Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Effect of Different Methods of Processing and Antioxidant Supplementation on the Storage Quality of Hatchery Waste Meal

Athar Mahmud, Saima , Zafar Hayat, Muhammad Zafar Ullah Khan, Atia Basheer and Imran Zahoor
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Four different levels of antioxidant (Oxygun®) at 0, 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg were added to the ground, processed viz, cooked, autoclaved, extruded and raw hatchery waste. Samples were stored for 50 days and analyzed for peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) and free fatty acids (FFA) with 10-days of storage interval. Linear increase was observed in PV, FFA and TBA values of all treatments throughout the storage period. Comparison within raw hatchery waste (RHW), cooked HW, autoclaved HW and extruded HW revealed that extrusion was found to be the most effective processing technique to check fat oxidation, followed by autoclaving and simple cooking whereas unprocessed HW showed maximum fat deterioration. PV, FFA and TBA decreased with all levels of antioxidant addition when compared with control group. Significantly highest (p<0.05) levels of PV, FFA and TBA were observed in control group while least degradation of fat was observed in extruded samples with 300 mg/kg of antioxidant addition. All the processing techniques and antioxidant addition checked the fat rancidity throughout the storage period, compared to control group, however synergistic effect of extrusion and 300 mg/kg of antioxidant addition was found to be most appropriate to keep the samples highly acceptable for 50 days storage period.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Athar Mahmud, Saima , Zafar Hayat, Muhammad Zafar Ullah Khan, Atia Basheer and Imran Zahoor, 2014. Effect of Different Methods of Processing and Antioxidant Supplementation on the Storage Quality of Hatchery Waste Meal. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 13: 451-456.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2014.451.456


1:  Anjum, M.I., I.H. Mirza, A.G. Khan and A. Azim, 2004. Effect of fresh versus oxidized soybean oil on growth performance, organs weights and meat quality of broiler chicks. Pak. Vet. J., 24: 173-178.
Direct Link  |  

2:  AOAC., 2006. Official Methods of Analysis. 18th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists Inc., Arlington, TX., USA.

3:  AOCS., 1998. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of AOCS. 5th Edn., American Oil Chemical Society, Champaign, IL., USA.

4:  Austreng, E. and T. Gjefsen, 1981. Fish oils with different contents of free fatty acids in diets for rainbow trout fingerlings and salmon parr. Aquaculture, 25: 173-183.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Bjorck, I. and N.G. Asp, 1983. The effects of extrusion cooking on nutritional value: A literature review. J. Food Eng., 2: 281-308.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  Cheeke, P., 1991. Applied Animal Nutrition: Feeds and Feeding. MacMillan Publishing Company, New York, USA., pp: 201-227.

7:  Engberg, R.M., C. Lauridsen, S.K. Jensen and K. Jakobsen, 1996. Inclusion of oxidized vegetable oil in broiler diets: Its influence on nutrient balance and on the antioxidative status of broilers. Poult. Sci., 75: 1003-1011.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Estevez, M., S. Ventanas and R. Cava, 2007. Oxidation of lipids and proteins in frankfurters with different fatty acid compositions and tocopherol and phenolic contents. Food Chem., 100: 55-63.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Fagbenro, O. and K. Jauncey, 1993. Chemical and nutritional quality of raw, cooked and salted fish silages. Food Chem., 48: 331-335.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Frankel, E.N., 1988. Lipid Oxidation. The Oily Press, Dundee.

11:  Gajula, H., S. Liu, S. Alavi, T. Herald, R. Madl, S.R Bean and M. Tilley, 2009. Pre-cooked fiber-enriched wheat flour obtained by extrusion: Rheological and functional properties. Int. J. Food Prot., 12: 27-44.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Gotoh, N. and S. Wada, 2006. The importance of peroxide value in assessing food quality and food safety. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 83: 473-474.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Hendriks, W.H., Y.H. Cottam and D.V. Thomas, 2006. The effect of storage on the nutritional quality of meat and bone meal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 127: 151-160.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Khan, S.H. and B.M. Bhatti, 2001. Effect of autoclaving, toasting, and cooking on chemical composition of hatchery waste meal. Pak. Vet. J., 21: 22-26.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Leeson, S. and J. Summers, 2001. Scott's Nutrition of the Chicken. 4th Edn., University Books, Ontario, Canada, ISBN-13: 978-0969560043, Pages: 608.

16:  Lin, C.F., A. Asghar, J.I. Gray, D.J. Buckley, A.M. Booren, R.L. Crackel and C.J. Flegal, 1989. Effects of oxidised dietary oil and antioxidant supplementation on broiler growth and meat stability. Br. Poult. Sci., 30: 855-864.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Lilburn, M.S., G.W. Barbour, R. Nemasetoni, C. Coy, M. Werling and A.G. Yersin, 1997. Protein quality and calcium availability from extruded and autoclaved turkey hatchery residue. Poult. Sci., 76: 841-848.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Molteberg, E.L., G. Vogt, A. Nilsson and W. Frolich, 1995. Effects of storage and heat processing on the content and composition of free fatty acids in oats. Cereal Chem., 72: 88-93.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Nelson, D.L. and M.M. Cox, 2008. Principles of Biochemistry. 5th Edn., W.H. Freeman and Company, New York, USA.

20:  Ozogul, Y., F. Ozogul and C. Gokbulut, 2006. Quality assessment of wild european eel (Anguilla anguilla) stored in ice. Food Chem., 95: 458-465.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  Plascencia, A., M. Estrada and R.A. Zinn, 1999. Influence of free fatty acid content on the feeding value of yellow grease in finishing diets for feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci., 77: 2603-2609.
Direct Link  |  

22:  Schiffelers, S.L., W.H. Saris and M.A. van Baak, 2001. The effect of an increased free fatty acid concentration on thermogenesis and substrate oxidation in obese and lean men. Int. J. Obes. Relat. Metab. Disord., 25: 33-38.
PubMed  |  

23:  Sharif, K., M.S. Butt, F.M. Anjum and M. Nasir, 2005. Improved quality of baked products by rice bran oil. Int. J. Food Saf., 5: 1-8.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Steel, R.G.D., J.H. Torrie and D.A. Dickey, 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 3rd Edn., McGraw-Hill Co., New York, USA., ISBN: 9780070610286, Pages: 666.

25:  Tadtiyanant, C., J.J. Lyons and J.M. Vandepopuliere, 1993. Extrusion processing used to convert dead poultry, feathers, eggshells, hatchery waste and mechanically deboned residue into feedstuffs for poultry. Poult. Sci., 72: 1515-1527.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

26:  Waheed, A., T. Ahmad, A. Yousaf and I.J. Zaefr, 2004. Effect of various levels of fat and antioxidant on the quality of broiler rations stored at high temperature for different periods. Pak. Vet. J., 24: 70-75.
Direct Link  |  

27:  Wallace, P.A., E.K. Adu and S.W.A. Rhule, 2010. Optimal storage conditions for cocoa cake with shell, palm kernel cake and copra cake as poultry and livestock feed in Ghana. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 22, No. 2.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved