Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Antihyperglycemic Effect and Antioxidants Properties of Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) Cereal and Anthocyanin Extract on Health and Histopathology of Hyperglycemic Rats

Oki Krisbianto, Mary Astuti and Yustinus Marsono
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) is rich in anthocyanin hence it could be used as functional food such as cereal for hyperglycemic patient. Black rice cereal supplemented with black soybean (Glycine max L. Merr) (RSC) was prepared as isocaloric feed for three groups of hyperglycemic rats. The first group (F0) was treated only with RSC, while the other two also receive 40 ppm (F4) and 80 ppm (F8) black rice bran anthocyanin extract (BRE). Non- hyperglycemic and hyperglycemic rats which were fed with standard feed were used as control (C) and hyperglycemic group (H) respectively. After 6 weeks experiments, blood glucose level, insulin resistance and MDA value were decreased in treatment groups, which were more significant in F4 and F8 than F0, while FRAP was increased. RSC and BRE alleviated inflammatory and steatosis in pancreas, liver and kidney as shown by the tissue preparation with Hematoxylin and Eosin (H &E) staining.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Oki Krisbianto, Mary Astuti and Yustinus Marsono, 2016. Antihyperglycemic Effect and Antioxidants Properties of Black Rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) Cereal and Anthocyanin Extract on Health and Histopathology of Hyperglycemic Rats. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 15: 702-707.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2016.702.707



1:  Abbasi, F., B.W. Brown Jr, C. Lamendola, T. McLaughlin and G.M. Reaven, 2002. Relationship between obesity, insulin resistance and coronary heart disease risk. J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 40: 937-943.
PubMed  |  

2:  Aboonabi, A., A. Rahmat and F. Othman, 2014. Antioxidant effect of pomegranate against streptozotocin-nicotinamide generated oxidative stress induced diabetic rats. Toxicol. Rep., 1: 915-922.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Asgary, S., M. Rafieian-Kopaei, F. Shamsi, S. Najafi and A. Sahebkar, 2014. Biochemical and histopathological study of the anti-hyperglycemic and anti-hyperlipidemic effects of cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. J. Complement. Integr. Med., 11: 63-69.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

4:  Benzie, I.F.F. and J.J. Strain, 1996. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: The FRAP assay. Anal. Biochem., 239: 70-76.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Blaton, V., 2002. Oxidative stress in diabetics. Electron. J. IFCC, Vol. 13.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Castaneda-Ovando, A., M. de Lourdes Pacheco-Hernandez, M.E. Paez-Hernandez, J.A. Rodriguez and C.A. Galan-Vidal, 2009. Chemical studies of anthocyanins: A review. Food Chem., 113: 859-871.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Chakuton, K., D. Puangpronpitag and M. Nakornriab, 2012. Phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of colored and non-colored Thai rice cultivars. Asian J. Plant Sci., 11: 285-293.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Corkey, B.E., 2012. Banting lecture 2011: Hyperinsulinemia: Cause or consequence? Diabetes, 61: 4-13.

9:  Darmono, 1995. Logam Dalam Sistem Biologi Makhluk Hidup. Penerbit UI- Press, Jakarta, Indonesia, Pages: 140

10:  De Zwart, L.L., J.H. Meerman, J.N. Commandeur and N.P. Vermeulen, 1999. Biomarkers of free radical damage: Applications in experimental animals and in humans. Free Radical Biol. Med., 26: 202-226.
CrossRef  |  

11:  Droge, W., 2002. Free radicals in the physiological control of cell function. Phsyol. Rev., 82: 47-95.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Ghosh, D. and T. Konishi, 2007. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts: Role in diabetes and eye function. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 16: 200-208.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Giusti, M.M. and R.E. Wrolstad, 2001. Characterization and Measurement of Anthocyanins by UV-Visible Spectroscopy. In: Current Protocols in Food Analytical Chemistry, Wrolstad, R.E. (Ed.). John Wiley and Sons, New York, USA., pp: 1-13

14:  Guo, H., W. Ling, Q. Wang, C. Liu and Y. Hu et al., 2007. Effect of anthocyanin-rich extract from black rice (Oryza sativa L. indica) on hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance in fructose-fed rats. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 62: 1-6.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Hartati, S., 2012. Effect of cooking on polyphenols and anthocyanins of wulung rice potentialy as functional food for patients with diabetes mellitus. J. Pang. Giz., 4: 57-67.

16:  Haryono, T., 1998. Serat centhini sebagai sumber informasi jenis makanan tradisional masa lampau. Humaniora, 8: 92-98.

17:  Hiemori, M., E. Koh and A.E. Mitchell, 2009. Influence of cooking on anthocyanins in black rice (Oryza sativa L. Japonica var. SBR). J. Agric. Food Chem., 57: 1908-1914.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Jang, H.H., M.Y. Park, H.W. Kim, Y.M. Lee and K.A. Hwang et al., 2012. Black rice (Oryza sativa L.) extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in C57BL/6 J mice fed a high-fat diet via fatty acid oxidation. Nutr. Metab. (Lond.), Vol. 9.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Jankowski, A., B. Jankowska and J. Niedworok, 2000. The effect of anthocyanin dye from grapes on experimental diabetes. Folia Med. Cracov., 41: 5-15.
Direct Link  |  

20:  Kristamtini, 2009. Mengenal beras hitam dari bantul. Tabloid Sinar Tani, 13 May.

21:  Kristamtini, T., P. Basunanda and R.H. Murti, 2014. Keragaman genetik dan korelasi parameter warna beras dan kandungan antosianin total sebelas kultivar padi beras hitam lokal. Ilmu Pertanian, 17: 57-70.

22:  Kristiana, H.D., S. Ariviani and L.U. Khasanah, 2012. [Anthocyanin pigments extraction of senggani fruit (Melastoma malabathricum Auct. Non Linn.) with variation in the type of solvent]. J. Teknosains Pangan, 1: 105-109, (In Indonesian).

23:  Konczak, I. and W. Zhang, 2004. Anthocyanins-more than nature's colours. J. Biomed. Biotechnol., 2004: 239-240.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

24:  Kong, J.M., L.S. Chia, N.K. Goh, T.F. Chia and R. Brouillard, 2003. Analysis and biological activities of anthocyanins. Photochemistry, 64: 923-933.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

25:  Kurilich, A.C., B.A. Clevidence, S.J. Britz, P.W. Simon and J.A. Novotny, 2005. Plasma and urine responses are lower for acylated vs nonacylated anthocyanins from raw and cooked purple carrots. J. Agric. Food Chem., 53: 6537-6542.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

26:  Masiello, P., C. Broca, R. Gross, M. Roye and M. Manteghetti et al., 1998. Experimental NIDDM: Development of a new model in adult rats administered streptozotocin and nicotinamide. Diabetes, 47: 224-229.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

27:  Reeves, P.G., F.H. Nielsen and G.C. Fahey Jr., 1993. AIN-93 purified diets for laboratory rodents: Final report of the American Institute of Nutrition ad hoc writing committee on the reformulation of the AIN-76A rodent diet. J. Nutr., 123: 1939-1951.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Shui, G. and L.P. Leong, 2006. Residue from star fruit as valuable source for functional food ingredients and antioxidant nutraceuticals. Food Chem., 97: 277-284.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

29:  Sompong, R., S. Siebenhandl-Ehn, G. Linsberger-Martin and E. Berghofer, 2011. Physicochemical and antioxidative properties of red and black rice varieties from Thailand, China and Sri Lanka. Food Chem., 124: 132-140.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

30:  Stintzing, F.C. and R. Carle, 2004. Functional properties of anthocyanins and betalains in plants, food and in human nutrition. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 15: 19-38.
CrossRef  |  

31:  Sugiat, D., E. Hanani and A. Munim, 2010. Aktivitas antioksidan dan penetapan kadar fenol total ekstrak metanol dedak beberapa varietas padi (Oryza sativa L.). Majalah Ilmu Kefarmasian, 7: 24-33.
Direct Link  |  

32:  Szkudelski, T., 2012. Streptozotocin-nicotinamide-induced diabetes in the rat. Characteristics of the experimental model. Exp. Biol. Med., 237: 481-490.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

33:  Takikawa, M., S. Inoue, F. Horio and T. Tsuda, 2010. Dietary anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract ameliorates hyperglycemia and insulin sensitivity via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in diabetic mice. J. Nutr., 140: 527-533.
PubMed  |  

34:  Widarta, I.W.R., K.A. Nocianitri and L.P.I.P. Sari, 2013. Ekstraksi komponen bioaktif bekatul beras lokal dengan beberapa jenis pelarut. Jurnal Aplikasi Teknologi Pangan, 2: 75-79.
Direct Link  |  

35:  Wuryastuti, H., S. Raharjo and R. Warsito, 1996. Peroxidation index: Methods of analysis and diagnostic value. Research Report, Directorate Generale of Higher Education, Indonesia.

36:  Yan, S.D., A.M. Schmidt, G.M. Anderson, J. Zhang and J. Brett et al., 1994. Enhanced cellular oxidant stress by the interaction of advanced glycation end products with their receptors/binding proteins. J. Biol. Chem., 269: 9889-9897.

©  2022 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved