Feeding Value of Some Cassava By-Products Meal for Poultry: A Review
Cassava root meal which has been used as good alternative energy source in poultry and pig diets is increasingly becoming an important energy source for feeding the worlds human population. There are however, several by-products of cassava harvest ranging from the leaves, peels and pulp which have potential as feed ingredients in poultry rations. Cassava peels and pulps are moderate to high in energy and have been included in diets as replacements for conventional energy sources. Cassava leaves, moderate to good protein contents, have been used as protein supplements. Dietary recommendations of cassava by-products for poultry have varied considerably. The major factors limiting the efficient utilization of these by-products in poultry diets include the high fibre and low energy contents and likely presence of antinutritional factors, mainly hydrocyanic acid (HCN) in the bitter variety of cassava. Several technologies have been used to improve the utilization of cassava by-products by poultry. The following paper reviewed the composition of some cassava by-products (leaves, peels and pulp), their recommendations for inclusion in poultry diets and processing methods to maximize their utilization by poultry. It was concluded that efficient use of cassava by-products will reduce feed cost of poultry production and provide additional source of income to cassava farmers and processors.
Adegbola, A.A., 1977.
Methionine as an Additive to Cassava Based Diets. In: Cassava as Animal Feed, Mestel, B. and M. Graham (Eds.). Institute Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada., pp: 9-17
Adeyemi, O.A., J.A. Adekoya and R.A. Sobayo, 2012.
Performance of broiler chickens fed diets containing cassava leaf: Blood meal mix as replacement for soybean meal. Revista Cientifica UDO Agricola, 12: 213-220.Direct Link |
Agunbiade, J.A., O.A. Adeyemi, O.A. Adepoju and O.A. Lawal, 2002.
The use of whole cassava meal and leaf meal in broiler diets. Niger. J. Anim. Sci., 5: 161-173.Direct Link |
Ahmad, I., 1973.
Potential fodder and tuber yields of two varieties of tapioca. Malay. Agric. J., 49: 166-174.Direct Link |
Akinfala, E.O., A.O. Aderibigbe and O. Matanmi, 2002.
Evaluation of the nutritive value of whole cassava plant as replacement for maize in the starter diets for broiler chicken. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 14.Direct Link |
Allen, R.D., 1984.
Feedstuffs ingredient analysis table. Feedstuffs, 56: 25-30.
Babatunde, B.B., 2013.
Effect of feeding cassava wastes on the performance and meat quality of broiler chickens. Malay. J. Anim. Sci., 16: 63-73.Direct Link |
Chinh, B.V. and L.V. Ly, 2001.
Studies on the processing and use of cassava tops as animal feed. National Institute of Animal Husbandry (NIAH), Hanoi, Vietnam.
Chauynarong, N., A.V. Elangovan and P.A. Iji, 2009.
The potential of cassava products in diets for poultry. World's Poult. Sci. J., 65: 23-36.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Chumpawadee, S. and S. Soychuta, 2009.
Nutrient enrichment of cassava starch industry by-product using rumen microorganism as inoculums source. Pak. J. Nutr., 8: 1380-1382.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Cribb, J., 2010.
The Coming Famine: The Global Food Crisis and What we can do to Avoid it. University of California Press, Oakland, CA., ISBN-13: 9780520260719, Pages: 248
Dahniya, M.T., C.O. Oputa and S.K. Kahn, 1981.
Effects of harvesting frequency on leaf and root yields of cassava. Exp. Agric., 17: 91-95.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Devendra, C., 1977.
Cassava as Feed Source for Ruminants. In: Cassava as Animal Feed, Nestle, B. and M. Graham (Eds.). IDRC, Canada, pp: 107-119
Diarra, S.S., 2015.
Utilisation of cassava products-copra meal based diets supplemented with or without Allzyme SSF by growing pullets. Malay. J. Anim. Sci., 18: 67-76.Direct Link |
Eggum, B.O., 1970.
The protein quality of cassava leaves. Br. J. Nutr., 24: 761-768.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Elanchezhian, N., R. Ravi and M.R. Purushothaman, 1999.
Utilization of cassava peel meal as a feed ingredient in broiler ration. Ind. J. Poult. Sci., 34: 255-258.
FAOSTAT production database. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation, Rome, Italy.
Food and agricultural commodities production. http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx.
Fauquet, C. and D. Fargette, 1990.
African cassava mosaic virus: Etiology, epidemiology and control. Plant Dis., 74: 404-411.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Gomez, G., J. Santos and M. Valdivieso, 1984.
Evaluation of methionine supplementation to diets containing cassava meal for swine. J. Anim. Sci., 58: 812-820.Direct Link |
Gomez, G. and M. Valdivieso, 1985.
Cassava foliage: Chemical composition, cyanide content and effect of drying on cyanide elimination. J. Sci. Food Agric., 36: 433-441.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Hong, T.T.T. and J.E. Lindberg, 2007.
Effect of cooking and fermentation of a pig diet on gut environment and digestibility in growing pigs. Livestock Sci., 109: 135-137.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Huu, H.L. and T. Khammeng, 2014.
Effect of yeast fermented cassava pulp (FCP) on nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of post-weaning pigs. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 26.Direct Link |
Iheukwumere, F.C., E.C. Ndubuisi, E.A. Mazi and M.U. Onyekwere, 2008.
Performance, nutrient utilization and organ characteristics of broilers fed cassava leaf meal (Manihot esculenta
Crantz). Pak. J. Nutr., 7: 13-16.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kanto, U. and S. Juttupornpong, 2005.
Advantages of cassava in animal rations. Cassava Anim. Nutr.: Refer. Thailand Cassava, 99: 19-50.
Khajarern, S., N. Hutanuwatr, J. Khajarern, N. Kiptanit, R. Phalaraksh and S. Terapuntuwat, 1980.
The improvement of nutritive and economic value of cassava root products. Annual Report, Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand.
Khajarern, S. and J. Khajarern, 1986.
Utilization of cassava for animal feed. Proceedings of the 24th Kasetsart University, September 24-30, 1986, Bangkok, Thailand, pp: 64-72
Khempaka, S., W. Molee and M. Guillaume, 2009.
Dried cassava pulp as an alternative feedstuff for broilers: Effect on growth performance, carcass traits, digestive organs and nutrient digestibility. J. Applied Poult. Res., 18: 487-493.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Khempaka, S., R. Thongkratok, S. Okrathok and W. Molee, 2014.
An evaluation of cassava pulp feedstuff fermented with A. oryzae
, on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and carcass quality of broilers. J. Poult. Sci., 51: 71-79.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kosoom, W., N. Charoenwattanasakun, Y. Ruangpanit, S. Rattanatabtimtong and S. Attamangkune, 2009.
Physical, chemical and biological properties of cassava pulp. Proceedings of the 47th Kasetsart University Annual Conference, March 17-20, 2009, Bangkok, Thailand, pp: 2117-2124
Lancaster, P.A. and J.E. Brooks, 1983.
Cassava leaves as human food. Econ. Bot., 37: 331-348.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Manilal, V.B., C.S. Narayanan and C. Balagopalan, 1985.
Amyloglucisidae and cellulose activity of Aspergillus niger
in cassava starch factory wastes. Proceedings of the Natural Symposium on Production and Utilization of Tropical Crops, November 27-28, 1985, Trivandrum, pp: 211-213
Mantaldo, A., 1977.
Whole plant utilization of cassava for animal feed. Proceedings of the Workshop on Cassava as Animal Feed, (WCAF'77), IDRC, Ottawa, CA., pp: 95-106Direct Link |
Montilla, J.J., 1977.
Cassava in the nutrition of broilers. Cassava as Animal Feed, Ghana, West Africa, pp: 43-50.
Muller, Z., K.C. Chou and K.C. Nah, 1974.
Cassava as a total substitute for cereals in livestock and poultry rations. World Anim. Rev., 12: 19-35.
Muzanila, Y.C., J.G. Brennan and R.D. King, 2000.
Residual cyanogens, chemical composition and aflatoxins in cassava flour from Tanzanian villages. Food Chem., 70: 45-49.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Nguyen, T.H.L., 2012.
Evaluation of local protein sources for growing pigs in Central Vietnam. Ph.D. Thesis, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
Normanha, E.S., 1962.
Meal of stalks and leaves of cassava. Agronom. Venez, 14: 16-19.
Nwokoro, S.O. and E.I. Ekhosuehi, 2005.
Effect of replacement of maize with cassava peel in cockerel diets on performance and carcass characteristics. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 37: 495-501.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Obioha, F.C., G.O. Azubuike, L.S.O. Ene, H.E. Okereke and O.O. Okoli, 1984.
The effect of partial replacement of maize with cassava peel meal on layer performance. Nutr. Report Int., 30: 1423-1429.Direct Link |
Obikaonu, H.O. and A.B.I. Udedibie, 2006.
Comparative evaluation of sun-dried and ensiled cassava peel meals as substitute for maize in broiler starter diets. Int. J. Agric. Rural Dev., 7: 52-55.Direct Link |
Odunsi, A.A., A.A. Onifade and S.O. Oyewole, 2001.
Utilization of cassava peels meal with or without sheabutter fat in diets of egg-type chickens. Indian J. Anim. Sci., 20: 31-36.
Oladunjoye, I.O., O. Ojebiyi and O.A. Amao, 2010.
Effect of feeding processed cassava (Manihot esculenta
Crantz) peel meal based diet on the performance characteristics, egg quality and blood profile of laying chicken. Agric. Trop. Subtrop., 43: 119-126.Direct Link |
Tu, P.K., N. Le Duc, W.H. Hendriks, C.M.C. van der Peet-Schwering and M.W.A. Verstegen, 2010.
Effect of dietary lysine supplement on the performance of Mong Cai sows and their piglets. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 23: 385-395.Direct Link |
Phuc, B.H.N., B. Ogle and J.E. Lindberg, 2000.
Effect of replacing soybean protein with cassava leaf protein in cassava root meal based diets for growing pigs on digestibility and N retention. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 83: 223-235.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Phuc, B.H.N. and J.E. Lindberg, 2001.
Ileal digestibility of amino acids in growing pigs fed cassava root meal diet with inclusion of cassava leaves, lucaena leaves and groundnut foliage. Anim. Sci., 72: 511-517.
Promthong, S., U. Kanto, C. Tirawattanawanich, S. Tongyai, S. Isariyodom, K. Markvichitr and A. Engkagul, 2005.
Comparison of nutrient compositions and carbohydrate fractions of corn, cassava chip and cassava pellet ingredients. Proceedings of the 43rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, February 1-4, 2005, Thailand, pp: 146-151
Ravindran, V., E.T. Kornegay, A.B.S. Rajaguru, L.M. Potter and J.A. Cherry, 1986.
Cassava leaf meal as a replacement for coconut oil meat in broiler diets. Poult. Sci., 65: 1720-1727.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ravindran, V., E.T. Kornegay and A.B.S. Rajaguru, 1987.
Influence of processing methods and storage time on the cyanide potential of cassava leaf meal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 17: 227-234.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ravindran, V. and A.S.B. Rajaguru, 1988.
Effect of stem pruning on cassava root yield and leaf growth. Sri Lankan J. Agric. Sci., 25: 32-37.
Ravindran, G. and V. Ravindran, 1988.
Changes in the nutritional composition of cassava (Manihot esculenta
Crantz) leaves during maturity. Food Chem., 27: 299-309.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ravindran, V., 1991.
Preparation of cassava leaf product and their use as animal feeds. Proceedings of the FAO Expert Consultation held in CIAT, January 21-25, 1991, Cali, Colombia, pp: 81-95
Ravindran, V., 1992.
Preparation of Cassava Leaf Products and their Use as Animal Feeds. In: Roots, Tubers, Plantains and Bananas in Animal Feeding, Machin, D. and S. Nyvold (Eds.). FAO, Rome, Italy
Agwunobi, L.N., 1999.
Performance of broiler chicks fed sweet potato meal (Ipomea batatas
) diet. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 31: 383-389.PubMed | Direct Link |
Rogers, D.J. and M. Milner, 1963.
Amino acid profile of manioc leaf protein in relation to nutritive value. Econ. Bot., 17: 211-216.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Ross, E. and F.Q. Enriquez, 1969.
The nutritive value of cassava leaf meal. Poult. Sci., 48: 846-853.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Salami, R.I., 2000.
Preliminary studies on the use of parboiled cassava peel meal as a substitute for maize in layer's diets. Trop. Agric., 77: 199-204.Direct Link |
Salami, R.I. and A.A. Odunsi, 2003.
Evaluation of processed cassava peel meals as substitutes for maize in the diets of layers. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 2: 112-116.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Salami, R.I., A.L. Ogunmola and O. Akindoye, 2003.
Cassava peel processed by different methods as substitute for maize in cockerel starter diets. Proceedings of the 28th Annual Nigerian Society for Animal Production Conference, March 16-20, 2003, Ibadan, Nigeria, pp: 177-179
Saparattananan, W., U. Kanto, S. Juttupornpong and A. Engkagul, 2005.
Utilization of cassava meal and cassava leaf meal in layer diets on egg quality and protein content in egg: Animals. Proceedings of the 43rd Kasetsart University Annual Conference, February 1-4, 2005, Thailand -
Suksombat, W., P. Lounglawan and P. Noosen, 2007.
Energy and protein evaluation of five feedstuffs used in diet in which cassava pulp as main energy source for lactating dairy cows. Suranaree J. Sci. Technol., 14: 99-107.Direct Link |
Tathawan, S., S. Moonchaisuk, N. Tanasrisutarat, U. Kanto and S. Juttapornpong, 2002.
A comparative study of corn and cassava diets both supplemented and unsupplemented with antibiotic on performance and mortality rate of broilers. Proceedings of the 40th Kasetsart University Annual Conference: Plants, Agricultural Extension and Communication, February 4-7, 2002, Bangkok, Thailand -
Tewe, O.O., 1993.
Thyroid Cassava Toxicity in Animals. In: Cassava Toxicity and Thyroid Research and Public Health Issues, Delenge and R. Ahluwlio (Eds.), IDRC-207, Canada, pp: 114-118
Tewe, O.O. and O.B. Kasali, 1986.
Effect of cassava peel processing on the performance, nutrient utilization and physiopathology of the African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus
Waterhouse). Trop. Agric., 63: 125-128.
Tewe, O.O. and G.N. Egbunike, 1992.
Utilization of Cassava in Nonruminant Livestock Feeds. In: Cassava as Livestock Feed in Africa: Proceedings of the IITA/ILCA/University of Ibadan Workshop on the Potential Utilization of Cassava as Livestock Feed in Africa: 14-18 November 1988, Ibadan, Nigeria, Hahn, S.K., L. Reynolds and G.N. Egbunike (Eds.). IITA, Ibadan, Nigeria, ISBN-13: 9789781310720
Tewe, O.O. and M. Bokanga, 2001.
Research highlights on cassava utilization. International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA), Ibadan, Nigeria.
Van Man, N. and H. Wiktorsson, 2002.
Effect of molasses on nutritional quality of cassava and gliricidia tops silage. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci., 15: 1294-1299.Direct Link |
Visitpanich, T., E.S. Batterham and B.W. Norton, 1985.
Nutritional value of chickpea (Cicer arietinum
) and pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan
) meals for growing pigs and rats. 2. Effect of autoclaving and alkali treatment. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 36: 337-345.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Yeoh, H.H. and M.Y. Chaw, 1976.
Protein content and amino acid composition of cassava leaf. Phytochemistry, 15: 1597-1599.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Wobeto, C., A.D. Correa, C.M.P. de Abreu, C.D. dos Santos and H.V. Pereira, 2007.
Antinutrients in the cassava (Manihot esculenta
Crantz) leaf powder at three ages of the plant. Ciencia Tecnologia Alimentos, 27: 108-112.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Wyllie, D. and P.J. Chamanga, 1979.
Cassava leaf meals in broiler diets. Trop. Anim. Prod., 4: 232-240.Direct Link |
Saentaweesuk, S., U. Kanto, S. Juttupornpong and P. Harinsut, 2000.
Substitution of cassava meal for corn in broiler diets. Proceedings of the 38th Kasetsart University Annual Conference: Animal, Veterinary Medicine, February 1-4, 2000, Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand -