Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Dietary Intakes of Urban Adolescents of Sialkot, Pakistan Do Not Meet the Standards of Adequacy



Rifat-uz- Zaman, Zafar Iqbal and Usman Ali
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

There is paucity of national data on dietary intakes of adolescents in Pakistan presently. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the dietary intake and nutritional status of urban adolescents in a cross-sectional descriptive survey. A convenience sample of 328 high school students (46.67% female and 53.33% male; mean age, 14.3 years) in Sialkot, Pakistan was analyzed by a demographic questionnaire with lifestyle and health-related questions and kept a 3-day food record for evaluation of dietary intake. Anthropometric measurements, including body composition, were performed. Female adolescents had significantly lower total energy intake than male adolescents (P<0.001); however, percentage of killocalorie distribution of protein (12.5%), carbohydrate (51.5%) and fat (36.3%) was similar between male and female adolescents. Male participants had significantly higher micronutrient intakes than female adolescents while female consumed more caffeine than male participants. Both male and female did not meet the estimated average requirements and/or adequate intakes for vitamins A, C, D and E, calcium, potassium and magnesium, whereas more than 70% of female adolescents did not meet the recommendations for vitamin A, D, E, folic acid, phosphorus, zinc and approximately 44% of them did not meet the estimated average requirements for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, iron and manganese. Dietary intake among Pakistani high schools student population intakes in many macro- and micro-minerals, especially in female adolescents, do not meet the standards of adequacy and it reflects the inadequate dietary intake and eating patterns compared with adolescents in other countries.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Rifat-uz- Zaman, Zafar Iqbal and Usman Ali, 2013. Dietary Intakes of Urban Adolescents of Sialkot, Pakistan Do Not Meet the Standards of Adequacy. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 12: 460-467.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2013.460.467

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.460.467

REFERENCES
1:  Abudayya, A.H., H. Stigum, Z. Shi, Y. Abed and G. Holmboe-Ottesen, 2009. Sociodemographic correlates of food habits among school adolescents (12-15 year) in North Gaza Strip. BMC Public Health, Vol. 9. 10.1186/1471-2458-9-185

2:  Aeberli, I., G.A. Spinas, R. Lehmann, D. I'Allemand, L. Molinari and M.B. Zimmermann, 2009. Diet determines features of the metabolic syndrome in 6- to 14-year-old children. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res., 79: 14-23.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

3:  Alizadeh, M., J. Mohtadinia, B. Pourghasem-Gargari and A. Esmaillzadeh, 2012. Major dietary patterns among female adolescent girls of Talaat Intelligent Guidance School, Tabriz, Iran. Iran. Red Crescent Med. J., 14: 436-441.
Direct Link  |  

4:  Amorim Cruz, J.A., 2000. Dietary habits and nutritional status in adolescents over Europe-Southern Europe. Eur. J. Clin. Nutri., 54: S29-S35.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Annweiler, C., O. Beauchet, G. Berrut, B. Fantino, M. Bonnefoy, F.R. Herrmann and A.M. Schott, 2009. Is there an association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration and muscle strength among older women? Results from baseline assessment of the EPIDOS study. J. Nutr. Health Aging, 13: 90-95.
CrossRef  |  

6:  Ansari, T., L. Ali, T. Aziz, J. Ara, N. Liaquat and H. Tahir, 2009. Nutritional iron deficiency in women of child bearing age: What to do? J. Ayub Med. Coll. Abbottabad, 21: 17-20.
Direct Link  |  

7:  Anwar, A., F. Anwar, H.U. Joiya, A. Ijaz, H. Rashid, A. Javaid and M. Mehmood, 2010. Prevalence of obesity among the school-going children of Lahore and associated factors. J. Ayub Med. Coll. Abbottabad, 22: 27-32.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Bas, M., T. Altan, D. Dincer, E. Aran, H.G. Kaya and O. Yuksek, 2005. Determination of dietary habits as a risk factor of cardiovascular heart disease in Turkish adolescents. Eur. J. Nutr., 44: 174-182.
CrossRef  |  

9:  CDC, 1998. CDC surveillance summaries. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Volume 47, Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, pp: S1 S3.

10:  Cole, T.J., M.C. Bellizzi, K.M. Flegal and W.H. Dietz, 2000. Establishing a standard definition for child overweight and obesity worldwide: International survey. Br. Med. J., 320: 1240-1243.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Da Silva, R., A. Bach-Faig, B. Raido Quintana, G. Buckland, M.D. Vaz de Almeida and L. Serra-Majem, 2009. Worldwide variation of adherence to the Mediterranean diet, in 1961-1965 and 2000-2003. Public Health Nutr., 12: 1676-1684.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  

12:  Deurenberg, P., K. Van der Kooy, R. Leenen, J.A. Weststrate and J.C. Seidell, 1991. Sex and age specific prediction formulas for estimating body composition from bioelectrical impedance: A cross-validation study. Int. J. Obesity, 15: 17-25.
PubMed  |  

13:  Fraser, G.E., A. Welch, R. Luben, S.A. Bingham and N.E. Day, 2000. The effect of age, sex, and education on food consumption of a middle-aged English cohort-EPIC in East Anglia. Prev. Med., 30: 26-34.
CrossRef  |  

14:  Freedman, D.S., W.H. Dietz, S.R. Srinivasan and G.S. Berenson, 2009. Risk factors and adult body mass index among overweight children: The Bogalusa heart study. Pediatrics, 123: 750-757.
CrossRef  |  

15:  Gharib, N. and P. Rasheed, 2011. Energy and macronutrient intake and dietary pattern among school children in Bahrain: A cross-sectional study. Nutr. J. Vol. 10, (In Press). 10.1186/1475-2891-10-62

16:  Ghosh, A., 2011. Rural-urban comparison in prevalence of overweight and obesity among children and adolescents of Asian Indian origin. Asia Pacific J. Public Health, 23: 928-935.
PubMed  |  

17:  Hanley, A.J.G., S.B. Harris, J. Gittelsohn, T.M.S. Wolever, B. Saksvig and B. Zinman, 2000. Overweight among children and adolescents in a native Canadian community: Prevalence and associated factors. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 71: 693-700.
Direct Link  |  

18:  Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board, 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 1-44.

19:  Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board, 1997. Dietary Reference Intakes for Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin D and Fluoride. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 71-287.

20:  Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board, 1998. Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 58-422.

21:  Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board, 2000. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin C, Vitamin E, Selenium and Carotenoids. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 35-382.

22:  Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board, 2001. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium and Zinc. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 82-501.

23:  Institute of Medicine Food and Nutrition Board, 2005. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 185-448.

24:  Khattak, A.I. and N. Ullah, 2006. Dietary Patterns of macro and micro nutrients intake of children and mothers of the Christian community living in Peshawar. Pak. J. Med. Res., 45: 71-74.

25:  Klimis-Zacas, D.J., A.Z. Kalea, M. Yannakoulia, A.L. Matalas and T. Vassilakou et al., 2007. Dietary intakes of Greek urban adolescents do not meet the recommendations. Nutr. Res., 27: 18-26.
CrossRef  |  

26:  Lee, W.T.K. and J. Jiang, 2008. Calcium requirements for Asian children and adolescents. Asia Pacific J. Clin. Nutr., 17: 33-36.

27:  Lutfiyya, M.N., R. Garcia, C.M. Dankwa, T. Young and M.S. Lipsky, 2008. Overweight and obese prevalence rates in African American and Hispanic children: An analysis of data from the 2003-2004 National Survey of Children's Health. J. Am. Board Family Med., 21: 191-199.
CrossRef  |  

28:  Moreno, L.A., G. Rodriguez, J. Fleta, M. Bueno-Lozano, A. Lazaro and G. Bueno, 2010. Trends of dietary habits in adolescents. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 50: 106-112.
CrossRef  |  

29:  Netto, G., L. McCloughan and A. Bhatnagar, 2007. Effective heart disease prevention: Lessons from a qualitative study of user perspectives in Bangladeshi, Indian and Pakistani communities. Public Health, 121: 177-186.
CrossRef  |  

30:  Nieves, J.W., K. Melsop, M. Curtis, J.L. Kelsey and L.K. Bachrach et al., 2010. Nutritional factors that influence change in bone density and stress fracture risk among young female cross-country runners. PMR, 2: 740-750.
CrossRef  |  

31:  Patrick, K., G.J. Norman, K.J. Calfas, J.F. Sallis, M.F. Zabinski, J. Rupp and J.Cella, 2004. Diet, physical activity and sedentary behaviors as risk factors for overweight in adolescence. Arch. Pediatr. Adolesc. Med., 158: 385-390.
Direct Link  |  

32:  Popkin, B.M., 2006. Global nutrition dynamics: The world is shifting rapidly toward a diet linked with noncommunicable diseases 1'2'3. J. Clin. Nutr., 84: 289-298.
Direct Link  |  

33:  Popkin, B.M., 2004. The nutrition transition: An overview of world patterns of change. Nutr. Rev., 62: S140-S143.

34:  Rolland-Cachera, M., F. Bellisle and M. Deheeger, 2000. Nutritional status and food intake in adolescents living in Western Europe. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 54: S41-S46.
PubMed  |  

35:  Suzana, S., C.C. Kee, A.R. Jamaludin, M.N. Safiza and G.L. Khor et al., 2012. The third national health and morbidity survey prevalence of obesity, and abdominal obesity among the Malaysian elderly population. Asia Pacific J. Public Health, 24: 318-329.

36:  Tzotzas, T., G.E. Krassas and A. Doumas, 2007. Body composition analysis in obesity: Radionuclide and non radionuclide methods. Hellenic J. Nucl. Med., 11: 63-71.
PubMed  |  

37:  Weker, H., M. Baranska, H. Dyląg, A. Riahi and M. Wiech et al., 2011. Analysis of nutrition of children aged 13-36 months in Poland: A nation-wide study. Medycyna Wieku Rozwojowego, 15: 224-231.
Direct Link  |  

38:  WHO, 1988. Measuring obesity-classification and description of anthropometric data. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, pp: 1-21.

39:  Wright, J.D., C.Y. Wang, J. Kennedy-Stephenson and R.B. Ervin, 2003. Dietary intake of ten key nutrients for public health, United States, 1999-2000. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved