomplicated emphasize decentralization (3) Human resource competency
is a component of organizational commitment and leadership management; attitudes
and abilities of employees as well. (4) Strategies for innovation. Development
and innovation strategy for the organization. (5) Mechanisms to support innovation.
Mechanism for resource management. To accept the opinions of others and achieve
continuous improvement. (6) The development of cognitive skills. Development
of knowledge in the organization. To develop and exchange knowledge with external
organizations and (7) Growth of cumulative knowledge. The organization of learning.
Communication skills and knowledge utilization. Accumulation of knowledge in
the organization. The queuing system administration effectively to achieve the
System of the organization. Using appropriate technology and innovation management.
Whether it is management innovation rate logging. Managing time in the service
and management of the service provider.
Queuing management must take into account various factors. For corporate management
to achieve a practical way in developing the capacity of the organization it
is important to have Management Innovation as a starting point in the development
of the organization so that the organization can adapt to changing circumstances
in accordance with the requirements of the client. Organizational Leadership
needs to have the ability to think strategically along with the ability of the
And skills needed in the organization. Skills of employees in the primary line.
The structure is simple. If it was a quick decision . And supervise employees
fairly. As well as the need to adopt a customer relationship management technology.
To benefit and support the employees in the organization. As an additional tool
for customers to contact the organization. Able to help in the planning of the
service. Ability to manage. With the limited resources available. And can shorten
the waiting time of customers or clients as well. Aims to respond to the needs
of the service and facilities. Quick to use. Those factors led to the excellent
quality of service to the public.