Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Efficacy of Non-Branded Cooking Oil Fortified with Carotene from RPO on Blood Retinol and IgG of Children Aged 7-9 Years



Sri Anna Marliyati, Drajat Martianto, Nuri Andarwulan and Soni Fauzi
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

This research aimed to assess the efficacy of non-branded cooking oil fortified with carotene from red palm oil (RPO) on blood retinol and IgG level. Quasi-experimental pre- and post-treatment controlled trial design was applied in this study on 31 elementary school children aged 7-9 years, divided into control group (n = 16) and RPO group (n = 15). This research was conducted in Angsana Village, Leuwiliang Sub-district, located in Bogor Regency, Indonesia. The children’s families received non-branded cooking oil once a week (1 kg/week) for eight weeks. Retinol concentration and IgG level in blood were assessed at baseline and after eight weeks. Results showed that serum retinol level increased by 5.31 μg/dL (50.9%) in the RPO group and 3.25 μg/dL (29.8%) in the control group. Statistical tests showed that serum retinol levels in both groups were not significantly different (p>0.05), either before or after the intervention. Similar results were shown in the delta of serum retinol level before and after the intervention between the RPO and control groups (p = 0.062). Based on the paired t-test, serum retinol levels in both groups were significantly different before and after the intervention (p = 0000). The average of vitamin A sufficiency increased in both groups, but only the RPO group that was categorized as sufficient. The average of IgG level in the control group was significantly different from the RPO group before the intervention (p<0.05), but there were no differences between control group and RPO group after the intervention. Intervention using non-branded cooking oil fortified with carotene from RPO tended to increase blood retinol level but did not increase IgG level.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Sri Anna Marliyati, Drajat Martianto, Nuri Andarwulan and Soni Fauzi, 2016. Efficacy of Non-Branded Cooking Oil Fortified with Carotene from RPO on Blood Retinol and IgG of Children Aged 7-9 Years. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 15: 419-426.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2016.419.426

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2016.419.426

REFERENCES
1:  Almatsier, S., 2006. [Basic Principles of Nutrition Sciences]. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama

2:  SI., 2016. Average consumption per capita per week of some types of important foodstuffs. Statistics Indonesia, March 5, 2016

3:  Barba, C.V.C. and M.I.Z. Cabrera, 2008. Recommended energy and nutrient intakes for Filipinos 2002. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 17: 399-404.
Direct Link  |  

4:  Chandra, R.K., 1997. Nutrition and the immune system: An introduction. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 66: 460S-463S.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Corwin, E.J., 2001. [Pathophysiology]. EGC., Jakarta.

6:  MoH., 2009. A guide to the management of Vitamin A supplementation. Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta, Indonesia.

7:  MoH., 2013. Regulation of Minister of Health, Republic of Indonesia, Number 75 Year 2013 on the recommended dietary allowance for Indonesian people. Ministry of Health, Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta

8:  Katona, P. and J. Katona-Apte, 2008. The interaction between nutrition and infection. Clin. Infect. Dis., 46: 1582-1588.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Marliyati, S.A. and N. Rucita, 2010. Utilization of RPO [Red Palm Oil] as a natural source of pro-vitamin A in instant noodles for under-five children. J. Gizi Pangan, 5: 31-38.

10:  Marliyati, S.A., A. Sulaeman, R.M. Damanik, J. Gusthianza and G. Prasetya, 2014. Efficacy of red palm oil and carrot noodle on blood retinol, IgG and nutritional status of children aged 7-9 years. Pak. J. Nutr., 13: 134-140.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Martianto, D., 2005. Possibility of Vitamin A Fortification of Cooking Oil in Indonesia: A Feasibility Analysis. Research report of Asian Development Bank-MOH and Indonesia Coalition for Fortification. Indonesian Coalition of Fortification, Jakarta

12:  Mukherjee, S. and A. Mitra, 2009. Health effects of palm oil. J. Hum. Ecol., 26: 197-203.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Nagendran, B., U.R. Unithan, Y.M. Choo and K. Sundram, 2000. Characteristics of red palm oil, a carotene and vitamin E-rich refined oil for food uses. Food Nutr. Bull., 21: 189-194.

14:  Sugiyono, 2009. Statistics for Research. Alfabeta, Bandung, Indonesia.

15:  USDA., 2016. Indonesia Palm Oil Production by Year. March 21, 2016, http://www.indexmundi.com/agriculture/?country=id&commodity=palm-oil&graph=production

16:  Villamor, E. and W.W. Fawzi., 2000. Vitamin A supplementation: implications for morbidity and mortality in children. J. Infect. Dis., 182: S122-S133.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Wieringa, F.T., M.A. Dijkhuizen, Muhilal and J.W. Van der Meer, 2010. Maternal micronutrient supplementation with zinc and β-carotene affects morbidity and immune function of infants during the first 6 months of life. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 64: 1072-1079.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Wijaya, N.A., 2013. Retention of β-carotene in non-branded palm oil fortified with carotene from red palm oil (RPO). Undergraduate Thesis. Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor.

19:  WHO., 2016. Vitamin A Deficiency. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, March 5, 2016.

20:  Zeb, A. and S. Mehmood, 2004. Carotenoids contents from various sources and their potential health applications. Pak. J. Nutr., 3: 199-204.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved