Impact of Job Security on the Organizational Performance in a Multiethnic Environment
Esuh Ossai-Igwe Lucky,
Mohd Sobri Minai
Hamzah Abdul Rahman
The global economic pressure on organizations has made them focus attention
on employees job security particularly
in a multiethnic group as a way to ensure organizational performance. This is
crucial, particularly in a multiethnic environment where different ethnic groups
are a majority in some organizations resulting to low job security among the
minority groups. The fear of losing their jobs in favour of other ethnic groups
becomes a great concern that needs an urgent attention. Therefore, organizations
must find a way of assuring the employees of holding on to their jobs in a multiethnic
environment as a way of increasing or maintaining organizational performance.
This paper examines how job security affects the organizational performance.
The paper argues on the importance of job security in achieving better organizational
Received: August 24, 2012;
Accepted: April 04, 2013;
Published: May 28, 2013
The concept of job security started gaining popularity in the recent times
as a result of economic pressures on organizations. This could be the reason
why Adebayo and Lucky (2012) agreed that job security
has become indispensable in employee and organization preference list, particularly
due to economic reasons. Thus, it has become one of the most crucial and important
factors among the employee preference list as well as the organization (Schappel,
2012; KPMG, 2010). Globally, about 75% of the employees
preferred to keep their jobs compared to other factors in their preference list
(Towers Watson, 2010). This indicates that job security
is as important as the employees salary and healthcare (KPMG,
2010). Presently, the most important desire of every employee is to keep
their jobs for as long as they wish. In this view, it implies that job security
has become the most determinant and key element influencing an employees
decision on whether to join an organization or not (Towers
Watson, 2010). Therefore, the crucial challenge facing the organization
is not just to employ and retain workers but to ensure that employees are assured
of their jobs for as long as they wish.
In Malaysia, the employees are fast becoming aware of the importance of job
security. However, the big picture for job security is grim and doubtful due
to dominance of some ethnic groups in most organizations (Hassan,
2010; Bumi, 2011). Another extreme is that employees
may decide to leave the organization if they are not the same ethnic group with
the leadership of the organization (Towers Watson, 2010).
The importance of job security to Malaysian employees cannot be underestimated.
For instance, in the midst of economic crisis, Malaysian employees rank job
security as their most important and crucial employment criteria (Towers
Watson, 2010). The recent data provided by the global professional services
company Tower Watson indicates that 11% of Malaysian employees want to remain
in their jobs. Therefore, to ensure effective performance, organizations have
resolved to create a friendly environment by focusing on employees' job security,
knowing fully well that employees perform better when they are assured of their
jobs and this will be reflected in the overall performance of the organization
(Towers Watson, 2010). Although, studies examining job
security and how it affects organizational performance seem to be limited and
scarce (Adebayo and Lucky, 2012; Ahmad
et al., 2004), however, the few available studies have provided inconsistent
results (Subramaniam et al., 2011; James,
2012). This therefore suggests that further study is required in this domain
(Subramaniam et al., 2011). As a result, this
concept paper explores job security in relation to organizational performance.
Finally, it argues on the importance of job security in achieving a better organizational
performance especially in a multiethnic environment.
Job security: Job security is defined as the assurance in an employees
job continuity due to the general economic conditions in the country (James,
2012). It is concerned with the possibility or probability of an individual
keeping his/her job (Adebayo and Lucky, 2012). It deals
with the chances of employees keeping their jobs in order not be unemployed
(Simon, 2011). Jobs which are not backed by indefinite
contract or cannot be guaranteed for reasonable period are deemed to lack job
security. It is also seen as the employees free from the fear of being dismissed
from his/her present employment or job loss. Some professions and employment
activities have greater job security than others. Job security is an employee's
assurance or confidence that they will keep their current job for a longer period
as they so wish (businessdictionary.com). It is the assurance from the company
or organization that their employees will remain with them for a reasonable
period of time without being wrongly dismissed (Adebayo
and Lucky, 2012; Simon, 2011).
Quite a number of factors such as employment contract, collective bargaining
agreement, labor legislation and personal factors such as education, work experience,
job functional area, work industry, work location, etc., play an important role
in determining the need for an individual's services and impacts their personal
job security (Adebayo and Lucky, 2012). In another extreme,
essential or necessary skills and past experience required by the employers
and subject to the current economic condition and business environment could
also guarantee individuals job security (Adebayo and
Generally, certain type of jobs and industry jobs has been perceived to have
high job security. For instance, government jobs, educational jobs, healthcare
jobs and law enforcement jobs are deemed to be very secure while on the other
hand, jobs in the private sector are widely perceived to offer lower job security
which may also be according to industry, location, occupation and other factors
(Adebayo and Lucky, 2012). However, in the final analysis,
Adebayo and Lucky (2012) noted that people's job security
eventually depends on whether they are employable or not and if businesses have
a need for their skills or not. Although, employment laws can offer some relief
against unemployment risk, they only have a marginal contribution to the job
security of individuals. The fact remains that, individuals need to have the
right skill set to have good job security.
In the USA for example, it was reported that national job security depended
greatly on the economic and business conditions due to the capitalist system
that encourages and promotes entrepreneurship development and minimal government
intervention in businesses (Adebayo and Lucky, 2012).
Even though, job security in the USA tends to vary as a result of the economic
factor, it is still believed that if the economy is good, firms will experience
a sales boom and therefore lead to the creation of more jobs and consequently
increases national job security. However, this might not be the cause in certain
period like economic slowdown or recession or economic chaos like that of Nigeria,
as economic downturn seems to worsen the economy (Lucky,
2012; Minai and Lucky, 2012). The simple reason
is that during this period, companies tend to reduce costs by laying off workers
and this therefore decrease job security (Adebayo and Lucky,
2012). In European economies, for example in Britain, job security is found
to be very low because many companies believed that it is much cheaper to fire
permanent employees since employees are only entitled to a legal minimum of
one week's redundancy pay per year worked (one and a half weeks for workers
over 40) (Adebayo and Lucky, 2012). However, in some
other European countries many employees have indefinite contracts which, whilst
not guaranteeing a job for life, make it very difficult for the employer to
terminate an employees employment (Adebayo and Lucky,
A recent survey conducted by KPMG (2010) on job security
found that more than 75% of participants considered job security their top priority
when searching for a job as a result of the uncertain economic environment.
While the result also showed that 67% of the participants were likely to work
in a public or non-profit organization than a corporate business due to the
recession. Accordingly, the study conducted by the University of Michigan's
Center for the Center for the Education of Women (2010)
found that teachers such as professors desire greater job security. The study
noted that job security will help them to balance work and their personal lives
and reduce their level of stress, adding that freedoms in their jobs are worth
sacrificing job security. Similarly, the information provided by the University
of Wisconsin-Madison in 2000 on staff job security showed that about 22% of
the academic staff only enjoy a high level of job security which defined as
a multiple-year, more than 40% of experienced staff (employees) with above seven
years of service at the university have little job security beyond renewable
appointments while only 4% of the academic staff are sure of their job security.
While, in Nigeria, job security seems to be very low. According to Adebayo
and Lucky (2012), the on-going bank re-capitalisation has worsen the situation
as workers can just wake up and found themselves be relieved of their jobs without
proper notification process. It is reported that the majority of the banks in
the country, in an attempt to restructure their workforce, are terminating out
some of their staff, many are midway into doing so while the names of those
to be affected are presently being compiled (Adebayo and
Lucky, 2012). For example, Diamond Bank PLC has downsized its workforce
by 500, First Bank has also relieved 500 staff of their jobs while Intercontinental
Bank has also compiled the list of 200 staff that will be terminated in December.
At Bank PHB, the staff is presently living in fear as names of those to go are
also being compiled and Spring Bank has just relieved 300 staff their jobs (Adigun,
2009). Thus, they did not have any notification that they were going be
terminated. The majority of them come to work and were surprised to receive
termination letters without due process (Adebayo and Lucky,
2012). There are no doubts that all these declining economic activities
contribute to low job security in Nigeria. All these put together indicate that
there is low job security in Nigeria (Adebayo and Lucky,
In Malaysia, a different scenario seems to exist. Even though Malaysians are
just becoming aware of job security, they still rank job security as the most
critical factor that tends to determine their choice of jobs and look stay in
a job (KPMG, 2010). However, the multiethnic nature of
the country seems to play major role in determining the employees job
security in most organizations.
Studies on performance have used several terms to describe performance (Taiwo
and Idunnu, 2007; Okafor, 2007; Akinyele,
2007a-c; Henry, 2009; Kessy
and Temu, 2010; Iwarere and Lawal, 2011; Huang
et al., 2011; Samson et al., 2012;
Lucky, 2012). They include, business performance, new
venture performance, firm performance, entrepreneurial performance, organizational
performance, SMEs performance, employee performance, teacher performance, lecturers
performance, financial performance, non-financial performance etc. (Katsina,
2012; Akinyele, 2007a-c;
Henry, 2009; Kessy and Temu, 2010;
Iwarere and Lawal, 2011; Huang et
al., 2011). The essence of using several terminologies associated with
performance is to be more specific and directional in the research work so as
to narrow down to a particular domain or area of study (Lucky,
2011). Therefore, the use of organizational performance in this paper is
very clear and congruent with the above argument.
Furthermore, a number of authors have pointed out the problems or difficulties
in defining/conceptualizing and measuring the concept of performance in general
including some of its terms such as organizational performance (Hashim,
2008). Hence, there has been some sort of disagreement among authors, researchers
and practitioners with regards to how best to conceptualize/define and measure
organizational performance (Hashim, 2008; Lenz,
1980). According to Hashim, 2008; Lucky
and Minai, 2011), this problem could be linked to either too many objectives
to be achieved, or too many different objectives or lack of clear and concise
objectives in organizations. For instance, in a situation where an organization
is faced with various stakeholders objectives such as those of directors,
managers, employees and customers. Generally, organizational performance is
designed to measure how well an organization was able to achieve or attain its
objectives. According to Lenz (1980), organizational
performance is defined as the organizational achievement with regards to some
criteria. It is a measurement or indicator for evaluation and assessment of
organizations (Lucky, 2011). It reveals the strengths
and weaknesses of the organization and what we want to measure. In an organization
for example, it helps to ascertain the current situation of an organization,
whether the organization is doing well or not. At a point, it reveals the efficiency
and effectiveness of an organization and therefore supplies information whether
an organization is successful or will fail at a particular point in time (Lucky,
2011). In another dimension, Jermias and Setiawan (2008)
and Samson et al. (2012) noted that performance
measure provides information for the following; planning, investigating, coordinating,
evaluating, supervising, staffing, negotiating, profitability and organization
overall performance. These indicators are well related to organizational performance
and deeply related to the human resources domain. Chew and
Sharma (2005) and Akinyele (2007b) provided performance
indicators such as efficiency, internal liquidity, strategic human resources
effectiveness, profitability and leverage.
Furthermore, Anthony et al. (2007) fervently warned
that organizations should be very careful in selecting a method of assessing
performance. They noted that every task should be measured according to its
suitability and fit. In other words, this can be further interpreted as, for
every task should be in conformity with its performance measurement system.
He argued that whatever performance measures an organization uses, it has some
sort of impact or effect on the employees motivation and performance.
This is consistent with Tangen (2005) who argued that
any performance measure that is designed for the purpose of measuring performance
should be designed in such a way that it will show all the essential factors
that are capable of influencing the productivity of the different process that
the company posses. Therefore, if the organization decides to select any performance
measure without due attention, a situation of noncongruent behaviours is likely
to arise in the organization, thus leading to some sort of conflict and demotivation
of the employees. Consequently, this will lead to employees poor performance.
As a result of some the problems which are anticipated and capable of destroying
the organization, a new way of measure is therefore suggested. This has to use
a mix of performance measures or called it multiple performance measure. This
paper opts for multi-dimensional performance measurement of both financial and
JOB SECURITY AND ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE
According to Geoffrey James, job security has a significant effect on the overall
performance of the team as well as on the organization's performance (James,
2012). He noted that organizational with workers with low job security cause
people to lose faith in their future which consequently affect performance.
He affirmed that the more an employee enjoys a high job security the more he
is likely to effectively perform his task which is reflected in the overall
performance of the organization. For example, in organizations, tasks are normally
broken down into jobs which are assigned to each employee. Each of the jobs
performed by the employees is assessed through individual performance. This
individual performance is part of the overall organizational performance. The
employees individual performance through his job is directly linked with
the overall performance of the organization. Therefore, it seems their performance
is linked to organizational performance, their contributions to will be less
and ineffective if they feel low job security in the organization.
For instance, a low job security is possible in a situation where a particular
employees' ethic group seems to dominate other ethnic groups in some organizations
or industries (Bumi, 2011; Hassan,
2010). In this case, the minority employees in that company will feel low
job security and therefore may not be able to perform effectively. For example,
a Chinese owned company may be dominated by more Chinese employees other than
other ethnic groups (Bumi, 2011; Hassan,
2010) thereby causing fear of losing their jobs to other minority employee
ethic groups in the company and vice versa. Therefore, Malay and Indian employees
working in a Chinese company may feel very low job security and thus, contribute
very little to the organization while on the other hand, Chinese and Malay working
in an Indian company will also feel low job security which will also affect
their performance. Based on the different scenarios above, an employee working
in a company other than his race may definitely feel low job security and this
will affect his/her performance which is reflected in the overall performance
of the organization. Based on this, it can be argued that organizations should
find a way of balancing between employee job security and the organizational
performance as employee job security is a key determinant of organizational
performance especially in a multiethnic environment.
Despite all these, the most recent study conducted by Subramaniam
et al. (2011) on the linkage between human resource practices and
organizational performance of small and medium firms (SMEs) in Malaysia provided
a different result. Although, job security was considered as a dimensional or
sub variable, it was found that job security is not significantly related to
organizational performance. However, the study noted that SMEs seems not to
consider job security as a viable strategy due to the fact that employees tend
to give less attention to job security in searching for a job. From the ongoing,
there is no doubt that more literature is required in this domain.
This study explored the connection between job security and organizational performance. It looked into how employees job security contributes to the organizational performance. It was observed that the economic pressure has pushed job security to the top priority list of the employees, making it a significant and crucial factor to be considered by the employees when making decision about the organization they want to work with. The multiethnic composition of an organization also can have a strong impact on job security. Despite the inconsistent result of the previous studies, it is argued here that job security has a significant effect on the overall performance of a team as well as on the organizational performance. We further argued that the more an employee enjoys a high job security the more he is likely to effectively perform his task which is reflected in the overall performance of the organization. It is hoped that the arguments presented in this paper will be of immense benefit to the owner-managers, practitioners, organizations and researchers. Finally, it is suggested that further investigation on other directions of job security should be investigated in order to help build this area of research.
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