Dynamics of Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe trifolii) Disease of Lentil Influenced by Sulphur and Zinc Nutrition
Anil Kumar Singh,
Lentil is one of the major sources of protein for vegetarian population and the second most important legume crops of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in India. Powdery mildew (Erysiphe trifolii) is one of the important fungal disease of lentil grossly affect foliage as well as in severe cases stems and pods also and causes reduction in crop yield and quality of seed. Mineral nutrition especially sulphurs to the great extent and moderately to zinc, plays a very important role in powdery mildew management. A field experiment was conducted at ICAR Research Complex of Eastern Region Patna during 2008-09 to 2010-11 to ascertain the role of sulphur and zinc in rice-lentil cropping system. Four levels of sulphur and zinc (Sixteen treatments combination) were tested in randomized block design replicated thrice. Both the nutrients were applied to rice and residual response was ascertained to rice and lentil in sequence. Least (5.5%) disease index was recorded in the plots received residual sulphur 40 kg and Zn 5 kg per ha. Whereas highest disease index (15.5%) was recorded in the plots having no residual sulphur and zinc. Maximum lentil seed yield (1147 kg ha-1) was recorded with 30 kg residual sulphur whereas minimum seed yield (1015 kg ha-1) was noticed with no application of sulphur in the previous crop in cropping system. Application of 40 kg sulphur in combination with 6 kg zinc to the previous rice crop is most ideal; not only for rice-lentil system productivity, but it also provide better agronomical option to manage powdery mildew disease in lentil. Efficient management of these nutrients to manage disease and to boost crop resistance is crucial as higher sulphur and Zn rates not only improve powdery mildew management of lentil but its production and productivity, which proves the roles of sulphur and Zn in nutrient and disease interactions as well.
to cite this article:
Anil Kumar Singh, B.P. Bhatt, K.M. Singh, Abhay Kumar, Manibhushan , Ujjawal Kumar, Naresh Chandra and R.C. Bharati, 2013. Dynamics of Powdery Mildew (Erysiphe trifolii) Disease of Lentil Influenced by Sulphur and Zinc Nutrition. Plant Pathology Journal, 12: 71-77.
Received: December 26, 2012;
Accepted: March 08, 2013;
Published: June 24, 2013
Pulses/grain legumes are major crops are sources of vegetable protein for human
and proves an excellent source of feed and forage for livestock hence, it is
vital for life of human kind. Lentil is not an exception and is richest source
of protein and carbohydrate among edible pulses and the second most important
legume crops of Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in India (Singh
et al., 2011). Rice-lentil is very important cropping system and
second after rice-wheat system in the Indo-Gangetic Plain. It has major contribution
to human and animal nutrition as components of indigenous cropping systems and
as restorers of soil fertility (Ali et al., 2012;
Reddy, 2009; Ramakrishna et al.,
2000). Use of minerals especially sulphur in plant disease management is
doubtlessly the older one. The use of elemental sulphur as dust and wettable
power are common. There is a need to ascertain and promote the uses of types
of fertilizers required to correct the deficiency of all these nutrients especially
zinc and sulphur. Zn deficiency is the most widespread micronutrient disorder
in lowland rice and application of Zn along with NPK fertilizer increases the
grain yield significantly in most cases (Singh and Singh,
2008). Lentil productivity is limited by several biophysical constraints.
It experiences several biotic stresses which limit yield considerably, including
Ascochyta blight (caused by Ascochyta lentis, Vassiljevki), anthracnose
(Colletotrichum truncatum), Botrytis gray mold (caused by Botrytis
cinerea Pers. ex. Fr.), Fusarium root rot (caused by several Fusarium
spp.) and Rhizoctonia root rot (caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kühn)
(Banniza et al., 2004; Bayaa
and Erskine, 1998; Morrall et al., 1972;
Powdery mildew of lentil has been reported from various parts of the world
including South Asia, the Middle East, the Mediterranean, East Africa, Eastern
Europe, the former USSR, South America and more sporadically, from North America
(Agrawal and Prasad, 1997). Although usually a minor
disease, it can be severe on certain lentil cultivars and in some parts of the
world, particularly in India during January and February (Anonymous,
2002; Agrawal and Prasad, 1997).
It is being continuously noticed that powdery mildew disease is an obnoxious
disease problem and posing a great threat for lentil production. It is now increasingly
realised that powdery mildew disease is going to major limiting factor for diminishing
area and production of lentil largely due to sever attack of powdery mildew
(Chitale et al., 1981; Beniwal
et al., 1993). Powdery mildew (Erysiphe trifolii) is an important
foliar fungal disease of lentil crop affect all the above ground part of the
plant including leaves, stems and pods. The infected leaves are dropped down,
leaving only terminal leaves on the stems and thereby severely affecting the
assimilation of photosynthates which leads to reduction in crop yield and quality
of seed. It is worldwide distributed pathogen of legumes including pea and lentil
(Attanayake et al., 2009).
At the start of disease, tiny spots of a fine powdery and white growth containing
conidia and mycelium are appears. These small spots spread rapidly and cover
the whole surface of leaves, stems and pods in a very quick time (Bayaa
and Erskine, 1998; Beniwal et al., 1993;
Pande et al., 2008; Taylor
et al., 2007). Later on, the leaflets become dry and curled and under
sever attack leaves are bound to shed prematurely. This condition not only causes
significant decrease in seed harvest but its seed quality also. Further, seeds
harvested from infected plants/field remain unable to attend its normal size
and remain small and shrivelled (Beniwal et al.,
1993; Kaiser et al., 2000; Pande
et al., 2008). Recent indication demonstrated that E. trifolii
also infects lentil. The anamorph stage is by and large responsible for spread
of the disease; however, Chitale et al. (1981)
reported that the teleomorph stage occurs especially in India and Sudan.
Prevailing atmospheric/weather condition is very much important and plays a
great role in its initiation and rapid spreads. Powdery mildew fungi produce
airborne spores and infect plants when temperatures are moderate It prefers
high humidity; above 50% to thrive. Slightly high temperatures and modest relative
humidity do favour the disease development (Pande et al.,
2008; Saxena and Khare, 1998; Wicks
et al., 2007).
Powdery mildew causing fungal (Erysiphe trifolii) infection occurs as
its spores germinate on plant surfaces. Fungus should pierce the surface (epidermal)
cell wall. The power and firmness of the cell walls and intercellular spaces
is the first line of defence of plant to deny the entry of pathogen into plant
system (Bayaa and Erskine, 1998; Kaiser
et al., 2000; Pande et al., 2008).
Mineral nutrients take foremost responsibility to develop strong cell walls
and other tissue to upscale plants capability to these foreigner objects (Datnoff
et al., 2006; Bayaa and Erskine, 1998). Spores
germination is encouraged by compounds ooze out from the plants. The amount
and composition of these plant exudates is regulated by the nourishment of the
plant. Deficiency of main nutrients diminishes the quantity and superiority
of the plants natural antifungal compounds at the site of infection (Graham
and Webb, 1991). When plants have low levels of S and Zn nutrients, these
exudates will contain higher amounts of compounds such as sugars and amino acids
that promote the establishment of the fungus.
Tikoo et al. (2005), reported that now powdery
mildew resistant lentil genotypes are available and one can chose from them.
Since seed replacement rate is very limited in this part of globe, sustainable
agronomic management practice could be one of the best alternatives for successful
lentil production (Singh et al., 2011).
Sulphur containing fungicides are recommended as a foliar spray. Beniwal
et al. (1993) reported that chemicals viz., benomyl, tridemorph,
aqueous sulfur, karathane (dinocap), calixin or sulfex (ferrous bisulfide) can
be used as safe fungicides, however some insecticides (Quinalphos, Tnazophos,
Phoxim) can also be used as alternative to above and should be applied on foliage
at 10-15 days interval, will proves effective in suppressing powdery mildew
growth in lentil crop.
As it is well advocated that sulphur reduced pathogen virulence or survival
by changing the abiotic environment well as by modification in the biological
environment, whereas sulphur compound present in root exudates and metabolites
from residue decomposition affect pathogen virulence, plant resistance and biological
control. Sulphur can also be utilizes to balance other nutrients and make the
circumstances less encouraging for the disease causing pathogen (Huber,
Information pertaining to the exact association of zinc nutrition with powdery
mildew pathogen is diverse. Zinc is unswervingly lethal to many disease causing
agents/organisms. However, at the same time modest sources put forward that
there is no understandable evidence to explain how Zn suppresses diseases. However
the fact is that zinc is an active constituent in some fungicides. It is confirmation
that it is straight deadly to several pathogens (Graham and
Webb, 1991). Deficiency of zinc nutrition in the soil laid foundation for
the outflow of sugars on the leaves surface leads to amplify the severity of
powdery mildew infections (Huber and Graham, 1999). However,
Zinc applications can reduce the severity of such pathogens, because it is (Zn)
is essential to the integrity and stability of plant membranes and it is thought
to help prevent leakage of essential elements or compounds from
plant cells (Datnoff et al., 2006; Huber
and Graham, 1999).
Though the interaction of mineral nutrition with disease are by and large based
on events which are relatively closely associated with each other, these are
(i) Effects of nutrition on incidence or severity of a particular diseases (ii)
Differences in the mineral concentrations in healthy plants as compared to diseased
plants (iii) Circumstances influence the accessibility of a particular mineral
nutrient with particular disease. Above mentioned events can normally be coexisting
for a specific mineral nutrient and disease interface. However, outcome of these
interactions may differ based on agroclimatic situation, growth, stage of plant
and biological activity (Huber and Haneklaus, 2007).
Limited information is available on the influence of sulphur and zinc nutrition
on dynamics of powdery mildew (Erysiphe trifolii) disease of lentil.
However emphasis has been put forth for efficient and sustainable management
of powdery mildew of lentil with the inclusion of agronomic, cultural, nutritional
and chemical as well keeping in the view of the importance of powdery mildew
disease in lentil crop production in the Indo-Gangetic plains, the role of sulphur
and zinc minerals was also ascertain to know the magnitude of powdery mildew
disease management if any.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A field experiment was conducted at ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region
Patna during 2008-09 to 2010-11 in Randomized Block Design (RBD) replicated
thrice to evolve suitable nutrient management strategy with respect to one secondary
nutrient (sulphur) and one micro nutrient (zinc) under rice - lentil cropping
system for Indo- Gangetic plains of Bihar (India).
Experimental sits: The texture of soil of experimental field was silty
clay loam with mean pH value of 6.8, organic carbon 0.68%, with available nitrogen
244.7 kg ha-1, available phosphorus 28.6 kg ha-1, available
potash 185.8 kg ha-1, sulphur 8.3 kg ha-1 and zinc 0.8
kg ha-1. The plot size was 10.0x5.0 m. was kept under study. The
surface soil up to 30 cm depth were sampled and collected from the experimental
field, air dried, mixed and passed through 2 mm sieves and analyzed for various
physical and chemical prosperities. The chemical and physical characteristic
of soil at experimental sites is listed in Table 1.
Treatments combination of sulphur and zinc: Four level of sulphur S1(0
kg), S2(20 kg), S3(30 kg), S4(40 kg) and four
level zinc Zn1(0 kg), Zn2(4 kg), Zn3(5 kg),
Zn4(6 kg) were applied in combination to rice crop and their residual
effect on lentil was investigated.
Crop management: Based on actual situation under rice -lentil cropping
system, lentil crop was sown just after harvest of preceding rice. Long duration
genotype Swarna Mansoori MTU-7029
was chosen for rice crop and transplanted on 15th July during rainy seasons
and harvested during last week of November for both years. Seedbed with medium
tilth was prepared every year lentil sowing. Sowing of lentil was performed
on 10th of December during both occasions. Seeds were sown at 3 cm depth at
30 cm row distance. Nutrients particularly, nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium
sulphur and zinc were applied as basal dose. Other agronomic management practice
was as per recommended practices and was kept similar for all the treatments.
One hand weeding after three weeks of sowing was performed to maintain optimum
plant population. Two watering was done at pre flowering stage and post podding
stage. Plant protection measures were taken care to manage the biotic stress
Biometrical observation and data recording: Biometrical data were recorded
for plant height (cm), productive branch/plant, pod/plant, pod length (cm),
grains/pod, seed yield (g plant-1), seed yield (kg ha-1),
1000 seed weight (g) Seed yield (kg ha-1) were estimated based on
seed weight per plot adjusted to 12% moisture.
Disease assessment: Till plants were carefully examined and powdery
mildew disease severity was recorded from upper, middle and lower leaves on
the basis of leaf area covered by the infection. In each plot ten plants were
randomly selected and disease intensity was rated by following 0-5 scale (Mayee
and Datar, 1986; Townsend and Heuberger, 1943)
with slight modifications which has been described here (Table
The disease intensity in each plot was calculated by the formula as employed
by Wheeler (1969):
|| Soil characteristic of experimental site
|| Disease rating scale
Statistical analysis: Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed
for each trait for all three seasons and the combined (Pooled) analysis over
seasons after testing error variance homogeneity was carried out according to
the procedure Gomez and Gomez (1984), using the MSTATC
version 2.1 (Michigan State University, USA) statistical package design. Significant
differences between the treatments were compared with the critical difference
at (±5%) probability by LSD.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Lentil plays a vital role in vegetarian diet to supplement the protein and
second important legume crops in Indo-Gangetic Plains mainly grown under unfavourable
conditions. It is being attacked by several disease and pests including powdery
mildew. During experimentation, residual impacts of sulphur and zinc which was
directly applied to rice were observed on the dynamics of powdery mildew disease
(Graham and Webb, 1991; Datnoff et
al., 2006; Huber and Graham, 1999; Vishwa
et al., 2004). Disease scoring was carried out during all the three
years and for sake of convenient pooled data were performed and presented in
table farm, discussed under suitable subheads as under. Integration of all possible
mechanism to manage powdery mildew of lentil is also advocated by several workers
(Muehlbauer et al., 1995; Singh
et al., 2011; Vishwa et al., 2004).
Effects of sulphur and zinc on powdery mildew of lentil: Influence of
residual sulphur and zinc on the dynamic (extent and pattern) of powdery mildew
of lentil was recorded and presented in Table 3 and Fig.
1. Results indicated that residual sulphur and zinc influence disease severity
individually as well as in combination both. Individually in case of sulphur
it was observed that lowest (7.5%) and highest (12.3%) incidence of powdery
mildew was recorded with application of S4(40 kg) and S1(0
kg) respectively (Huber, 2001; Wicks
et al., 2007). Similar results were also obtained while working on
powdery mildew management on various crops by Beniwal
et al. (1993), Huber (1991), Saxena
and Khare (1998), Singh et al. (2011) and
Wicks et al. (2007).
||Effect of sulphur and zinc nutrition on Powdery mildew disease
index (%) in lentil
||Effect of sulphur and zinc nutrition on powdery mildew disease
index (%) in lentil
Similarly in case of residual zinc nutrition it was noticed that minimum (8.1%)
and maximum (11.9%) incidence was recorded with the application of Zn4
(6 kg) and Zn1 (0 kg), respectively (Graham and
Webb, 1991; Singh et al., 2011; Datnoff
et al., 2006; Vishwa et al., 2004).
Interaction effect of both the nutrient was found effective in the reduction
of powdery mildew disease severity significantly. Corresponding least (5.5%)
and most (15.5%) incidence was recorded in the plots having residual sulphur
(40 kg) and zinc (6 kg) and (0 kg) and zinc (0 kg) respectively (Datnoff
et al., 2006; Graham and Webb, 1991; Huber
and Haneklaus, 2007).
Effects of sulphur and zinc on lentil performance: Perusal of data presented
in Table 4 revealed that there is significant residual response
of both nutrients (S and Zn) in terms of growth, development yield and yield
attributes of lentil crop. It was recorded that the plant height of lentil was
significantly influenced by different levels of residual S and Zn. At harvest
maximum plant height (42.2 cm) and corresponding minimum (32.8 cm) was recorded
with of 0 kg and 40 kg residual sulphur (Table 4). Number
of productive branches per plant is one of the primary yield contributing traits
of lentil crop. Results revealed that productive branches also influenced positively
with both the tested nutrients (Beniwal et al., 1993;
Singh and Singh, 2008; Singh et
al., 2011; Tikoo et al., 2005). Minimum
(13.9 Nos.) productive branches per plant have been recorded in the plots with
no application of zinc in previous rice crop whereas maximum (16.3) was obtained
in case of 30 kg residual sulphur.
|| Effect of sulphur and zinc nutrition on growth, yield attributes
and yield of lentil during (pooled of three years)
||Effect of sulphur and zinc application on seed yield (kg ha-1)
yield of lentil
Similarly, maximum (63.8) pod/plant was recorded in plots fertilized with 40
kg residual sulphur and minimum (45.9) with no application of zinc. Total above
ground biomass was also gets influenced significantly with the residual effects
of both applied nutrient. Similar results were also obtained by other workers
on the same crop while working at their respective places (Kaiser
et al., 2000; Muehlbauer et al., 1995;
Singh and Singh, 2008).
Maximum (2942.1 kg ha-1) and minimum biomass yield (2537.5 kg ha-1)
was recorded with the plot previously fertilized with 40 kg and 0 kg sulphur
ha-1 (Table 4). Highest lentil seed yield (1147
kg ha-1) was recorded with 30 kg residual sulphur whereas lowest
yield (1015 kg ha-1) was noticed with no residual/application of
sulphur. Perusal of interaction effects of both the nutrient on lentil seed
yield (Table 5) results clearly shows that highest seed yield
(1243 kg ha-1) was recorded with combined application of 30 kg sulphur
and 6 kg zinc whereas corresponding lowest lentil seed yield (960 kg ha-1)
was recorded in control plots. 1000-Grain weight (g) was not influenced by of
the levels of treatments as it is genetic characters and in general not influenced
by management practices. Harvest Index is also not influenced by any of the
given treatment and this might be due to character, highly associated with genetic
makeup of the crop (Singh and Singh, 2008; Singh
et al., 2011; Tikoo et al., 2005).
Balanced nutrition management has an important role in determining plant resistance
or susceptibility to diseases. A severely nutrient stressed plant is often more
susceptible to disease than plant at optimum nutritions (Huber,
1980; Huber and Haneklaus, 2007; Datnoff
et al., 2006; Tikoo et al., 2005).
Micronutrients/mineral elements are directly involved in all mechanism of plant
defences such as integral component of cells, enzymes, activators or inhibitors
and regulators of metabolism. The intricate relationship between nutritional
status of plant and pathogens is dynamic and its understanding provides a basis
for reducing severity of most diseases in intense as well as integrated crop
production systems. Hence, it was concluded that application of sulphur and
zinc alone as well as in combination improves lentil productivity and also minimized
the powdery mildew incidence in lentil. Soil fertility status was also improved
due to balanced nutrition. Under Indo-Gangetic condition of Bihar, combined
application of 40 kg sulphur and 6 kg zinc is most ideal, not only for rice-lentil
cropping system, but it provide better agronomical option to manage powdery
mildew incidence in lentil also (Beniwal et al., 1993;
Huber, 1980; Huber and Haneklaus,
2007; Singh and Singh, 2008; Singh
et al., 2011; Tikoo et al., 2005).
It is now clear that plant nutrition sulphur and zinc has a crucial effect
on powdery mildew disease management of lentil. The twofold remuneration of
fertiliser applications with regards to improvement in production as well as
improved disease resistance has been being realized. It appears that the greater
reward than before can be achieved through foliar feeding due to more efficient
and direct contact to the sheet of reaction.
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