Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

The Effects of Thyme Tea Supplement on Free Radicals Formation and Antioxidant System of Elite Wrestlers



C. Berkan Alpay, Serkan Hazar, Kadir Gokdemir, Nevin Atalay Guzel, Aymelek Gonenc and Bolkan Simsek
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

The intensive acute exercises results in too much oxygen consumption and hence produce excessive free radicals and damage of tissues. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of thyme tea on free radical formation and antioxidant system. Eighteen elite volunteer wrestlers joined the study. The wrestlers were randomly divided into two groups to from experiment and control groups. The subjects wrested five times during the study period according to F.I.L.A rules. The measurement are performed before and after the thyme tea loading. Study groups drunk thyme tea three times a day in 35 day period before loading after first measurement. The subjects participated in the study pre-contest (Comp. Before), immediately after the competition (Comp. After), 24 hours after the competition (Comp. after 24 h), 48 hours after the competition (Comp. After 48 h), blood samples were collected from forearm vein by 5cc total of 2 tubes. Tubes, centrifuge immediately after serums and transferred to tubes Eppendorf Total of Antioxidant Capacity (TAC), Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total sulfhydryl group (RSH) stored at the 75oC until determination of analysis. The results showed that no difference was noted between the values of the groups before the thyme loading process, a meaningful increase (p<0.05) was determined in the level of TAC, after thyme loading, for the experimental group when it was compared to the pre-loading levels. Therefore, the decrease observed in the level of MDA after thyme loading process was meaningful statistically (p<0.01). The numerical decrease observed in the experimental group, meanwhile, in the levels of RSH wasn’t meaningful (p>0.05). Whereas significant differences were found in the levels of MDA and TAC, after thyme loading, for the experimental group when compared to the control group (p<0.05), no meaningful difference was observed for the level of RSH. it is determined in the study that wrestling competition causes significant oxidant stress in wrestlers and increase total antioxidant capacity. However, it is detected that it makes nonenzymatic antioxidant capacity fall.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

C. Berkan Alpay, Serkan Hazar, Kadir Gokdemir, Nevin Atalay Guzel, Aymelek Gonenc and Bolkan Simsek, 2013. The Effects of Thyme Tea Supplement on Free Radicals Formation and Antioxidant System of Elite Wrestlers. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 12: 433-440.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2013.433.440

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.433.440

REFERENCES
1:  Anuradha, C.V. and S.D. Balakrishnan, 1998. Effect of training on lipid peroxidation, thiol status and antioxidant enzymes in tissues of rats. Ind. J. Physiol. Pharmacol., 42: 64-70.
PubMed  |  

2:  Child, R., S. Brown, S. Day, A. Donnelly, H. Roper and J. Saxton, 1999. Changes in indices of antioxidant status, lipid peroxidation and inflammation in human skeletal muscle after eccentric muscle action. Clin. Sci. Calch., 96: 105-115.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Clark, I.A., 1986. Tissue damage caused by free oxygen radicals. Pathology, 18: 181-186.
Direct Link  |  

4:  Craig, W.J., 1999. Health-promoting properties of common herbs. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 70: 491S-499S.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Gleeson, M., J.D. Robertson and R.J. Maughan, 1987. Influence of exercise on ascorbic acid status in man. Clin. Sci., 73: 501-505.
PubMed  |  

6:  Goldfarb, A.H., R.J. Bloomer and M.J. McKenzie, 2005. Combined antioxidant treatment effects on blood oxidative stress after eccentric exercise. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 37: 234-239.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Groussard, C., F. Rannou-Bekono, G. Machefer, M. Chevanne and S. Vincent et al., 2003. Changes in blood lipid peroxidation markers and antioxidants after a single sprint anaerobic exercise. Eur. J. Applied Physiol., 89: 14-20.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Hollander, J., R. Febig, M. Gore, J. Bejma, T. Ookawara, H. Ohno and L.L. Ji, 1999. Superoxide dismutasegene expression in muscle: Fiber-spesific adaptation to endurance training. Am. J. Physiol., 277: 856-862.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  Inal, M., F. Akyuz, T. Akin and W.M. Getsfrid, 2000. Effect of anaerobic metabolism on free radical generation swimmer. Med. Sci. Sports Exercise, 33: 564-567.
PubMed  |  

10:  Jenkins, R.R., 1993. Exercise, oxidative stress and antioxidants: A review. Int. J. Sport Nutr., 3: 356-375.
PubMed  |  

11:  Jerca, L., S. Chiriac, O.P. Jerca, C.D. Cozma and I. Constantinescu et al., 2005. The influence of intermediate physical training on some non-enzyme antioxidants of oxidative stress, in moderate hypertension. Rev. Med. Chir. Soc. Med. Nat. Iasi., 109: 40-45.
PubMed  |  

12:  Ji, L.L., 1995. Exercise and oxidative stress: Role of the cellular antioxidant system. Exer. Sport. Sci. Rev., 23: 135-166.
PubMed  |  

13:  Ji, L.L. and R. Fu, 1992. Responses of glutathione system and antioxidant enzymes to exhaustive exercise and hydroperoxide. J. Applied Physiol., 72: 549-554.
PubMed  |  

14:  Ji, L.L., 1999. Antioxidants and oxidative stress in exercise. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 222: 283-292.
PubMed  |  

15:  Kalender, S., Y. Kalender, A. Ogutcu, M. Uzunhisarcikli, D. Durak and F. Acikgoz, 2004. Endosulfan-induced cardiotoxicity and free radical metabolism in rats: The protective effect of vitamin E. Toxicology, 202: 227-235.

16:  Kanter, M.M., R.L. Hamlin, D.V. Unverferth, H.W. Davis and A.J. Merola, 1985. Effect of exercise training on antioxidant enzymes and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin. J. Applied Physiol., 59: 1298-1304.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Lai, P.K. and J. Roy, 2004. Antimicrobial and chemopreventive properties of herbs and spices. Curr. Med. Chem., 11: 1451-1460.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Lovlin, R., W. Cottle, I. Pyke, M. Kavanagh and A.N. Belcastro, 1987. Are indices of free radical damage related to exercise intensity. Eur. J. Applied Physiol., 56: 313-316.
CrossRef  |  

19:  Magalhaes, J., R. Ferreira, F. Marques, E. Olivera, J. Soares and A. Ascensao, 2007. Indoor climbing elicits plasma oxidative stress. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., 39: 955-963.
PubMed  |  

20:  Margaritis, I., F. Tessier, M.J. Richard and P. Marconnet, 1997. No evidence of oxidative stress after a trathlon race in highly trained competitors. Int. J. Sports Med., 18: 186-190.
PubMed  |  

21:  Marzatico, F., O. Pansarasa, L. Bertorelli, L. Somenzini and G. Della Vale, 1997. Blood free radical antioxidant enzymes and lipid peroxides following long-distance and lactacidemic performances in highly trained aerobic and sprint athletes. J. Sports. Med. Phys. Fitness, 37: 235-239.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

22:  Mimic-Oka, J., T. Simic, L. Djukanovie, Z. Reljic and Z. Davicevic, 1999. In plasma antioxidant capaeity in various degrees of chronic renal failure. Clin. Nephrol., 51: 233-241.
PubMed  |  

23:  Porter, N.A., 1984. Chemistry of lipid peroxidation. Meth. Enzymol., 105: 273-283.
PubMed  |  

24:  Robertson, J.D., R.J. Maughan, G.G. Duthie and P.C. Morrice, 1991. Increased blood antioxidant sytem of runners in response to training load. Clin. Sci., 80: 611-617.
PubMed  |  

25:  Seo, A.Y., T. Hofer, B. Sung, S. Judge, H.Y. Chung and C. Leeuwenburgh, 2006. Hepatic oxidative stress during aging: Effects of 8% long-term calorie restriction and lifelong exercise. Antioxid Redox Signal., 8: 529-538.
PubMed  |  

26:  Supinski, G., 1998. Free radical induced respiratory muscle dysfunction. Mol. Cell Biochem., 179: 99-110.
CrossRef  |  

27:  Tauler, P., A. Sureda, N. Cases, A. Aguilo and J.A. Rodriguez Marroyo et al., 2006. Increased lymphocyte antioxidant defenses in response to exhaustive exercise do not prevent oxidative damage. J. Nutr. Biochem., 17: 665-671.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Vasankari, T.J., U.M. Kujala, H. Rusko, S. Sarna and M. Ahotupa, 1997. The effect of endurance exercise at moderate altitute on serum lipit peroxidation and antioxidative functions in humans. Eur. J. Applied Physiol., 75: 396-399.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

29:  Wootton, S., 1988. Nutrition for Sport. Simon and Schuster Ltd., London.

30:  Wozniak, A., G. Drewa, G. Chesy, A. Rakowski, M. Rozwodowska and D. Olszewska, 2001. Effect altitude training on the peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in sportmen. Med. Sci. Sport Exerc., 33: 1104-1113.
PubMed  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved