Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Consumption of Heated Palm Oil and its Effect on Kidney in Rats

Kamsiah Jaarin, Chan Pee Yeen and Norliana Masbah
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

This research studied the effects of heated palm oil on serum creatinine and kidney histological changes in rats. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (I to IV). Group I was fed with normal rats chaw (control). The groups II, III and IV were fed with rat chaw fortified with 15% weight/weight (w/w) fresh palm oil (FPO), heated five times palm oil (5HPO) and heated ten times palm oil (10HPO), respectively for a period of 16 weeks. Blood for serum creatinine was taken and determined at baseline and at the end of the study period using commercial kit and Cobas integra analyzer. The rats were sacrificed and the kidneys were weighed and examined histologically. The tissues were stained with haematoxylin and eosin. There was a significant reduction in the kidney’s weight in 5HPO and 10HPO group compared to fresh and control group. At the end of 16 weeks there was a significant increase in serum creatinine in all study groups compared to the respective baseline. However, there was no significant difference in serum creatinine in the palm oil fed groups compared with control. Histologically, localized congestion was noted in the tubular region of the kidney in the group fed with FPO, while diffuse congestion was observed in the glomerulus and tubular region of the group fed with 5HPO and 10HPO. There was also evidence of chronic inflammation with lymphocytes infiltration located in the tubular region of the groups fed with 5HPO and 10HPO. The inflammatory changes were more severe in 10HPO compared to 5HPO group. In conclusion; heated palm oil diet reduced kidney’s weight, causes tubular congestion and inflammation which were more severe in 10HPO compared to 5HPO. The histological changes were not accompanied by an increase in serum creatinine level.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Kamsiah Jaarin, Chan Pee Yeen and Norliana Masbah, 2016. Consumption of Heated Palm Oil and its Effect on Kidney in Rats. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 15: 148-154.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2016.148.154



1:  Adam, S.K., I.N. Soelaiman, N.A. Umar, N. Mokhtar, N. Mohamed and K. Jaarin, 2008. Effects of repeatedly heated palm oil on serum lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and homocysteine levels in a post-menopausal rat model. Mcgill J. Med., 11: 145-151.
Direct Link  |  

2:  Adam, S.K., S. Das, I.N. Soelaiman, N.A. Umar and K. Jaarin, 2008. Consumption of repeatedly heated soy oil increases the serum parameters related to atherosclerosis in ovariectomized rats. Tohoku J. Exp. Med., 215: 219-226.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Adam, S.K., S. Das, F. Othman and K. Jaarin, 2009. Fresh soy oil protects against vascular changes in an estrogen-deficient rat model: An electron microscopy study. Clinics (Sao Paulo), 64: 1113-1119.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Alexander, J.C., 1978. Biological effects due to changes in fats during heating. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 55: 711-715.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Ani, E.J., V.U. Nna, D.U. Owu and E.E. Osim, 2015. Effect of chronic consumption of two forms of palm oil diet on serum electrolytes, creatinine and urea in rabbits. J. Applied Pharma. Sci., 5: 115-119.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Azman, A., M.S. Sharul, S.X. Chan, A.P. Norhazliza and M. Khairunnisak et al., 2012. Level of knowledge, attitude and practice of night market Food Outlet operators in Kuala Lumpur regarding the usage of repeatedly heated cooking oil. Med. J. Malaysia, 67: 91-101.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Nurul-Iman, B.S., Y. Kamisah, K. Jaarin and H.M.S. Qodriyah, 2013. Virgin coconut oil prevents blood pressure elevation and improves endothelial functions in rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil. Evidence-Based Complementary Altern. Med.
CrossRef  |  

8:  Ng, C.Y., X.F. Leong, N. Masbah, S.K. Adam, Y. Kamisah and K. Jaarin, 2014. Heated vegetable oils and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Vascular Pharmacol., 61: 1-9.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Dutta, A. and S.K. Dutta, 2003. Vitamin E and its role in the prevention of atherosclerosis and carcinogenesis: A review. J. Am. College Nutr., 22: 258-268.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Eder, K., 1999. The effects of a dietary oxidized oil on lipid metabolism in rats. Lipid, 34: 717-725.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Gabriel, H.G., J.C. Alexander and V.E. Valli, 1977. Biochemical and histological effects of feeding thermally oxidized rapeseed oil and lard to rats. Can. J. Comp. Med., 41: 98-106.
Direct Link  |  

12:  Hamsi, M.A., O. Faizah, S. Das, Y. Kamisah and Z.C. Thent et al., 2015. Effect of consumption of fresh and heated virgin coconut oil on the blood pressure and inflammatory biomarkers: An experimental study in sprague dawley rats. Alexendria J. Med., 51: 53-63.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Isong, E.U., E.U. Essien, O.U. Eka and I.B. Umoh, 2000. Sex- and organ-specific toxicity in normal and malnourished rats fed thermoxidized palm oil. Food Chem. Toxicity, 38: 997-1004.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Isong, E.U., E.T. Ifon, E.U. Eka, E.U. Essien and I.B. Umoh, 1992. Effect of intermittently thermoxidized palm oil on normal and malnourished rats. Trop. J. Applied Sci., 2: 118-121.

15:  Jaarin, K., T.C. Hwa, N.A. Umar, M.A.S. Aishah and S. Das, 2010. Enzymatic and microstructural changes in the liver of experimental rats fed with fatty diet and fresh or heated soy oil concurrently. Clinica Terapeutica, 161: 429-433.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Kamsiah, J., U. Nor-Aini, M.A. Siti-Aishah and S. Das, 2015. Palm oil fat diet consumption and its effects on serum liver enzymes and microscopic changes in experimental rats. Pak. J. Nutr., 14: 575-580.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Leong, X.F., M.R. Mustafa, S. Das and K. Jaarin, 2010. Association of elevated blood pressure and impaired vasorelaxation in experimental sprague-dawley rats fed with heated vegetable oil. Lipid Health Dise., Vol. 9.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Owu, D.U., E.E. Osim and P.E. Ebong, 1998. Serum liver enzymes profile of Wistar rats following chronic consumption of fresh or oxidized palm oil diets. Acta Tropica, 69: 65-73.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

19:  Shuid, A.N., L.H. Chuan, N. Mohamed, K. Jaarin, Y.S. Fong and I.N. Soelaiman, 2007. Recycled palm oil is better than soy oil in maintaining bone properties in a menopausal syndrome model of ovariectomized rat. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 16: 393-402.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  Smith, A.F., G.J. Beckett, S.W. Walker and P.W.H. Rae, 1998. Clinical Biochemistry. 6th Edn., Blackwell Science Ltd., Edinburgh

21:  Totani, N. and Y. Ojiri, 2007. Mild ingestion of used frying oil damages hepatic and renal cells in Wistar rats. J. Oleo Sci., 56: 261-267.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  Totani, N. and Y. Ojiri, 2007. Mild ingestion of used frying oil damages hepatic and renal cells in Wistar rats. J. Oleo Sci., 56: 261-267.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved