Evaluation of Phytochemical Composition and Antimicrobial
Activity of Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas) Leaf
Sweet Potato Leave (SPL) powder and its peptone, ethanol and
water extracts were subjected to proximate, phytochemical, anti-nutrient and
antimicrobial analysis. The results of proximate analysis revealed the presence
of high carbohydrate (43.971±0.019-56.472±0.009%) and crude protein
(16.497±0.003-28.163±0.003%). The sweet potato leaves powder and
the extracts also contain moisture (3.603±0.004-16.921±0.008%),
ash (5.563±0.004-10.414±0.007%), fat (0.208±0.007-14.264±0.002%)
and fibre (0.244±0.003-2.764±0.003%), respectively. The phytochemical
screening revealed the presence of bioactive compounds in the SPL powder and
its extracts namely; tannins, alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, saponins, flavonoids
and soluble carbohydrates. The SPL powder had the highest content of these bioactive
compounds with alkaloid having the highest value of 3.784±0.007mg/100g,
followed by flavonoid (3.357±0.006mg/100g) and steroid had the lowest
value (0.393±0.003mg/100g). The extracts had highest content of flavonoid
ranging between 2.762±0.008 and 3.355±0.004 mg/100g and least
content of steroid ranging between 0.357±0.002 and 0.375±0.003mg/100g.
The anti-nutrient analysis indicated the content of very high amount of oxalate
ranging between 1.664±0.004 and 6.254±0.004% in the four samples.
They contained lower amounts of phytate (3.897±0.003 to 5.933±0.003mg/100g),
cyanide (0.353±0.003 to 1.444±0.004mg/100g) and tannin (5.527±0.002
to 9.010±0.002mg/100g). The antimicrobial activity of the peptone, water
and ethanol extracts was tested against Escherichia coli, Salmonella
typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium
spp., Pseudomonas aeroginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. The
water extract showed the best antimicrobial activity by inhibiting the growth
of all the organisms except E. coli and Penicillium spp at different
concentrations of the extract. While the ethanol and peptone extracts
only had a minimal activity against Salmonella typhi.
Aja, P.M., A.N.C. Okaka, P.N. Onu, U. Ibiam and A.J. Urako, 2010.
Phytochemical composition of Talinum triangulare
(water leaf) leaves. Pak. J. Nutr., 9: 527-530.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA
A visual guide to yams and sweet potatoes (Plus how they fit into a primary eating plan). http://www.marksdailyapple.com/difference-yams-sweet-potatoes/#axzz2icvDPvYm
Anowi, C.F., N.C. Cardinal, C.J. Mbah and T.C. Onyekaba, 2012.
Antimicrobial properties of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Nauclea latifolia
. Int. J. Drug Res. Technol., 2: 45-55.Direct Link |
Antia, B.S., E.J. Akpan, P.A. Okon and I.U. Umoren, 2006.
Nutritive and anti-nutritive evaluation of sweet potatoes (Ipomoea batatas
) leaves. Pak. J. Nutr., 5: 166-168.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Aregheore, E.M., 2012.
Nutritive value and inherent anti-nutritive factors in four indigenous edible leafy vegetables in human nutrition in Nigeria: A review. J. Food Resour. Sci., 1: 1-14.CrossRef |
Bamishaiye, E.I., F.F. Olayemi, E.F. Awagu and O.M. Bamshaiye, 2011.
Proximate and phytochemical composition of Moringa oleifera
leaves at three stages of maturation. Adv. J. Food Sci. Technol., 3: 233-237.Direct Link |
Commercial and high quality cultivars of root and tuber crops for processing purpose in the northern and central vietnam. Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Vietnam.
Cowan, M.M., 1999.
Plant products and antimicrobial agents. Clin. Microbiol. Rev., 12: 564-582.PubMed | Direct Link |
Duke, J.A., 1998. Ipomoea batatas
(L.) lam. Purdue University.
Etuk, E.U., M.N. Bassey, U.O. Umoh and E.G. Inyang, 1998.
Comparative nutritional studies on three Local varieties of Heinsia crinita
. Plant Varieties Seeds, 11: 151-158.Direct Link |
Fasuyi, A.O., 2006.
Nutritional potentials of some tropical vegetable leaf meals: Chemical characterization and functional properties. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 5: 49-53.Direct Link |
Harborne, J.B., 1973.
Phytochemical Method of Analysis. Chapman and Hall Ltd., London
Ishiguro, K., J. Toyama, S. Islam, M. Yoshimoto and T. Kumagai et al
Suioh, a new sweetpotato cultivar for utilization in vegetable greens. Acta Horticult., 637: 339-345.
Islam, S., M. Jalaluddin, M. Yoshimoto and O. Yamakawa, 2004.
Growth inhibition of pathogenic bacteria by artificially grown Ipomoea batatas
(L.) leaf. Hort. Sci., 39: 778-778.
Kemper Center for Home Gardening, 2009.. Ipomoea batatas
. Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.mobot.org/gardeninghelp/plantfinder/plant.asp?code=A587#lbl_culture.
Low, J., R. Kapinga, D. Cole, C. Loechl, J. Lynam and M. Andrade, 2009.
Unleashing potential of sweet potato in sub-saharan Africa: Nutritional impact with orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP). Social Sci. Working Paper, 1: 73-104.
Oboh, G., 2006.
Nutritive value and haemolytic properties In vitro
of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina
on human erythrocyte. Nutr. Health, 18: 151-160.PubMed |
Ogbe, A.O. and J.P. Affiku, 2011.
Proximate study, mineral and anti-nutrient composition of Moringa oleifera
leaves harvested from Lafia, Nigeria: Potential benefits in poultry nutrition and health. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Food Sci., 1: 296-308.Direct Link |
Oloyede, O.I., 2005.
Chemical profile of unripe pulp of Carica papaya
. Pak. J. Nutr., 4: 379-381.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Onwordi, C.T., A.M. Ogungbade and A.D. Wusu, 2009.
The proximate and mineral composition of three leafy vegetables commonly consumed in Lagos, Nigeria. Afr. J. Pure Applied Chem., 3: 102-107.
Onwuka, G.I., 2005.
Food Analysis: Theory and Practice. Naphthali Prints, Lagos, Nigeria, pp: 133-199
Onyeka, E.U. and I.O. Nwambekwe, 2007.
Phytochemical profile of some green leafy vegetables in South East, Nigeria. Niger. Food J., 25: 67-76.Direct Link |
Oyenuga, V.A., 1968.
Nigerian Foods and Feeding Stuffs, their Chemistry and Nutritve Value. Ibadan University Press, Ibadan, pp: 23-27
Pearson, D., 1978.
The Chemical Analysis of Foods. 7th Edn., Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, pp: 494-497
Pochapski, M.T., E.C. Fosquiera, L.A. Esmerino, E.B. Dos Santos, P.V. Farago, F.A. Santos and F.C. Groppo, 2011.
Phytochemical screening, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the crude leaves' extract from Ipomoea batatas
(L.) lam. Pharmacogn. Mag., 7: 165-170.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Schronk, M.J., 2010.
The sweet potato: An important part of human health. Department of Horticulture, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843.
Tijjani, M.B., I.J. Bello, A.B. Aliyu, T. Olurishe, S.M. Maidawa, J.D. Habila and E.O. Balogun, 2009.
Phytochemical and antimicrobial studies of root extract of Cochlospermum tinctorium
A. rich. (Cochlospermaceae). Res. J. Med. Plants, 3: 16-22.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Wan, J., A. Wilcock and M.J. Conventry, 1998.
Comparative evaluation of methods commonly used to determine antimicrobial susceptibility to plant extracts and phenolic compounds. J. Applied Microbiol., 84: 152-158.