Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Evaluation of Some Heavy Metal Contamination in Malva parviflora L. Plant and Soil Obtained from Gardens of College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad

Zahraa Hasan Raheem, Afrah Abd Alhussain Jebor and Suhayla Khalied Mohammed
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Heavy metals are given significant interest throughout the globe due to their toxic, mutagenic effects even at very low concentrations. Several cases of human diseases, disorders, malfunction and malformation of organs due to metal toxicity have been reported. Reports indicate that lead, cadmium and chromium may cause a wide variety of changes in biological systems, even at very low concentrations. Samples of different parts of Malva parviflora L. (leaves, stems and roots) and associated soils collected with increasing distance of 5, 25, 50, 100m from the gardens surrounding the chemistry labs in college of agriculture university of Baghdad in Abu Ghraib region in Baghdad. The parts of Malva parviflora L. (leaves, stems and roots) and the soil samples at depth 0-20cm were analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy after chemical treatment using acid digestion procedures, the pH and the electric conductivity of the soil were also measured. The concentrations Pd, Cr and Cd in the soil and plant of Malva parviflora L. were compared with the maximum allowable limits in different countries and they were beyond the maximum allowable limits in the plant samples but in the soil samples they were below the maximum allowable limits in the case of cadmium and below but very close to the maximum allowable limits of lead and chromium.

Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Zahraa Hasan Raheem, Afrah Abd Alhussain Jebor and Suhayla Khalied Mohammed, 2014. Evaluation of Some Heavy Metal Contamination in Malva parviflora L. Plant and Soil Obtained from Gardens of College of Agriculture-University of Baghdad. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 13: 310-313.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2014.310.313



1:  Afolayan, A.J., O.M. Aboyade and M.O. Sofidiya, 2008. Total phenolic content and free radical scavenging activity of Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae). J. Biol. Sci., 8: 945-949.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Abbas, A.H., S.W. Mohammed, F.J. Abu-Alur and A.W. Sadii, 2011. The mutagenic effect of water extracts of Malva parviflora by bacterial system (part II). J. Baghdad Sci., 8: 416-424.

3:  El-Rjoob, A.W.O. and M.N. Omari, 2009. Heavy metals contamination in Malva parviflora L. (Malvaceae) grown in soils near the Irbid-Amman Highway. J. Int. Environ. Applic. Sci., 4: 433-441.

4:  Beer, L. and J. Howiem, 1985. Growing Hibiscus. Kangaroo Press, Hong Kong, pp: 25-36

5:  Bouriche, H., H. Meziti, A. Senator and J. Arnhold, 2011. Anti-inflammatory, free radical-scavenging and metal-chelating activities of Malva parviflora. Pharmaceut. Biol., 49: 942-946.
CrossRef  |  

6:  Concon, J.M., 1988. Food Toxicology: Contaminants and Additives. Marcel Dekker, New York, ISBN-13: 9780824777371, Pages: 1371

7:  Fagbote, E.O. and E.O. Olanipekun, 2010. Evaluation of the status of heavy metal pollution of soil and plant (Chromolaena odorata) of Agbabu Bitumen deposit area, Nigeria. Am. Eurosian J. Sci. Res., 5: 241-248.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Ewers, U., 1991. Standards, Guidelines and Legislative Regulations Concerning Metals and their Compounds. In: Metals and Their Compounds in the Environment: Occurrence, Analysis and Biological Relevance, Merian, E. (Ed.). VCH, Weinheim, pp: 458-468

9:  Codex Alimentarius Commission, 2001. Food additives and contaminants joint codex alimentarius commission. FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, ALINORM 01/12A, pp: 1-289.

10:  Tadeg, H., E. Mohammed, K. Asres and T. Gebre-Mariam, 2005. Antimicrobial activities of some selected traditional Ethiopian medicinal plants used in the treatment of skin disorders. J. Ethnopharmacol., 100: 168-175.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

11:  Hunt, J.R., 2003. Bioavailability of iron, zinc and other trace minerals from vegetarian diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 78: 633S-639S.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Iqbal, H., B. Khattak, S. Ayaz, A. Rehman and M. Ishfaq et al., 2013. Pollution based study of heavy metals in medicinal plants Aloe vera and Tamarix aphylla. J. Applied Pharm. Sci., 3: 54-58.

13:  Baye, H. and A. Hymete, 2013. Levels of heavy metals in common medicinal plants collected from environmentally different sites, middle-east. J. Sci. Res., 13: 938-943.
Direct Link  |  

14:  Jasim, T.M., 2006. Study of the antibacterial activity of Malva Neglegta. Tikrit J. Pharm. Sci., 2: 15-18.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Kabata, P.A. and H. Pendias, 1992. Trace Element in Soils and Plants. 1st Edn., CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL., USA., Pages: 365

16:  Khan, S., Q. Cao, Y.M. Zheng, Y.Z. Huang and Y.G. Zhu, 2008. Health risks of heavy metals in contaminated soils and food crops irrigated with wastewater in Beijing, China. Environ. Pollut., 152: 686-692.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Khairiah, J., M.K. Zalifah, Y.H. Yin and A. Aminah, 2004. The uptake of heavy metals by fruit type vegetables grown in selected agricultural areas. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 7: 1438-1442.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Lacatusu, R., 2000. Appraising levels of soil contamination and pollution with heavy metals. European Soil Bureau, Research Report No. 4, pp: 93-402.

19:  Al-Chaarani, N., J.H. El-Nakat, P.J. Obeid and S. Aouad, 1980. Measurement of levels of heavy metal contamination in vegetables grown and sold in selected areas in Lebanon. Jordan J. Chem., 4: 303-315.
Direct Link  |  

20:  National Research Council, 1989. Food and Nutrition Board Recommended Dietary Allowances. 10th Edn., National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA

21:  Radwan, M.A. and A.K. Salama, 2006. Market basket survey for some heavy metals in Egyptian fruits and vegetables. Food Chem. Toxicol., 44: 1273-1278.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  Shale, T.L., W.A. Stirk and J. van Staden, 1999. Screening of medicinal plants used in Lesotho for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. J. Ethnopharmacol., 67: 347-354.
CrossRef  |  

23:  Spira, T.P. and L.K. Wagner, 1983. Viability of seeds up to 211 years old extracted from adobe brick buildings of California and northern Mexico. Am. J. Bot., 70: 303-307.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Shale, T.L., W.A. Stirk and J. Van Staden, 2005. Variation in antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity of different growth forms of Malva parviflora and evidence for synergism of the anti-inflammatory compounds. J. Ethnopharmacol., 96: 325-330.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

25:  Seyyednejad, S.M., H. Koochak, E. Darabpour and H. Motamedi, 2010. A survey on Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Alcea rosea L. and Malva neglecta Wallr as antibacterial agents. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Med., 3: 351-355.
CrossRef  |  

26:  Subramanian, R., S. Gayathri, C. Rathnavel and V. Raj, 2012. Analysis of mineral and heavy metals in some medicinal plants collected from local market. Asian Pac. J. Trop. Biomed., 2: S74-S78.
CrossRef  |  

27:  Schofield, R.K. and A.W. Taylor, 1955. The measurement of soil pH. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J., 19: 164-167.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Khan, S.A., L. Khan, I. Hussain, K.B. Marwat and N. Akhtar, 2008. Profile of heavy metals in selected medicinal plants. Pak. J. Weed Sci. Res., 14: 101-110.
Direct Link  |  

29:  Shils, M.E., J.A. Olson and M. Shike, 1994. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th Edn., Lea and Febiger, Malvern, PA., USA., pp: 459-465

30:  Uwah, E.I. and V.O. Ogugbuaja, 2012. Investigation of some heavy metals in Citrullus vulgaris, Cucumis sativus and soils obtained from gardens being irrigated with wastewater in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Global Res. J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 3: 373-380.

31:  WHO, 1998. Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, ISBN-13: 9789241545105, Pages: 115

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved