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Verticillium Wilt Tolerance in Some Cotton Genotypes



F. Azaddisfani and M.R. Zangi
 
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ABSTRACT

For evaluation yield and Verticillium resistance in cotton, 21 genotypes were screened as Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4 replications. Disease percent, index and severity were determinated after harvesting stage. Results showed that Sahel and smooth leaf had the most disease percent (89.56 and 92.56%, respectively) and these genotypes had the greatest infected plant. On the other hand, Sahel had the highest severity and Q29 cultivar had the lowest disease severity among test genotypes. Sahel, Smooth leaf and Gokroba had the most disease index and Q29 and Termez14 had the least disease index.

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  How to cite this article:

F. Azaddisfani and M.R. Zangi, 2007. Verticillium Wilt Tolerance in Some Cotton Genotypes. Plant Pathology Journal, 6: 206-209.

DOI: 10.3923/ppj.2007.206.209

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ppj.2007.206.209

INTRODUCTION

Verticillium wilt is a serious disease of cotton in Iran. Control measures include cultural practices and the cultivation of regionally adapted tolerant cultivar (Moshirabadi, 1998). High tannin content is reported to be associated with Verticillium wilt resistance (Singh, 1998) The original selection for Verticillium resistance was made before 1917 (Hillocks, 1992). Cultivars that have moderate to high levels of resistance to Fusarium wilt and low to moderate levels of resistance to Verticillium wilt include Deltapine 20, Deltapine 50, DES199, Germain’s GC-510, Stoneville 112 and Stoneville 506. In the former soviet Union, about 200 cultivars have wilt resistance derived from a single wild strain of Gossypium hirsutum sp. mexicanum var. nerveosum. The first and most popular of these were the Tashkent cultivars, such as Tashkent 1, Tashkent 2, etc. (Kravtsova, 1990).

Shaanxi 1155 and Liaomiao T were developed for resistance to both Fusarium and Verticillium wilts in China (Li and Shen, 1987).

No completely resistant forms were discovered in wild cotton species, but the species studied differed in tolerance. It was found that G. arboreum and G. herbaceum could serve as differentiators of the two races of V. dahliae (Alikhodzhaeva et al., 1980).

Forms highly resistant to physiological race 1 included G. hirsutum subsp. m exicanum var. nervosum and G. hirsutum subsp. punctatum. G. tricuspidatum subsp. purpurascens 02800 showed good tolerance to races 1 and 2. Forms of G. barbadense tolerant to several physiological races included 6465V, 9078I and 9041I. Several forms of G. arboreum and G. herbaceum were found to carry genes for resistance to race 2, which infects varieties of the Tashkent type. New physiological races have been found in the USSR, particulary the virulent races 3 and 4 (Kas Yanenko et al., 1978).

Resistance to Verticillium dahliae was studied in 135 forms of G. arboreum and G. herbaceum in field and pot experiments. Both species proved resistant to race 2, which affects G. hirsutum Tashkent 1 (Alyamov and Kas Yanenko, 1980).

In has been reported that, disease damage are high in north of Iran, therefore has a resistance cultivars as a practical disease management strategy. In view of this, present studies were designed to determine resistance cultivars and climate (year) effects on Verticillum wilt.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Experiment was carried out in Karkandeh cotton research station (North of Iran) in 2004 and 2005. Station soil was naturally infested with Verticillium wilt. 21 genotypes of tetraploid cotton genotypes (G. hirsutum and G. barbadense) were evaluated for resistance to Verticillium wilt. The experimental traits were Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) With 4 replications. Every plot was fours rows, 6 m long with 80 cm between rows. Genotypes included to: Sahel, Siokra, Varamin, Q26, Q27, Q29, Bakhtegan, Red leaf okra, B-557, Sindos, 818-312, Delta pine 25, Termez14, Pak, Glandlees Stonevill, Smooth leaf, Deformeh leaf, Giza, Barbadence 5539, Gokroba and 43259.

Disease percent, index and severity determined in harvesting stage. Disease Severity (DS) and index (DI) calculated with formula (Dervis and Bicici, 2005).


Where A, B, C, D, E and M refer, respectively
A = plant No. with degree 0,
B = plant No. with degree 1,
C = plant No. with degree 2,
D = plant No. with degree 3,
E = plant No. with degree 4,
M = total plant No.

Every plant was vertically divided to 4 sections and Verticillum wilt degrees of every plant were assessed from 0 to 4 using the following degree:

0 = no vascular discolored
1 = 1-25 % of vascular tissue discolored (First section of stem plant top)
2 = 26-50% of vascular tissue discolored (First and second section of stem plant top)
3 = 51-75% of vascular tissue discolored (First, second and third section of stem plant top)
4 = 76-100% of vascular tissue discolored (Total of plant died)
DI = Disease percent x Disease severity

Data were analyzed by using of the statistical method adapted by Gomez and Gomez (Gomez and Gomes, 1984). Means were separated by Duncan’s Multiple range test (DMRT) (α = 0.05) with MSTATC computer program’s.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Analysis of variance was showed that disease percent was significantly different in 2004 and 2005. Results were demonstrate climate changed Verticillium percent and infected plant numbers were increased by favorable weather conditions. Disease severity was non significant in 2 years of experiment. Climate did not change Verticillium wilt severity (Table 1). Year x genotypes interaction was not significant for Verticillium wilt percent. All genotypes were showed reaction to year (climate) and tolerant genotypes were infected in favorite year. Year x genotypes effect was significant for Verticillium severity at α = 0.01. Genotypes were infested with Verticillium but wilt disease severity of susceptible cultivars were increased (Table 1).

Results showed that Sahel and smooth leaf had the most disease percent (89.56 and 92.56%, respectively) and these genotypes had the greatest infected plant. The otherwise, Q29 (48.02%) had the least disease percent and was the least infected plants and 51.98% of plants were not infected in Q29 cultivar (Table 2). Sahel had the highest disease severity. The most of plants were infected to degree 3 and 4. Vascular penetration of Verticillium was increased in Sahel genotype. Probably, Verticillium fungi decreased seed cotton production (yield) (Table 2). Cultivars with moderate to high levels of resistance to Verticillium wilt have also been developed in several other countries: Laoyang 5, 8004, 8010 and Zhong Mien 12 in China (Shen, 1985); Sahel in Iran (Moshiabadi, 1981); and Albar G501 in Zimbawe (Hillocks, 1991).

Q29 had the lowest disease severity (0.83). Penetration Verticillium fungi to vascular was least and the most of plants had disease degree 1 and 2. Seedling of Verticillium tolerant cotton cultivar Acala 4852 were subjected to chilling at 10°C. Radicle exudates were taken after 2-5 days. Disease severity increased significantly with increase of amino acids and sugars exudation, while top dry weight deceased also significantly (Shao and Christiansen, 1982).

Sahel, Smooth leaf and Gokroba had the most disease index (201.4, 196.8 and 187.6, respectively) and were the most susceptible to wilt disease. Q29 and Termez 14 had the least disease index (50.5 and 57.2, respectively). Q29 and Termez 14 were G. barbadence. These genotypes were tolerance to Verticillium disease (Table 2). Several cultivars released in the USA have high levels of resistance to Verticillium wilt. These include Acala Prema, Acala Royal, Acala Maxxa, Acala 1517-91, Paymaster 147, Paymaster 303, Paymaster 404 and Delcot 344. Moderate to high levels of resistance to both Fusarium and Verticillium wilt occur in Acala Sj5, Deltapine, Acala 90 and Delcot 344 (4). The New Mexico cotton breeding program was established in 1926 and has been led by five generations of breeders and geneticists.


Table 1: Analysis of variance on Verticillium percent, severity, index and seed cotton (yield) in 2004 and 2005
*, ** and Ns were significant in α = 0.05 and significant in α = 0.01 and non significant, respectively

Table 2: Data means of Verticillium wilt and seed cotton separated by DMRT
Within columns, numbers followed by the same letter(s) are non significantly different

The program has released mor than 30 Acala 1517 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) cultivars and numerous germplasm lines known for high fiber quality and Verticillium wilt (caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb.) (Zhang et al., 2005).

The tolerant cultivar Acala SJC-1 was crossed to more susceptible parents, breeding line S5971 and cultivars Acala 4-42 and Deltapine 70. Seven generations were evaluated for each crosses: the two parents (P1 and P2), F1, F2, F3 and reciprocal backcrosses (B1 and B2). The genetic control of tolerance in these crosses appears to involve more than on gene, based on an unsatisfactory fit to expected phenotypic distributions for the generations under a single-locus model. An analysis of generation means indicated that pooled additive and pooled dominance effects over loci were adequate to explain the variation among generations for crosses of SJC-1xS5971 and SJC-1xDPL70. Tolerance in these crosses appeared to be controlled by recessive factors. For the SJC-1x4-42 cross, an adequate fit to a digenetic epistatic model was not possible and none of the genetic parameters except the F2 mean were significant (Devey and Roose, 1987).

B-557, Sindos and Pak (4991, 5437 and 5117 kg ha-1 respectively) were recorded the highest yield. Q26, Q27 and Q29 had the least yield too. A brief account is given of the genetics of resistance in various Gossypium species. The selection MCUWT, with tolerance to 10% wilt, has been selected from the highly productive but susceptible variety MCU (Srinivasan et al., 1981).

REFERENCES
1:  Alikhodzhaeva, S.S., K.H. Saidaliev, V.T. Rykhsikhodzhaevt and T. Munasov, 1980. Resistance of wild cotton species of the different races of the fungus Verticillium. Turkish VNII-Selecktsii-I-Semenovod. Khlopchatnika, No, 18: 3-8.

2:  Alyamov, A. and A.G. Kas Yanenko, 1980. Selection for wilt resistance and other useful characrers in forms of Afroasian cotton species. Ahboroti Akademijai Fanhoi Rss Tocikiston su Bui Fanhoi Biological, No. 3, pp: 104-108.

3:  Dervis, S. and M. Bicici, 2005. Distribution of verticillium wilt in cotton areas of Southern Turkey. Plant Pathol. J., 4: 126-129.
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4:  Devey, M.E. and M.L. Roose, 1987. Genetic analysis of Verticillium wilt tolerance in cotton using pedigree data from three crosses. TAG Theoret. Applied Genet., 74: 162-167.
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5:  Gomez, K.A. and A.A. Gomes, 1984. Statistical Procedures for Agriculture Research. 2nd Edn., John Wiley and Sons, New York, pp: 113-129.

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13:  Shao, F.M. and M.N. Christiansen, 1982. Cotton seedling radicle exudates in relation to susceptibility to Verticillium wilt and Rhizoctonia root rot. Phytopathog. Zeitschrift, 105: 351-359.
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