Use of Botanical Products for Breakdown the Parasitize of New Recorded Penicillium funiculosum of Aonla
Rai Ajay Kumar
The present investigation on was undertaken in the Department
of Plant Pathology, B.A. College of Agriculture, A.A.U., Anand. The Penicillium
funiculosum rot of aonla was found a new record in Gujarat and it was identified
by Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute,
New Delhi (ITCC No.: 7046.08). Bio-efficacy of nine phytoextracts at 10% were
tested against the mycelial growth and sporulation of Penicillium funiculosum
in vitro, among them significantly lowest mycelial growth of P. funiculosum
was recorded in neem leaf extract (7.75 mm) showing 89.49% growth inhibition.
Further it was also proved most effective in reducing the Penicillium rot severity
both in pre- (20.44%) and post-inoculation (20.87%) treatments at 7 day after
inoculation, respectively. The next best treatment in tested phytoextracts tulsi
and garlic were found both in in vitro and in vivo condition.
Received: March 23, 2013;
Accepted: April 27, 2013;
Published: June 24, 2013
The Aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Syn. Phyllanthus emblica
L.) is an important arid fruit crop in India. The area under aonla cultivation
in India is about 50,000 hectares with an annual production 2,00,000 metric
tonnes (Goyal et al., 2008). In Gujarat state
has 12,000 hectares area under aonla cultivation with an annual production of
one lakh MT (Shah et al., 2006). In India, nearly
20-25% of perishables are lost due to post harvest diseases (Sharma
and Mashkoor Alam, 1998). It is reported that around 35% of produce is lost
in storage and transits (Rawal and Saxena, 2005). In
crop protection studies, various natural plant products have been identified
and employed to control post harvest diseases of fruits.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
In vitro: Efficacy of different phytoextracts of plant species having
medicinal value were tested in vitro by Poisoned Food Technique Method
against aonla fruit rot pathogen (Nene and Thapliyal, 1979).
All the phytoextracts were tested at 10% conc. Fresh and healthy 100 g plant
parts of each species were thoroughly washed with tap water and then with sterile
distilled water. They were macerated separately in grinder mixture by adding
100 mL ethanol.
The mixture was filtered through two fold sterilized muslin cloth and the filtrate
was centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 min. and the clear supernatant extract was
collected in sterilized conical flasks. After evaporating the ethanol from extract,
the clear extract was collected and diluted with 100 mL distilled sterile water
to make volume 1:1 (w/v). This was considered as 100 per cent concentration
for the study to test the efficacy of plant extracts (Sinha
and Saxena, 1989). Each phytoextracts (10%) were mixed thoroughly in sterilized
100 mL PDA medium filled in 250 mL flask under aseptic condition. The medium
was supplemented with streptomycin sulphate @ 50 ppm to prevent bacterial contamination.
In vivo: The phytoextracts studied in vitro conditions
were tested at 10% concentration by following pre- and post-inoculation methods.
Pre-inoculation method: The healthy, semi-ripe, uniform size aonla fruits
of Gujarat Aonla-1 cultivar were surface sterilized by dipping in 0.1% HgCl2
solution for one minute followed by three washings with distilled sterile water
and inoculated separately by the stem end injury method. The spores from 7 day
old culture of fruit rot pathogen were scrapped with the sterile needle and
mixed in 200 mL distilled sterile water. The fruits were first dipped in phytoextracts
(10%) separately and then inoculated with the pathogen by keeping 12 h interval.
The fruits were injured with sterilized cork borer at stem-end and dipped in
spore suspension (106 spores mL) for 2 min and air dried for 15-20
min. The inoculated and uninoculated (dipped in distilled sterile water) fruits
were placed in sterilized polythene bags. One fruit was accommodated in one
bag. A piece of sterilized moist absorbent cotton swab was placed inside the
bag and mouth of the bag was loosely tied. The bagged fruits were incubated
at 27±1°C for 7 day.
Post-inoculation method: In post-inoculation treatment, the fruits were
first inoculated with the pathogen and then treated with the phytoextracts.
Further procedure was followed as mentioned above.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In vitro: All the phytoextracts screened were found significantly
superior in inhibiting the mycelial growth and sporulation of P. funiculosum
over control. The results presented in Table 1 revealed that
significantly highest mycelial growth inhibition was recorded in neem leaf extract
(89.49%) followed by tulsi leaf extract (87.79%) and garlic cloves extract (84.74%).
The next best treatment in order of merit were lemon grass, datura leaf, bittergourd
fruit, alovera leaf and ginger rhizome extract giving 77.28, 69.49, 63.72, 61.69
and 59.66% growth inhibition, respectively. While, ardusi leaf extract found
least effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth (39.66%). None of the phytoextracts
supported spore production of P. funiculosum.
The present findings are supported by the work carried out by Godara
and Pathak (1995). They screened five plant extracts in vitro and
reported that Ocimum sanctum leaf extract proved highly effective against
P. italicum and Botrydiplodia theobromae causing pre and post-harvest
rots of sweet oranges. Khilare and Gangawane (1997)
observed that leaf extract of Azadirachta indica (100 PGI) found most
effective against Penicillium rot of mosambi (72.4 PGI). Raju
and Naik (2006) reported that nimbicidin (2.5 and 5.0%) completely inhibited
the mycelial growth of blue mould in onion (Penicillium digitatum) followed
by garlic extract (64.19 and 67.46%).
In vivo: All the phytoextracts (10%) were found significantly
superior in reducing the Penicillium rot severity over control at 4 and
7th d after inoculation both in pre - and post - inoculation methods (Table
Pre-inoculation: The results presented in Table 2
revealed that the significantly lowest Penicillium rot severity was noted
in fruits treated with neem leaf extract (15.00 and 20.44%) at 4 and 7th day
of inoculation, respectively but it was at par with tulsi leaf extract (16.84%)
at 4th d after inoculation. The next best treatment in order of merit was tulsi
leaf extract (24.14%) at 7th day of inoculation followed by garlic cloves extract
(17.15 and 25.08%), lemon grass leaf extract (20.23 and 25.26%), ginger rhizome
extract (21.75 and 29.48%), datura leaf extract (23.37 and 28.98%), bittergourd
fruit extract (24.52 and 30.47%) and ardusi leaf extract (24.90 and 32.07%)
at 4 and 7th day after inoculation, respectively. Alovera leaf extract
proved least effective in reducing the Penicillium rot (26.00 and 31.44%).
Post-inoculation: Significantly lowest Penicillium rot severity
was recorded in fruits treated with neem leaf extract (14.71 and 20.87%) at
4 and 7th day of inoculation, respectively. The next best treatment in order
of merit was tulsi leaf extract (17.61 and 23.75%) followed by garlic cloves
extract (18.84 and 25.60%), lemon grass leaf extract (22.14 and 26.36%), ginger
rhizome extract (22.14 and 30.96%), datura leaf extract (25.08 and 30.12%),
bittergourd fruit extract (25.27 and 31.44%) and ardusi leaf extract (25.81
and 33.96%) at 4 and 7th day of inoculation, respectively.
|| Bio-efficacy of phytoextracts on the severity of Penicillium
rot of aonla
|*Values parenthesis are original value, while outside are
the arc sine transformed values
Alovera leaf extract found least effective in controlling the Penicillium
rot (26.72 and 32.02%).
The results of present investigation are in consonance with the results obtained
by Kaur and Verma (2004). They noted that neem dry
leaf extracts (5x104 μg mL-1) found most effective
in pre- (94.44%) and post-inoculation (50.00%) in controling green mould rot
(Penicillium digitatum) of kinnow fruits. Five% extract of Azadirachta
indica found better than Curcuma longa, Zingeber officinale, Cartharanthus
roseus, Ocimum basilicum and Allium sativum in controlling the Penicillium
rot of aonla both in pre and post-inoculation treatments (Meena,
2006). Singh and Sumbali (2003) noted that leaf
extract of Azadirachta indica was most effective in controlling the Penicillium
expansum infecting apple fruits.
In in vitro all nine phytoextracts screened (10%) were found significantly
superior in inhibiting the mycelial growth of P. funiculosum over control.
Lowest mycelial growth was recorded in neem leaf extracts (7.75 mm) showing
89.49 per cent growth inhibition over control. The next best treatment in order
of merit was tulsi leaf extract (87.79 PGI). While, ardusi leaf extract found
least effective in inhibiting the mycelial growth (39.66%).
Neem leaf extract (10%) proved highly effective in reducing the Penicillium
rot severity (20.44 and 20.87%) followed by tulsi leaf extract (24.14 and 23.75%)
both in pre- and post-inoculation at 7th day of inoculation, respectively. Alovera
leaf extract found least effective in controlling the Penicillium rot.
Authors are grateful to the Professor and Head, Department of Plant Pathology
and Principal, B.A. College of Agriculture, Anand Agricultural University, Anand
(Gujarat) for providing necessary facilities.
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