Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Effect of Cooking Methods on the Nutrient, Phytochemical and Anti-Nutrient Composition of Raw Bread Fruit (Artocarpus communis) Pulp

Gloria I. Davidson and Obioma B. Mbah
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

The study evaluated the chemical composition of raw breadfruit (Artocarpus communis) pulp as affected by boiling, steaming and roasting. Fresh ripe fruits were harvested, prepared and subjected to standard chemical analysis for nutrients, anti-nutrients and phytochemicals. Data was analyzed using means and standard deviation while Duncan’s Studentized New Multiple Range Test was used to separate the means. Cooking losses were observed except for moisture that increased from 57.34% in the raw sample to 62.42 and 60.62% in the boiled and steamed samples, respectively, fibre increased from 0.41% in the raw to 0.66% in the roasted sample, carbohydrate increased from 38.32% in the raw sample to 53.93% in the roasted sample. All the vitamins and phytochemicals analysed were negatively affected by cooking except for flavonoids. Mineral losses were also observed in the boiled, steamed and roasted samples except for zinc. The three cooking methods reduced the anti-nutrients concentration of the fruit with boiling as the most effective method. Based on the result, steaming of raw bread fruit pulp should be encouraged over the traditional cooking method (boiling) for better nutrient retention.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Gloria I. Davidson and Obioma B. Mbah, 2016. Effect of Cooking Methods on the Nutrient, Phytochemical and Anti-Nutrient Composition of Raw Bread Fruit (Artocarpus communis) Pulp. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 15: 99-103.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2016.99.103



1:  AOAC., 1989. Association of Official Analysis of Food. 7th Edn., AOAC, Washington, DC., USA

2:  Elemo, B.O., G.N. Elemo, O.O. Oladimeji and Y.O. Komolafe, 2002. Studies on the composition of some nutrients and anti nutrients of sheanut (Butyrospernum parkii). Niger. Food J., 20: 69-73.

3:  AOAC., 1995. Association of Official Analysis of Food. 7th Edn., AOAC, Washington, DC., USA

4:  FAO., 2009. Yield per hectare of world maize crops. Food and Agriculture Organization of the Nations, Rome, Italy.

5:  AOAC., 2000. Official Method of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Washington, DC., USA

6:  FAO., 2009. Yield per hectare of world wheat crops. Food and Agriculture Organization of the Nations, Rome, Italy.

7:  Abdullahi, S.A. and G.M. Abdullahi, 2005. Effect of boiling on the proximate, anti-nutrients and amino acid composition of raw Delonix regia seeds. Niger. Food J., 23: 128-132.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Harborne, J.B., 1984. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 2nd Edn., Chapman and Hall Ltd., London, UK., ISBN-13: 9780412255502, pp: 149-188

9:  Adekunle, V.A.J. and O.V. Ogerinde, 2004. Food Potentials of some indigenous wild fruit in lowland rainforests ecosystem of South West Nigeria. J. Food Technol., 2: 125-130.
Direct Link  |  

10:  Ikya, J.K., D.I. Gernah, H.E. Ojobo and O.K. Oni, 2013. Effect of cooking temperature on some quality characteristics of soy milk. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol., 5: 543-546.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Anhwange, B.A., V.O. Ajibola and S.J. Oniye, 2004. Chemical studies of the seeds of Moringa oleifera (Lam) and Detarium microcarpum (Guill and Sperr). J. Biol. Sci., 4: 711-715.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Jones, A.M.P., D. Ragone, N.G. Tavana, D.W. Bernotas and S.J. Murch, 2011. Beyond the bounty: Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) for food security and novel foods in the 21st century. Ethnobotany Res. Applic., 9: 129-149.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Barakat, M.Z., S.K. Shehab, N. Darwish and E. El-Zoheiry, 1973. A new titrimetric method for the determination of vitamin C. Anal. Biochem., 53: 245-251.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Lopez, A., H.L. Williams and F.W. Cooler, 1980. Essential elements in fresh and in canned sweet potatoes. J. Food Sci., 45: 675-678.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Baumer, M., 1995. Food producing trees and shrubs of West Africa. Serie-Etudes-et-Recherches, Senegal, pp: 168-260.

16:  Okorie, S.U., 2010. Chemical composition of Artocarpus communis (Breadfruit) seed flour as affected by processing (boiling and roasting). Pak. J. Nutr., 9: 419-421.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Bohm, B.A. and M.R. Koupai-Abyazani, 1994. Flavonoids and condensed tannins from leaves of Hawaiian Vaccinium reticulatum and V. calycinum (Ericaceae). Pac. Sci., 48: 458-463.
Direct Link  |  

18:  Brown, K.M. and J.R. Arthur, 2001. Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: A review. Public Health Nutr., 4: 593-599.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

19:  Okwu, D.E. and M.E. Okwu, 2004. Chemical composition of Spondias mombin linn plant parts. J. Sustain. Agric. Environ., 6: 140-147.

20:  Calpe, C., 2007. Review of the rice market situation in 2007. International Rice Commission Newsletter, pp: 1-24.

21:  Oladunjoye, I.O. and O.O. Ojebiyi, 2012. Nutritional value of differently processed breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis Forsberg) meal for grower rabbits. Asian J. Anim. Sci., 6: 220-229.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  FAO., 2009. 1.02 billion people hungry: One sixth of humanity undernourished-more than ever before. Food and Agriculture Organization of the Nations, Rome, Italy.

23:  Onwuka, G.I., 2005. Food Analysis and Instrumentation Theory and Practice. Napthali Prints, Lagos, Nigeria, pp: 142-143

24:  Pearson, D., 1976. The Chemical Analysis of Foods. 7th Edn., Churchill Livingstone, London, UK

25:  Edijale, J.K., 1980. Effects of processing on the thiamine, riboflavin and protein contents of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata walp), II: Okali (Potash) treatments. Food Technol. J., 15: 455-455.

26:  Pearson, D., 2000. The Chemical Analysis of Foods. Churchill Livingstone, London, UK

27:  Rosatio, R. and M.S. Flores, 1981. Hard to phenomenon in legume foods. Rev. Int., 8: 191-201.

28:  FAO., 2008. The State of Food Insecurity in the World 2008: High Food Prices and Food Security-Threats and Opportunities. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy, ISBN-13: 9789251060490, Pages: 56

29:  Sauerborn, J., 2002. Site productivity, the key to crop productivity. J. Agron. Crop Sci., 188: 363-367.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

30:  Van Buren, J.P. and W.B. Robinson, 1969. Formation of complexes between protein and tannic acid. J. Agric. Food Chem., 1: 772-777.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

31:  World Bank, 2007. World development report 2008: Agriculture for development. World Bank, Washington, DC., USA., October 19, 2007.

32:  Van Vynck, V. and D. Media, 1995. Cooking and vitamin and mineral loss.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved