Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Estimation of Iron, Copper and Zinc in Some Vegetables Commonly Consumed in Amassoma, Niger Delta, Nigeria

Amos- Tautua, Bamidele Martin W and Onigbinde Adebayo O.
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Iron, copper and zinc contents in edible parts of some fresh vegetables sold in markets in Amassoma, Niger Delta region of Nigeria were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry. For the study, vegetables were divided into three groups according to edible parts: leaves (bitter leaf and fluted pumpkin), fruits (garden egg, okra and plantain) and roots (sweet potato). Levels of Fe, Cu and Zn were found to be higher in the green leafy vegetables than other vegetables analyzed. The concentration of Fe was observed to be the highest in all the vegetables. The highest content of Fe was found in the leaves of fluted pumpkin, Telfaria occidentalis (2.787±0.18 ppm), while the smallest content was shown in plantain, Musa paradisiaca (0.360±0.23 ppm). The mean concentration of Zn ranged from of 0.283±0.57 ppm in Musa paradisiaca to 1.058±0.12 ppm in bitter leaf, Vernonia amygdalina. The Cu value was observed to be the lowest in all the vegetables. The highest Cu value was obtained in Vernonia amygdalina (0.173±0.16 ppm) and the lowest in garden egg, Solanium melongena (0.014±0.57 ppm). The respective concentrations of the trace metals in all the vegetable samples analyzed in this study were found to be lower than the FAO/WHO guidelines but fall within safety limits for human health and hygiene.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Amos- Tautua, Bamidele Martin W and Onigbinde Adebayo O., 2014. Estimation of Iron, Copper and Zinc in Some Vegetables Commonly Consumed in Amassoma, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 13: 742-745.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2014.742.745


1:  Olaposi, A.R. and A.O. Adunni, 2010. Chemical composition of three traditional vegetables in Nigeria. Pak. J. Nutr., 9: 858-860.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Agbaire, P.O., 2011. Nutritional and anti-nutritional levels of some local vegetables(Vernomia anydalira, Manihot esculenta, Teiferia occidentalis, Talinum triangulare, Amaranthus spinosus) from Delta State, Nigeria. J. Applied Sci. Environ. Manage., 15: 625-628.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Akan, J.C., F.I.A. Abdulrahman, V.O. Ogugbuaja and J.T. Ayodele, 2009. Heavy metals and anion levels in some samples of vegetable grown within the vicinity of challawa industrial area, Kano state, Nigeria. Am. J. Applied Sci., 6: 534-542.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Aletor, V.A. and O.A. Adeogun, 1995. Nutrient and anti-nutrient components of some tropical leafy vegetables. Food Chem., 53: 375-379.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Asaolu, S.S., O.S. Adefemi, I.G. Oyakilome, K.E. Ajibulu and M.F. Asaolu, 2012. Proximate and mineral composition of Nigerian leafy vegetables. J. Food Res., 3: 214-218.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  ATSDR., 1994. Toxicological profile for nickel and iron. US. Department of Health and Human Services, Agency for Toxic Substances and Diseases Registry, Public Health Service 205-88-0608.

7:  Atukorala, T.M.S., 1987. Zinc and copper content of some common foods. J. Natl. Sci. Council Sri Lanka, 15: 61-69.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Audu, A.A. and A.O. Lawal, 2005. Variation in metal contents of plants in vegetable gardens sites in Kano metropolis. J. Applied Sci. Environ. Manage., 10: 105-109.
Direct Link  |  

9:  Brown, P.H., 2004. Principles of micronutrient use. Proceedings of the IFA International Symposium on Micronutrients, February 23-25, 2004, New Delhi, India, pp: 1-14.

10:  Davidson, S., R. Passmore, J.F. Brook and A.S. Truswell, 1979. Trace Elements in Human Nutrition and Diabetes. 7th Edn., Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp: 107-116.

11:  Enwere, N.J., 1998. Foods of Plant Origin. Afro Orbis Publications Ltd., Nsukka, Nigeria, Pages: 293.

12:  Faboya, O.O.P., 1983. The mineral content of some green leafy vegetables commonly found in the western part of Nigeria. Food Chem., 12: 213-216.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  FAO. and WHO., 2001. Codex alimentarius commission food additives and contaminants. Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme; ALINORM 01/12A:1-289.

14:  Singh, A., R.K. Sharma, M. Agrawal and F.M. Marshall, 2010. Risk assessment of heavy metal toxicity through contaminated vegetables from waste water irrigated area of Varanasi, India. Trop. Ecol., 51: 375-387.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Institute of Medicine, 2001. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadiumand Zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

16:  Gordon, M.W., 1985. Contemporary Nutrient Issues and Insights. McGraw-Hill Higher Education, New York, USA.

17:  Hart, A.D., C.A. Oboh, I.S. Barimalaa and T.G. Sokari, 2005. Concentrations of trace metals (lead, iron, copper and zinc) in crops harvested in some oil prospecting locations in Rivers State, Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Nutr. Sci., 5: 1-21.
Direct Link  |  

18:  Ifon, E.T., 1977. The nutrient composition of some Nigerian leafy green vegetables and physiological availability of their iron content. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Biochemistry University of Ibadan, Nigeria.

19:  Iyaka, Y.A., 2007. Concentration of Cu and Zn in some fruits and vegetable commonly available in North central zone of Nigeria. Electron. J. Environ. Agric. Food Chem., 6: 2150-2154.
Direct Link  |  

20:  Jawad, I.M., 2010. The level of heavy metals in selected vegetables crops collected from Baghdad city markets. Pak. J. Nutr., 9: 683-685.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  Jimoh, T.O., M.M. Ndamitso, S.H. Abdullahi and M.T. Bankole, 2012. Determination of copper, iron and lead levels in selected vegetables obtained from the three main markets, in Minna, North Central Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Sci., 6: 554-559.
Direct Link  |  

22:  Johnson, M.A., 1997. Encyclopaedia of Food Technology and Nutrition. Academic Press, London, UK., pp: 1237-1243.

23:  Lund, E.K., S.J. Fairweather-Tait, S.G. Wharf and I.T. Johnson, 2001. Chronic exposure to high levels of dietary iron fortification increases lipid peroxidation in the mucosa of the rat large intestine. J. Nutr., 131: 2928-2931.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Mohammed, M.I. and N. Sharif, 2011. Mineral composition of some leafy vegetables consumed in Kano, Nigeria. Nig. J. Basic Applied Sci., 19: 208-212.
Direct Link  |  

25:  Nair, M., K.K. Balachandran, V.N. Sankaranarayanan and T. Joseph, 1997. Heavy metals in fishes from coastal waters of cochin, South West Coast of India. Indian J. Mar. Sci., 26: 98-100.
Direct Link  |  

26:  Nolan, K.R., 1983. Copper toxicity syndrome. J. Orthomol. Psychiatry, 12: 270-282.
Direct Link  |  

27:  Oguntona, T., 1998. Green Leafy Vegetables. In: Nutritional Quality of Plant Food, Osagie, A.U., O.U. Eka and V.O. Igodan (Eds.). Post Harvest Research Unit, Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria, ISBN-13: 9789782120021, pp: 120-133.

28:  Oke, O.L., 1968. Composition of some nigerian leafy vegetables. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 53: 130-132.
Direct Link  |  

29:  Purseglove, J.W., 1977. Tropical Crops Dicotyledons. Vol. 1-2, Longman, London, pp: 156-159.

30:  Sandstead, H.H., 1994. Understanding zinc: Recent observations and interpretations. J. Lab. Clin. Med., 124: 322-327.
Direct Link  |  

31:  Simmer, K. and R.P.H. Thompson, 1985. Zinc in the fetus and newborn. Acta Paediatrica, 74: 158-163.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

32:  Uauy, R., M. Olivares and M. Gonzalez, 1998. Essentiality of copper in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 67: 952S-959S.
Direct Link  |  

33:  Anonymous, 1973. World health organization technical report No. 532. World Health Organization, Geneva, pp: 9-19.

34:  Wu, J., M. Ricker and J. Muench, 2006. Copper deficiency as cause of unexplained hematologic and neurologic deficits in patient with prior gastrointestinal surgery. J. Am. Board Family Med., 19: 191-194.

35:  Turnlund, J.R., 2000. Copper. In: Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease, Shils, M.E., J.A. Olson and M. Shike (Eds.)., Lippincott, Philadelphia, pp: 241.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved