Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Effect of High Protein Diet Containing Fortified Bread with Fenugreek and Nigella sativa Seeds on Rats Suffering from Diabetes



Mohamed Y. Mahmoud
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The present work was conducted to study the effect of high protein diet containing fortified bread with two levels from fenugreek seeds (FS), Nigella sativa seeds (NSS) and combination of them on the nutritional value, percent of liver weight/body weight, lipid parameters, kidney and liver functions, serum glucose and thyroid hormones of rats suffering from diabetes. Sixty male albino rats (150-165 g) were used in this study. After a period of adaptation the rats were divided into two main groups. The first main group (12 rats) divided into two subgroups (n = 6), these subgroups were fed on normal and high protein diets (14 and 20% protein) containing 250 g un-fortified bread, respectively, as control negative groups. While the second main group (48 rats) was injected with alloxane (150 mg/ kg body weight) to induce hyperglycemia. The second main group divided into eight subgroups (n = 6), subgroups (1 and 2) fed on normal and high protein diets containing 250 g un-fortified bread, as a positive control groups. Subgroups (3 and 4) fed on high protein diets containing 250 g bread fortified with 5 and 10% FS, respectively. Subgroups (5 and 6) fed on high protein diets containing 250 g bread fortified with 5 and 10% NSS, respectively. The last subgroups (7 and 8) fed on high protein diets containing 250 g bread fortified with (5% FS and 5% NSS) and (10% FS and 10% NSS), respectively. Addition fortified bread with FS, NSS and combination of them to high protein diets decreased feed intake and body weight gain%, these treatments decreased the percent liver weight/ body weight, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL-c), uric acid, urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate amino transferase (AST) and alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase, serum glucose, as compared to the positive control groups, while high-density lipoprotein (HDL-c), T3 and T4 increased. It was concluded that, treating diabetic rats with high protein diet containing fortified bread with (10% FS and 10% NSS) realized the best effect on serum glucose, lipid profile, thyroid hormones, kidney and liver functions, followed by the groups which treated with fortified bread with high levels from FS and NSS.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Mohamed Y. Mahmoud , 2013. Effect of High Protein Diet Containing Fortified Bread with Fenugreek and Nigella sativa Seeds on Rats Suffering from Diabetes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 12: 736-747.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2013.736.747

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.736.747

REFERENCES
AOAC, 1975. Official Methods of Analysis of Assocication of Official Agricultural Chemists. 12th Edn., AOAC, Washington, D.C., USA.

AOAC, 1990. Official Methods of Analysis of Assocication of Official Agricultural Chemists. 15th Edn., AOAC, Washington DC., USA.

Ahmed, M., R.P. Doe and F.Q. Nuttall, 1974. Triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis following iodide ingestion: A case report. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab., 38: 574-576.
PubMed  |  

Ajabnoor, M.A. and A.K. Tilmisany, 1988. Effect of Trigonella foenum graceum on blood glucose levels in normal and alloxan-diabetic mice. J. Ethnopharmacol., 22: 45-49.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Al-Ghamdi, M.S., 2003. Protective effect of Nigella sativa seeds against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage. Am. J. Chin. Med., 31: 721-728.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Al-Habori, M. and A. Raman, 1998. Antidiabetic and hypocholesterolaemia effects of fenugreek. Phytother. Res., 12: 233-242.
CrossRef  |  

Al-Habori, M., A.M. Al-Aghbari and M. Al-Mamary, 1998. Effects of fenugreek seeds and its extracts on plasma lipid profile: A study on rabbits. Phytother. Res., 12: 572-575.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Al-Okbi, S., Y. Ammar, M. Nagwa and M.M. Abd El-Kader, 1997. Studies of some biochemical, nutritional and anti-inflammatory effects of Nigella sativa seeds. Egypt. J. Pharm. Sci., 38: 451-469.

Al-Rawais, N.A., 2002. Herbal medicine in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Saudi Med. J., 23: 1327-1331.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Ali, B.H. and G. Blunden, 2003. Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytother. Res., 17: 299-305.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Allain, C.C., L.S. Poon, C.S.G. Chan, W. Richmond and P.C. Fu, 1974. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. Clin. Chem., 20: 470-475.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Amin, R., A.S. Abdul-Ghani and M.S. Suleiman, 1987. Effect of Trigonella feonum graecum on intestinal absorption. Proceedings of the 47th Annual Meeting of the American Diabetes Association, Volume 36, June 1987, Indianapolis, USA., pp: 211-.

Annida, B. and P.S.M. Prince, 2004. Supplementation of fenugreek leaves lower lipid profile in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. J. Med. Food, 7: 153-156.
PubMed  |  

Anwar, M.M. and A.R.M.A. Meki, 2003. Oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats: Effects of garlic oil and melatonin. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part A: Mol. Integr. Physiol., 135: 539-547.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Baba, N.H., S. Sawaya, N. Torbay, Z. Habbal, S. Azar and S.A. Hashim, 1999. High protein vs high carbohydrate hypoenergetic diet for the treatment of obese hyperinsulinemic subjects. Int. J. Obesity, 23: 1202-1206.
Direct Link  |  

Bamosa, A.O., H. Kaatabi, F.M. Lebda, A. Al-Elq and A. Al-Sultan, 2010. Effects of Nigella sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 54: 344-354.
PubMed  |  

Bartels, H. and M. Bohmer, 1971. [Micro-determination of creatinine]. Clinica Chimica Acta, 32: 81-85, (In German).
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Basch, E., C. Ulbricht, G. Kuo, P. Szapary and M. Smith, 2003. Therapeutic applications of fenugreek. Altern. Med. Rev., 8: 20-27.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Belguith-Hadriche, O., M. Bouaziz, K. Jamoussi, A. El Feki, S. Sayadi and F. Makni-Ayedi, 2010. Lipid-lowering and antioxidant effects of an ethyl acetate extract of fenugreek seeds in high-cholesterol-fed rats. J. Agric. Food Chem., 58: 2116-2122.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Bergmeyer, H.U. and E. Brent, 1974. Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. Academic Press, New York, Pp: 735-760.

Botnick, I., W. Xue, E. Bar, M. Ibdah and A. Schwartz et al., 2012. Distribution of primary and specialized metabolites in Nigella sativa seeds, a spice with vast traditional and historical uses. Molecules, 24: 10159-10177.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Britton, K.E., V. Quinn, B.L. Brown and R.P. Ekins, 1975. A strategy for thyroid function tests. Br. Med. J., 3: 350-352.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Buko, V., O. Lukivskayam, V. Nikitin, Y. Tarasov, L. Zavodnik, A. Borodinsky and B. Gorenshtein, 1996. Hepatic and pancreatic effects of olyenoyl-phosphatidylcholine in rats with alloxan-induced diabetes. Cell Biochem. Funct., 14: 131-137.

Cayen, M.N. and D. Dvornik, 1979. Effect of diosgenin on lipid metabolism in rats. J. Lipid Res., 20: 162-174.
PubMed  |  

Chatterjee, S., P.S. Variyar and A. Sharma, 2010. Bioactive lipid constituents of fenugreek. Food Chem., 119: 349-353.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Chattopadhyay, R.R. and M. Bandyopadhyay, 2005. Effect of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on serum lipid profile changes in normal and streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Afr. J. Biomed. Res., 8: 101-104.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Dahri, A.H., A.M. Chandio, A.A. Rahoo and R.A. Memon, 2005. Effect of Nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum cholesterol of albino rats. J. Ayub. Med. Coll. Abbottabad, 17: 72-74.
PubMed  |  

El-Dakhakhny, M., N.I. Mady and M.A. Halim, 2000. Nigella sativa L. oil protects against induced hepatotoxicity and improves serum lipid profile in rats. Arzneimittelforschung, 50: 832-836.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

El-Kamali, H.H. and M.Y. El-Amir, 2010. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical screening of ethanolic extracts obtained from selected Sudanese medicinal plants. Curr. Res. J. Biol. Sci., 2: 143-146.
Direct Link  |  

Farnsworth, E., N.D. Luscombe, M. Noakes, G. Wittert, E. Argyiou and P.M. Clifton, 2003. Effect of a high-protein, energy-restricted diet on body composition, glycemic control and lipid concentrations in overweight and obese hyperinsulinemic men and women. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 78: 31-39.
PubMed  |  

Fossati, P. and L. Prencipe, 1982. Serum triglycerides determined colorimetrically with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. Clin. Chem., 28: 2077-2080.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Fossati, P., L. Prencipe and G. Berti, 1980. Enzymatic colorimetric method of determination of uric acid in serum. Clin. Chem., 26: 227-273.

Fountoulakis, S., G. Philippou and A. Tsatsoulis, 2007. The role of iodine in the evolution of thyroid disease in Greece: From endemic goiter to thyroid autoimmunity. Hormones, 6: 25-35.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Friedewald, W.T., R.I. Levy and D.S. Fredrickson, 1972. Estimation of the concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma, without use of the preparative ultracentrifuge. Clin. Chem., 18: 499-502.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Gabir, M.M., R.L. Hanson, D. Dabelea, G. Imperator, J. Roumain and P.H. Bennette, 2000. Plasma glucose and prediction of micro vascular disease and mortality: Evaluation of 1997 American Diabetes Association and WHO criteria for diagnosis of diabetes. Diabetes Care, 23: 1113-1118.
PubMed  |  

Gad, M.Z., M.M. El-Sawalhi, M.F. Ismail and N.D. El-Tanbouly, 2006. Biochemical study of the anti-diabetic action of the Egyptian plants Fenugreek and Balanites. Mol. Cell. Biochem., 281: 173-183.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Geetha, M., S.K. Reddy, A.M. Krupanidhi, K.S. Muralikrishna, N. Patil and P. Prashanth, 2011. Effect of fenugreek on total body and organ weights: A study on mice. Pharmacologyonline, 3: 747-752.
Direct Link  |  

Halton, T.L. and F.B. Hu, 2004. The effects of high protein diets on thermogenesis, satiety and weight loss: A critical review. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 23: 373-385.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Hamdy, N.M. and A. Taha, 2009. Effects of Nigella sativa oil and thymoquinone on oxidative stress and neuropathy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Pharmacology, 84: 127-134.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Handa, T., K. Yamaguchi, Y. Sono and K. Yazawa, 2005. Effects of fenugreek seed extract in obese mice fed a high-fat diet. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 69: 1186-1188.
CrossRef  |  

Hannan, J.M.A., L. Ali, B. Rokeya, J. Khaleque and M. Akhter et al., 2007. Soluble dietary fibre fraction of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) seed improves glucose homeostasis in animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes by delaying carbohydrate digestion and absorption and enhancing insulin action. Br. J. Nutr., 97: 514-521.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Hassanin, N.I. and F.M. Hassan, 1996. A preliminary study on effect of Nigella sativa seeds on hyperglycemia. Vet. Med. J., 44: 699-708.

Hedaya, S.A., 1995. Effect of Nigella sativa (black seeds) extract on some haematological and biochemical parameters in rats. Alex. J. Vet. Sci., 11: 95-99.

Ismail, M., G. Al-Naqeep and K.W. Chan, 2010. Nigella sativa thymoquinone-rich fraction greatly improves plasma antioxidant capacity and expression of antioxidant genes in hypercholesterolemic rats. Free Radical Biol. Med., 48: 664-672.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Kaatabi, H., A.O. Bamosa, F.M. Lebda, A.H. Al Elq and A.I. Al-Sultan, 2012. Favorable impact of Nigella sativa seeds on lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. J. Family Community Med., 19: 155-161.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Kaczmar, T., 1998. Herbal support for diabetes management. Clin. Nutr. Insights, 6: 1-4.
Direct Link  |  

Kalus, U., A. Ptuss, J. Bystron, M. Jureka, A. Smekalova, J.J. Lichius and H. Kiesewetter, 2003. Effect of Nigella sativa (black seed) on subjective feeling in patients with allergic diseases. Phytother. Res., 17: 1209-1214.
Direct Link  |  

Kaviarasan, S. and C.V. Anuradha, 2007. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graecum) seed polyphenols protect liver alcohol toxicity: A role on hepatic detoxification system and apoptosis. Pharmazi, 62: 299-304.
Direct Link  |  

Kaviarasan, S., N. Ramamurty, P. Gunasekaran, E. Varalakshmi and C.V. Anuradha, 2006. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seed extract prevents ethanol-induced toxicity and apoptosis in chang liver cells. Alcohol Alcoholism 41: 267-273.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Kaviarasan, S., P. Viswanathan and C.V. Anuradha, 2007. Fenugreek seed (Trigonella foenum graecum) polyphenols inhibit ethanol-induced collagen and lipid accumulation in rat liver. Cell Biol. Toxicol., 23: 373-383.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Krentz, A.J., 2003. Lipoprotein abnormalities and their consequences for patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes. Metab., 5: S19-S27.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Kumar, G.S., A.K. Shetty, K. Sambaiah and P.V. Salimath, 2005. Antidiabetic property of fenugreek seed mucilage and spent turmeric in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Nutr. Res., 25: 1021-1028.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Laroubi, A., M. Touhami, L. Farouk, I. Zrara, R. Aboufatima, A. Benharref and A. Chait, 2007. Prophylaxis effect of Trigonella foenum graecum L. seeds on renal stone formation in rats. Phytother. Res., 21: 921-925.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Layman, D.K., R.A. Boileau, D.J. Erickson, J.E. Painter, H. Shiue, C. Sather and D.D. Christou, 2003. A reduced ratio of dietary carbohydrate to protein improves body composition and blood lipid profiles during weight loss in adult women. J. Nutr., 133: 411-417.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Le, P.M., A. Benhaddou-Andaloussi, A. Elimadi, A. Settaf, Y. Cherrah and P.S. Haddad, 2004. The petroleum ether extract of Nigella sativa exerts lipid-lowering and insulin-sensitizing actions in the rat. J. Ethnopharmacol., 94: 251-259.
CrossRef  |  

Lopes-Virella, M.F., P. Stone, S. Ellis and J.A. Colwell, 1977. Cholesterol determination in high-density lipoproteins separated by three different methods. Clin. Chem., 23: 882-884.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Madar, Z. and A.H. Stark, 2002. New legume sources as therapeutic agents. Br. J. Nutr., 88: S287-S292.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Mathur, M.L., J. Gaur, R. Sharma and K.R. Haldiya, 2011. Antidiabetic properties of a spice plant Nigella sativa. J. Endocrinol. Metab., 1: 1-8.
Direct Link  |  

Mazentaip, E.A., 2004. Biochemical studies on some Egyptian foods. M.Sc. Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

Meera, R., P. Devi, B. Kameswari, B. Madhumitha and N.J. Merlin, 2009. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of Ocimum basilicum Linn. and Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. against H2O2 and CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity in goat liver. Indian J. Exp. Biol., 47: 584-590.
PubMed  |  

Meral, I., Z. Yener, H. Ozbek and R. Ustun, 2003. Effects of Nigella sativa L. on serum concentration of thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone and glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Ir. Vet. J., 56: 462-464.

Meral, I., Z. Yener, H. Ozbek and R. Ustun, 2003. Effects of Nigella sativa L. on serum concentration of thyroid hormones, thyroid stimulating hormone and glucose in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Ir. Vet. J., 56: 462-464.

Mitra, A. and D. Bhattacharya, 2004. Dose-dependent effects of fenugreek composite in diabetes with dislipidaemia. Int. J. Food Safety, 8: 49-55.
Direct Link  |  

Mondal, D.K., B.M. Yousuf, L.A. Banu, R. Ferdousi and K.M. Shamim, 2004. Effect of fenugreek seeds on the fasting blood glucose level in the streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Mymensingh Med. J., 13: 161-164.
PubMed  |  

Nader, M.A., D.S. El-Agamy and G.M. Suddek, 2010. Protective effects of propolis and thymoquinone on development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. Arch. Pharm. Res., 33: 637-643.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Narender, T., A. Puri, Shweta, T. Khaliq, R. Saxena, G. Bhatia and R. Chandra, 2006. 4-hydroxyisoleucine an unusual amino acid as antidyslipidemic and antihyperglycemic agent. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett., 16: 293-296.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Nickavar, B., F. Mojab, K. Javidnia and M.A.R. Amoli, 2003. Chemical composition of the fixed and volatile oils of Nigella sativa L. from Iran. Zeitschrift Naturforschung C, 58: 629-631.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

O'Keefe Jr., J.H., B.K. Captain, P.G. Jones and W.S. Harris, 2004. Atrovastatin reduces remnant lipoproteins and small, dense low-density lipoprteins regardless of the baseline lipid pattern. Prev. Cardiol., 7: 154-160.
PubMed  |  

Otoom, S.A., S.A. Al-Safi, Z.K. Kerem and A. Alkofahi, 2006. The use of medicinal herbs by diabetic Jordanian patients. J. Herb. Pharmacother, 6: 31-41.
Direct Link  |  

Panda, S., P. Tahiliani and A. Kar, 1999. Inhibition of triiodothyronine production by fenugreek seed extract in mice and rats. Pharmacol. Res., 40: 405-409.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Parker, B., M. Noakes, N. Luscombe and P. Clifton, 2002. Effect of a high-protein, high-monounsaturated fat weight loss diet on glycemic control and lipid levels in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25: 425-430.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Patton, C.J. and S.R. Crouch, 1977. Enzymatic colorimetric method to determination urea in serum. Anal. Chem., 49: 464-464.

Raghuram, T.C., R.D. Sharma, B. Sivakumar and B. Sivakumar, B.K. Sahay, 1994. Effect of fenugreek seeds on intravenous glucose disposition in non-insulin dependent diabetic patients. Phytother. Res., 8: 83-86.
CrossRef  |  

Raghuram, T.C., S. Pasricha and R.D. Sharma, 1993. Diet and Diabetes. 2nd Edn., National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, pp: 33.

Reeves, P.G., F.H. Nielsen and G.C. Fahmy, 1993. Reported of the American institute of nutrition ADHC wriling committee on the reformulation of AIN-76 rodent diet. J. Nutr., 123: 1939-1951.

Reitman, S. and S. Frankel, 1957. A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 28: 56-63.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Sakr, S.A. and S.M. Abo-El-Yazid, 2012. Effect of fenugreek seed extract on adriamycin-induced hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress in albino rats. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 28: 876-885.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Sauvaire, Y., G. Ribes, J.C. Baccou and M.M. Loubatieres-Mariani, 1991. Implication of steroid saponins and sapogenins in the hypocholesterolemic effect of fenugreek. Lipids, 26: 191-197.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Sauvaire, Y., P. Petit, C. Broca, M. Manteghetti and Y. Baissac et al., 1998. 4-hydroxyisoleucine: A novel amino acid potentiator of insulin secretion. Diabetes, 47: 206-210.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Sharif, S.H., B.M. Elmahdi, A.M.A. Mohammed and A.H. Mohammed, 2012. The effects of Nigella sativa L. ethanolic extract on thyroid function in normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thyroid Res. Pract., 9: 48-52.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Sluszkiewicz, E., 1986. Thyroid function in insulin-dependent diabetic children. Exp. Clin. Endocrinol., 87: 345-348.

Soskic, S.S., B.D. Dobutovic, E.M. Sudar, M.M. Obradovic and D.M. Nikolic et al., 2011. Regulation of Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase (iNOS) and its potential role in insulin resistance, diabetes and heart failure. Open Cardiovasc. Med. J., 5: 153-163.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Srichamroen, A., C.J. Field, A.B.R. Thomson and T.K. Basu, 2008. The modifying effects of galactomannan from canadian-grown fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) on the glycemic and lipidemic status in rats. J. Clin. Biochem. Nutr., 43: 167-174.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

Stark, A. and Z. Madar, 1993. The effect of an ethanol extract derived from fenugreek on bile acid absorption and cholesterol level in rats. Br. J. Nutr., 69: 277-287.

Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 2nd Edn., McGraw Hill Book Co., New York, USA., ISBN-13: 9780070609266, Pages: 633.

Story, J.A. and M.J. Kelley, 1982. Dietary Fibre and Lipoproteins. In: The Effect of Dietary Fibre on Lipoprotein Cholesterol is due to its Association with Absorption and Transport of Lipids Dietary Fiber in Health Disease, Vahouny, G.V. and D. Kritchevsky (Eds.). Plenum Press, New York pp: 229-236.

Tahraoui, A., J. El-Hilaly, Z.H. Israili and B. Lyoussi, 2007. Ethnopharmacological survey of plants used in the traditional treatment of hypertension and diabetes in South-Eastern Morocco (Errachidia province). J. Ethnopharmacol., 110: 105-117.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Tanyeri, F., M. Alvur, Z. Yildizba and K. Cengiz, 1993. Evaluation of thyroid hormones and cortisol levels in patients with type II diabetes mellitus. Turk. J. Med. Sci., 17: 137-143.

Trinder, P., 1969. Determination of blood glucose using 4-amino phenazone as oxygen acceptor. J. Clin. Pathol., 22: 246-246.
Direct Link  |  

Valette, G., Y. Sauvaire, J.C. Baccou and G. Ribes, 1984. Hypocholesterolaemic effect of fenugreek seeds in dogs. Atherosclerosis, 50: 105-111.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Vijayakumar, M.V., V. Pandey, G.C. Mishra and M.K. Bhat, 2010. Hypolipidemic effect of fenugreek seeds is mediated through inhibition of fat accumulation and upregulation of LDL receptor. Obesity, 18: 667-674.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Vozarova, B., N. Stefan, R.S. Lindsay, A. Saremi, R.E. Pratley, C. Bogardus and P.A. Tataranni, 2002. High alanine aminotransferase is associated with decreased hepatic insulin sensitivity and predicts the development of type 2 diabetes. Diabetes, 51: 1889-1895.
Direct Link  |  

Vuorela, P., M, Leinonen, P. Saikku, P. Tammela, J.P. Rauha, T. Wennberg and H. Vuorela, 2004. Natural products in the process of finding new drug candidates. Curr. Med. Chem., 11: 1375-1389.
PubMed  |  

Wolfe, B.M. and P.M. Giovannetti, 1991. Short-term effects of substituting protein for carbohydrate in the diets of moderately hypercholesterolemic human subjects. Metabolism, 40: 338-343.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Xue, W.L., X.S. Li, J. Zhang, Y.H. Liu, Z.L. Wang and R.J. Zhang, 2007. Effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek) extract on blood glucose, blood lipid and hemorheological properties in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Asia Pac. J. Clin. Nutr., 16: 422-426.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Zaoui, A., Y. Cherrah, K. Aloui, N. Mahassine, H. Amarouch and M. Hassar, 2002. Effect of Nigella sativa fixed oil on blood homeostasis in rat. J. Ethnopharmacol., 79: 23-26.
CrossRef  |  

Zimmet, P., K.G.M.M. Alberti and J. Shaw, 2001. Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic. Nature, 414: 782-787.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved