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Marketing Intelligence of Sales Force and Intermediate Role of Organizational Commitment



Gholamreza Jandaghi, Alireza Amini and Hesam Tavakoli
 
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ABSTRACT

Marketing intelligence is amongst marketing and behavioral concepts that have received inconsiderable attention. Although, marketing intelligence may be regarded as peripheral duty of sales force, because of their boundary position, they can offer their company direct access to important information about competitors and customers. In this research, it has been paid to managerial (communication, participation in decision-making, feedback, recognition) factors that were influenced by individual factor such as organizational commitment. The revised proposed model shows that organizational commitment is the most important factors that motivating behavioral effort of sales force toward marketing intelligence activities and managerial communication and motivation toward marketing intelligence has more effectiveness to organizational commitment.

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  How to cite this article:

Gholamreza Jandaghi, Alireza Amini and Hesam Tavakoli, 2011. Marketing Intelligence of Sales Force and Intermediate Role of Organizational Commitment. Research Journal of Business Management, 5: 146-158.

DOI: 10.3923/rjbm.2011.146.158

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=rjbm.2011.146.158
 
Received: August 01, 2011; Accepted: November 19, 2011; Published: December 29, 2011



INTRODUCTION

Although, salespersons represent a unique and important channel of information, few of them contribute efficiently to marketing intelligence (Bon and Merunka, 2006). Marketing intelligence is the ability to fully understand, analyze and assess the internal and external environment related to a company’s customers, competitors, markets and industry to enhance the tactical and strategic decision-making process. This is evidence of the fact that competitive intelligence officers play a pivotal role in the strategic intelligence decision-making process and can help facilitate knowledge sharing within the organization (Huster, 2005). Marketing information systems enable marketing and sales managers to identify, interpret and react to competitive signals and are key elements leading to efficient marketing strategies and actions. The marketing intelligence system is a set of procedures and sources used to obtain everyday information about pertinent developments in the marketing environment (Kotler, 2002). Therefore, marketing intelligence provides a continuous flow of information about very diverse market events that might affect the company’s competitive position. Information is mainly descriptive, essentially based on observation and its goal is to provide managers with general enlightenment about an ongoing competitive market situation.

Salespeople have long been recognized as primary sources of marketing intelligence as their additional efforts to gather environmental information create few additional costs for the company. Because of their boundary position, salespeople can offer their company direct access to important information about competitors and customers. Due to their daily presence in the field and favored relationships with customers, salespeople can be exposed to rumors about their customers’ or competitors’ projects, learn about new product launches before they take place, discover new products in test market areas, gather information about the discount and pricing policies of competitors, note changes in customers’ or distributors’ policies and behavior, gather point-of-purchase information on promotional activities and effectiveness and so forth (Bon and Merunka, 2006). but, it seems difficult to mobilize the sales force to engage in marketing intelligence activities. Salespeople do not always adequately communicate important information to marketing and sales managers and few salespersons transmit the information they observe or collect in the field; the information that is transmitted may also be biased (Darmon, 1992).

Nevertheless, the specified importance of intelligently participating salesforces in marketing affair and their vital role in collection and transfer the information, rarely researches have accomplished about understanding and clarifying salesforce behavior. Because of regard to sales force marketing intelligence concept contributes worthy at marketing activates in organizations and corporations and it provides growth and sublimity of them in presenting vastly in market, so, main question of present research focuses on recognition of managerial and personal factors that can explain sales force behavior shifts related on information collection and transfer.

Marketing intelligence and its importance for sales forces: A marketing intelligence system is a set of procedures and sources used by managers to obtain their everyday information about pertinent developments in the environment in which they operate. The marketing intelligence system supplies data about the market. And other definition of marketing intelligence system is that it is a system for capturing the necessary information for business marketing decision making (Mochtar and Arditi, 2001). If a company utilizes marketing intelligence systems, the output can result in sound marketing decisions which can be one of the best sources of competitive advantage (Lackman et al., 2000). When a company is able to accurately assess the competition by gathering competitive information, it is in a better position to build differentiation for their company. It may be that one company in the competitive set is the low cost provider and the other company has a superior process for providing the service (Johns and Van Doren, 2010). Daily, customers, rivals, suppliers and employments provide benefit informational bits for business owners. Customers talk with firm labors, rivals enclose their programs with customers, employment seeks opportunities and experimental problems and suppliers discuss with people. Gathering systematical these free data and using it for powering commerce is the main challenge (Bon and Merunka, 2006). It is, therefore, essential for marketing intelligence officers to work with marketing strategists and develop appropriate marketing intelligence systems that allow customer relationships to be mapped, modeled and then translated into new buyer behavior models (Trim and Lee, 2006).

As a global concept, marketing information can best be understood by its decomposition into marketing research and marketing intelligence. Although, both activities aim at collecting and providing information to management for better and more timely decision-making purposes, marketing research and marketing intelligence differ in three key aspects: the flow of information, the type of information provided and the use of information (Bon and Merunka, 2006). Marketing intelligence is viewed in its totality as a continuing and interacting structure of people, equipment and procedures to gather, sort, analyze and distribute pertinent, timely and accurate information for use by marketing decision makers to improve their marketing planning, implementation and control (Tan and Ahmed, 1999). In other word, marketing intelligence is the product of collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available information that may affect the survival and success if the company (Trim and Lee, 2008). Market intelligence serves four primary purposes. These are:

Competitors’ assessment and tracking
Early warnings of opportunities and threats
Support for strategic planning and implementation
Support of strategic decision-making

Marketing research on the other hand is the systematic and objective identification, collection, analysis and dissemination of information for the purpose of assisting management in decision making related to the identification and solution of problems and opportunities in marketing (Tan and Ahmed, 1999) market research activities are devoted to the collection and analysis of data linked to precise research questions such as new product acceptance or advertising effectiveness. Therefore, information is discontinuous and planned. A piece of market research information corresponds to a defined goal and focused objectives. Information collected needs to be precise, carefully measured, controlled and analyzed and the results obtained should enable managers to reduce decision-making uncertainty (Bon and Merunka, 2006). Sales force of an organization is the most important factor that is responsible for entering data and information to marketing intelligence system whiles others responsible for staff role (Lee and Trim, 2006). It is estimated that, between 70 and 80% of the intelligence a company typically needs resides with employees who collect it while dealing with the company’s suppliers, customers and other industry contacts. The challenge for companies is to create a way of collecting and analyzing the useful information that resides with employees (Tan and Ahmed, 1999). Collecting and transmitting environmental information is a specific and important assignment of the selling function. Salespeople may notice changes in customers’ needs, the test or launch of a new product on the market or a price modification by competitors. They might be able to predict their customers’ attitudes and behavior toward a new product or provide good estimations of how customers perceive products’ attributes (Bon and Merunka, 2006). Furthermore, in a digitalized economy in which online selling is growing, the sales organization must consider the new challenges of being a relevant information provider (to customers) and a sound information collector (for the company) rather than just an order taker (Neil and DeVincentis, 1999). Marketing intelligence officers need to look more closely at what influences customer demand. This means that adequate attention is paid to market dynamics and in particular, how change originates. This means that various factors need to be evaluated and monitored such as the role of government, changes in government regulations that result in breakthroughs in technology and the emergence of consumer pressure groups that are concerned with environmental issues for example. As a result, marketing intelligence officers need to think of intelligence gathering as an ongoing, multi-dimensional process that involves aspects of counterintelligence (Trim and Lee, 2006). But contrast of sales forces vital role in marketing intelligence system, practically, research suggest the poor reliability of the sales forces in collecting and transmitting market information; information gathered through salespersons is imprecise and may reach decision makers only after considerable delay. Also, information transmitted can be biased because salespeople receive incorrect and incomplete information from their customers wish to transmit information that is favorable to them, do not adequately estimate their customers’ expectations, or overestimate their sensitivity to price. Because of their own personal interests, salespeople also may have an incomplete or incorrect perception of the reality they observe. Finally, some information may never be communicated to marketing and sales managers and it appears that very few salespeople are truly committed to the diffusion of environmental information with in their company. Scarcity in the communication of information from foreign markets has also been suggested (Bon and Merunka, 2006).

Marketing intelligence role in accomplished research: Rare experimental studies happen in marketing intelligence setting. Several cases of paper solitary find in scientific context as following:

Bon and Merunka (2006) have expressed impressible of marketing intelligence from personal factors (such as: organizational commitment, desire for upward mobility) and managerial factors (such as: control system, participation in decision making, feedback, recognition). The results of this study, that base on statistic data has been collected in 3 section-involved services, industrial and consumer goods indicate that desire for upward mobility is the only individual determinant of behavior. Other than participation in decision-making, all the managerial factors play influential roles in structuring both motivation and behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence by salespeople. Through, the important positive impact of recognition, the results demonstrate that even a non-sales task such as marketing intelligence activities may imply some involvement from the Sales forces if the contributors are commended and thanked for their participation. It must also underline the importance of feedback and behavior-based control systems as means to influence sales representatives’ motivation and effort. Salespeople need to know what happens to the information they transmit and be coached and controlled by their management (not left alone) when it comes to intelligence activities
Lee and Trim (2006) explain why planners and retail marketing strategists need to develop long-term relationships capable of building business partnerships based on mutual trust. The results of this study show that, a successful retailing strategy will be embedded within a customer-driven general business strategy. Marketing managers should plan to develop and sustain long-term trust-based working relationships which take into account organizational and national values. Successful partnership arrangements depend on mutuality and resilience, as well as trust. Marketing intelligence is a vital ingredient in the formulation and implementation of plans to achieve these goals. The “organizational resilience value system” framework proposed here can be used by marketing planners to link organization learning to relationship marketing and thereby establish a customer relationship management policy that provides the organization with a sustainable competitive advantage
Trim and Lee (2008) explain how competitive intelligence officers can participate more fully in strategy formulation and implementation and how they can contribute to the strategic intelligence process. The results reveal Competitive intelligence officers can contribute more fully to the strategic intelligence process and help establish an intelligence culture that incorporates counter-intelligence. By adopting a broader understanding of what strategic marketing represents, marketing managers can devise new approaches to managing customer relationships and can develop international/global brand positioning strategies that when implemented counter the actions of legitimate competitors and new entrants and disrupt the actions of counterfeiters and fraudsters
Lackman et al. (2000) express the role of market intelligence in directing both strategy and success in the marketplace. In this order, added value of marketing intelligence and its importance in strategic decision making have been hyphenised and assayed between fifty industrial and services companies. Results revel significant relationship between strategic planning and marketing intelligence. This subject was confirmed by remarkable usage by these companies and their tactical and strategic decisions impressible from marketing intelligence. These companies know that their target market sustainable position relies on their quality and up date information
Fleisher (2008) seeks to show how the increasingly popular use of data and information acquired from open sources impacts competitive and marketing intelligence. Open sources are useful in marketing analyses because they can be easily accessible, inexpensive, quickly accessed and voluminous in availability. Marketing analysis increasingly feeds on open source data in plans, strategies and tactics. In this study, marketing intelligence concept has been considered as a relative variable that its development depends on analyzing and intellectual using data and information sources until organization achieves to suitable market advantage
Nwokah and Ondukwu (2009) aimed to assess the impact of competitive intelligence on the marketing effectiveness of corporate organizations. 108 corporate organizations in Nigeria were selected from the gazette of Nigeria stock exchange as sample of this study. The results find strong association between competitive intelligence and marketing effectiveness of corporate organizations in the Nigerian context. These results propose that organizations should create a competitive intelligence unit to regularly monitor rivals activities and to evaluate organizational groups activities in line with that of rivals. Moreover, management must consistently motivate its intelligence teams so that it will analyze the customer’s needs, seel to satisfy them and try to adapt the products to these needs, react to competitors’ actions and responses.

Conceptual model and research hypotheses: In order to explain and specify the influence factors of Sales force marketing intelligence behavior, based on Bon and Merunka model, these factors are divided personal and managerial dimensions. In this model, motivation is intermediate effective factor which correlates managerial factors (except behavioral control system factor) to behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence. In this model as seen in Fig. 1, four factors such as behavioral control system, participation in decision-making, feedback and recognition for managerial dimension and two factors such as desire for upward mobility and organizational commitment for personal dimension have been regarded.

Image for - Marketing Intelligence of Sales Force and Intermediate Role of Organizational Commitment
Fig. 1: Research conceptual model

Behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence (BE): Intelligence marketing is not an easy duty for Sales force. He or she must build strong relationships with customers to get proper and relevant information from them, gather information or evidence from the field and organize his or her negotiations with customers to obtain information without disturbing the selling process. Transmitting nonstandard zed, diverse information is time consuming and may be perceived as peripheral to the basic selling and reporting goals that, above all, must be achieved. Thus, intelligence activities require personal involvement and rely on the willingness of the salesperson to fulfill the mission
Motivation (Mot): The concept of motivation is useful for understanding why salespeople might exert effort. Extrinsic motivation is a key influential variable of sales representatives’ effort and work performance. Basically, expectancy theory states that a salesperson will exert a certain amount of effort toward a particular task if he or she estimates that the effort will lead to a specific performance (expectancy) which will imply a real reward (instrumentality) that he or she really desires (valence for reward) (Robbins, 2003). Then, Sales force are motivated for seeking information in his or her field: (1) if he or she feels that will collect suitable information from observation and or negotiation with customers (expectancy) and thereupon (2) will receive reward related on information that he or she has transferred and (3) that reward is favorite for him/herself

Overall, motivation relies on factors that can be manipulating by management. Thus, if motivation is one key variable for explaining behavioral effort, it is proposed as a intermediate variable. Then, first hypothesis expresses as following:

H1: The greater salespeople's motivation, the greater their behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence activities will be
Organizational Commitment (Oc): Organizational commitment is introduced as Sales force desire for completion the marketing intelligence mission in order to aim organization benefits when marketing intelligence activates was assigned as a peripheral duty for Sales force. Organizational commitment can be defined as a positive individual attitude toward an organization. It indicates personal identification with the company's values, personal involvement with its objectives and great loyalty toward it. The concept of organizational commitment is also useful to understand why people continue ongoing behaviors even if the conditions of extrinsic motivation are not met. Thus, it hypothesizes a direct impact of organizational commitment on Sales forces’ behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence activities. Therefore:
H2: The greater salespeople's organizational commitment, the greater their behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence activities will be
Desire for Upward Mobility (UM): Upward mobility is an organizational communication literature concept that can be defined as the desire to access higher positions within an organization. Desire for upward mobility affects the length and type of messages sent by subordinates to superiors and is thought to influence the quality of sales reports. Thus, third hypothesis expresses as following:
H3: The greater salespeople's desire for upward mobility, the greater their behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence activities will be
Behavior Control System of sales force (Bcs): The sales force control system is an important concept for understanding how their effort and performance may be driven. Defined as a set of rules and procedures designed to monitor, direct, evaluate and compensate employees. This system relies on greater management control and involvement in sales people’s activities, such that salespeople are told how to execute their tasks. The performance evaluation criteria in turn are more subjective and the fixed portion of their compensation package (i.e., salary) is more important than the variable part (Hatch, 2007). Thus, the pressure due to extrinsic motivation has been removed and thereby develops salespeople’s identification with their company. It, therefore proposes that a behavior-based control system will directly influence salespeople's behavioral effort. We survey this concept by measuring managerial communications with sales force in order to be sure from their performance
H4: The stronger the behavior-based control system for salespeople, the greater their behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence activities will be
Participation in Decision-making (PiDM): Participation in decision making may help salespersons better understand managers’ preoccupations and informational needs. Participation in decision-making causes to increase employees motivation (Fard and Naghavi, 2003, p.1). Therefore, it is predicted that Participation in decision-making will influenced sale force motivation toward marketing intelligence by reward attraction. Thus, fifth hypothesis forms as following:
H5: The greater salespeople's participation in decision-making, the greater their motivation toward marketing intelligence activities will be
Feedback: For salespeople to collect and transmit information from the field, they need to know that their effort is not meaningless. They require feedback which is defined as return signals that the information has reached its addressee and is useful or has been used. In contrast, sale forces do not have any motivation for performing marketing intelligence activates. Then sixth hypothesis expresses the effect of feedback as following:
H6: The greater the managerial feedback, the greater sales-People’s motivation toward marketing intelligence activities will be
Managerial Recognition (Rec): Recognition can be defined as the set of existing rules and policies for commending or thanking salespeople for their contribution to intelligence activities. Managerial recognition will have a positive impact on motivation. Hence:
H7: The greater the managerial recognition, the greater sales-people’s motivation toward marketing intelligence activities will be

METHODOLOGY

This is a descriptive survey which defying relationship between known elements contribute to marketing intelligence activities of salesforce. For assessing this relationship, the questions of Bon and Merunka’s questionnaire has been adopted and a cessionaire was designed with items involve five-item Likert-type scale items. Validity was confirmed by experts and Bartlett Test. The results in Table 1 demonstrate that, the measures used in the current study all exceed the commonly accepted standard of coefficient alpha. 0.7 Note that this will only support our arguments for measure reliability.

Table 1: Reliability of study measure (coefficient alpha)
Image for - Marketing Intelligence of Sales Force and Intermediate Role of Organizational Commitment

Statistical population, sample size, sampling method: Data was collected from sales force of chain stores corporate of Refah and Shahrvand in tehran city. Sample size consist of 214 salespeople which were selected random sampling method from all stores (which sale more than one type of product). Based on collected data from 30 cessionaire distributed, population variance was estimated and then sample size was calculated by sampling formula.

RESULT AND ANALYSIS

From 214 send questionnaires, we received back 193 (90%) usable responses. Then, it’s our database for resulting in this research. First we present descriptive and inferential statistics. We will also present test of hypothesis and path analysis.

Descriptive statistics: Mean age of respondents was 27 years and mean years working were 6. Education of respondents was 72.2% diploma and under, 26.7% high deploma and BSc, 1.1% higher.

Inferential statistics: The research hypothesis and relationship between Independent and dependent variable was tested using Chi-square test, using SPSS. Error and confidence interval was respectively 5 and 95% which has demonstrated in Table 2:

Image for - Marketing Intelligence of Sales Force and Intermediate Role of Organizational Commitment

As seem in Table 2, results of Chi-square test for most hypotheses was not in significant level. Based on theoretical framework, these results are wonderful. After obtaining these results, we searched in literature and found some researches that organizational commitment corresponds with motivation, participation in decision-making, feedback and managerial recognition in those researches. Thus, we take organizational commitment as intermediate variable and revise four hypothesizes and so reexamine these hypothesizes.

Table 2: The results of Chi-square test
Image for - Marketing Intelligence of Sales Force and Intermediate Role of Organizational Commitment

According to Curtis et al. (2009), Matin et al. (2010), Roe (2010), Tella et al. (2007) and Nehmeh (2009) limited differences do exit for certain motivational factors and organizational commitment factors and there is a significant relationship between two variables. As Kren (1996) told, motivation was not directly related to performance. Instead, motivation affected an intervening variable, organizational commitment to performance goals and it was commitment to performance goals that acted to mobilize effort. Thus, if organizational commitment is one key variable for explaining behavioral effort, it is proposed as an intermediate variable. Then, we revised first hypothesis as following:
H`1: The greater salespeople's motivation, the greater salespeople’s organizational commitment toward marketing intelligence activities will be
If we replace concept “Behavior control system” with its measure “managerial communication”, According to the marketing and behavioral literature, we understood that managerial communication have directly relation with organizational commitment. As Zain et al. (2009) mentioned that communication is important determinants in motivating the employees to be committed to their organization. Then, it was revised fourth hypothesis as following:
H`4: The stronger the Managerial Communication (Mc) with salespeople, the greater their organizational commitment toward marketing intelligence activities will be
Chiang and et al. (2011) imply when employees have a high degree of perceived organizational support, they will feel important to an organization and be willing to participate in decision-making in order to reciprocate an organization. Thus, these employees are more willing to remain with an organization. Thus also, we revised fifth hypothesis as following:
H`5: The greater salespeople's PIDM, the greater their organizational commitment toward marketing intelligence activities will be
Pousette and Jacobsson (1998), Karim (2010) and Nehmeh (2009) show that, positive and negative feedback were related to organizational commitment. Thus, we revised sixth hypothesis as following:
H`6: The greater the managerial feedback, the greater sales-People’s organizational commitment toward marketing intelligence activities will be
Zain et al. (2009) and Nehmeh (2009) reveal the influence of rewards and recognition on organizational commitment. They discuss that recognition is important determinant in motivating the employees to be committed to their organization. Thus, we revised seventh hypothesis as following:
H`7: The greater the managerial recognition, the greater sales-people’s organizational commitment toward marketing intelligence activities will be

In pursuit, we examined revised hypothesizes as seem in Table 3:

After revised five hypothesizes and observed results of Chi-square test, as seem in Table 3, results of Chi-square test for all revised hypotheses are in significant level. Thus the null hypothesis was rejected and alternative hypothesis were accepted, significant at 5% level.

Final model and path analysis diagram: According to results, the conceptual model was revised and final model was presented as Fig. 2. To observe the impacts of differences between research model variables on behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence, a path analysis diagram was drawn. Then partial standardized regression coefficient (β) was used as path ratio to achieve the direct and indirect impacts of each independent variable on depended variables. Since, these ratios are standardized in path analysis diagram, one can compare the impacts of different variables and then determine the most effective one (Kalantari, 2010).

Table 3: The results of Chi-square test for revised hypothesizes
Image for - Marketing Intelligence of Sales Force and Intermediate Role of Organizational Commitment

Image for - Marketing Intelligence of Sales Force and Intermediate Role of Organizational Commitment
Fig. 2: Path analysis diagram of final model

On this basis, the highest impact in expressing the behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence is organizational commitment which is 0.205. It follows by managerial communication is the second impacting factor with 0.063 value in the emergence of Behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence. It also follows by motivation toward marketing intelligence with total 0.057 value, Feedback with total 0.041 value, Recognition with -.004 value, Participation in decision making with -0.010 and finally Desire for upward mobility with -0.124 imply behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence.

CONCLUSION

This research is an attempt to propose a general explanation of salespeople’s behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence activities. This research was done with the purpose of surveying the impact of individual and managerial factors on sales force’s contribution to marketing intelligence activities.

First, according to proposed model of Bon and Merunka (2006), we considered motivation as an intermediate variable and hypothesized its relationship with participation in decision-making, feedback and managerial recognition. Next to these, it was assayed the relationship of desire for upward mobility, organizational commitment, behavior control system and motivation with behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence. The results of these tests were wonderful because, except of the relationship between desire for upward mobility and organizational commitment with behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence, other relationships were rejected by 95% accuracy.

Second, after gaining these results, based on marketing and behavioral literature, we revised five hypothesizes which included organizational commitment as intermediate factor and changed the concept “Behavior control system” with its measure “managerial communication”. In pursuit, we examined the relationship of motivation, managerial communication and participation in decision-making, feedback and managerial recognition with organizational commitment. All revised hypotheses were accepted by 95% accuracy. So, based on accepted hypotheses, path analysis was presented. Then, result is as following:

Behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence is largely a function of organizational commitment and desire for upward mobility. Indirectly, other variables such as motivation, managerial communication and participation in decision-making, feedback and managerial recognition also contribute to behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence
Contrast Bon and Merunka’s study that rejected the relationship between organizational commitment and behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence activities; we found that organizational commitment is amongst factors that motivating behavioral effort of sales force toward marketing intelligence activities and managerial communication and motivation toward marketing intelligence have more effectiveness to organizational commitment
Although, Bon and Merunka’s research imply significant direct relationship between motivation and behavioral effort of sales force toward marketing intelligence activities but we do not reach this direct relation
Our statistical test rejected direct relationship between behavioral control system and behavioral effort of sales force toward marketing intelligence activities but it confirmed its indirect effect on marketing intelligence activities in framework of its measure “managerial communication” and intermediate factor of organizational commitment

According to revised model, we must to discuss about results from two viewpoints; managerial factors and individual factors. In this regard, managerial communication, participation in decision-making, feedback and managerial recognition as managerial factors influence indirectly behavioral efforts toward marketing intelligence activities. These factors cause to increase commitment of sales force toward organization or corporation destiny. In this study, although, managerial factors don’t have direct relationship with behavioral efforts toward marketing intelligence activities but they influence individual factor such as organizational commitment that it have the most important in marketing intelligence. Anyway, in order to explain behavioral effort toward marketing intelligence activities, researchers should consider two viewpoints until acquaint sales force from their strategic role of marketing intelligence and motivate them for participating in marketing intelligence activities. As Trim and Lee (2006) discussed, the type of work undertaken by marketing intelligence officers is growing in importance and is likely to become more strategically oriented in the years ahead. It is essential, therefore, that marketing intelligence officers refocus part of their efforts on security work and develop their skill and knowledge base so that they are better able to assist marketing strategists.

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