Dietary Intakes of Urban Adolescents of Sialkot, Pakistan
Do Not Meet the Standards of Adequacy
There is paucity of national data on dietary intakes of adolescents
in Pakistan presently. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the
dietary intake and nutritional status of urban adolescents in a cross-sectional
descriptive survey. A convenience sample of 328 high school students (46.67%
female and 53.33% male; mean age, 14.3 years) in Sialkot, Pakistan was analyzed
by a demographic questionnaire with lifestyle and health-related questions and
kept a 3-day food record for evaluation of dietary intake. Anthropometric measurements,
including body composition, were performed. Female adolescents had significantly
lower total energy intake than male adolescents (P<0.001); however,
percentage of killocalorie distribution of protein (12.5%), carbohydrate (51.5%)
and fat (36.3%) was similar between male and female adolescents. Male participants
had significantly higher micronutrient intakes than female adolescents while
female consumed more caffeine than male participants. Both male and female did
not meet the estimated average requirements and/or adequate intakes for vitamins
A, C, D and E, calcium, potassium and magnesium, whereas more than 70% of female
adolescents did not meet the recommendations for vitamin A, D, E, folic acid,
phosphorus, zinc and approximately 44% of them did not meet the estimated average
requirements for vitamin C, sodium, potassium, iron and manganese. Dietary intake
among Pakistani high schools student population intakes in many macro- and micro-minerals,
especially in female adolescents, do not meet the standards of adequacy and
it reflects the inadequate dietary intake and eating patterns compared with
adolescents in other countries.
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