Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Nutrient Intake Pattern of Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Y.S. Wong, S. Shalini, M.R. Farah Liana, W.M.S. Wan Nurul Amera, M.Y. Mohd Naqiuddin, A.W. Norhazlina and M.I. Zaleha
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Vegetarians adhering to a well-planned diet are assumed to meet nutrient requirements. This study was designed to evaluate the nutrient intake of adult vegetarians and non-vegetarians in Kuala Lumpur. A cross-sectional comparison between three types of diet practices was carried out in Kuala Lumpur, with 35 respondents in each group (non-vegetarian, ovolacto-vegetarian and strict-vegetarian). Anthropometric indices such as weight and body fat composition were measured using TANITA electronic balance scale, while three-day dietary recalls was assessed using a computer dietary analysis software programme, Nutritionist-pro. Statistical analysis had shown non significant difference in the three diet practices with respect to anthropometric indices. The benefits of vegetarian practices were obviously presented in the dietary intake of nutrients. Both ovolacto-vegetarians and strict-vegetarians had significantly higher mean dietary intake of fiber, folate, magnesium, vitamin A and vitamin C than non-vegetarians (p<0.01). Surprisingly, some of the potential nutrient deficiencies among strict-vegetarians such as calcium, iron and zinc achieved the Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI) for Malaysia. However, the dietary habits of vegetarians were very heterogeneous and some of them did not comply with the requirements for calcium, iron zinc and vitamin B12. Malaysian vegetarians in this study generally have a better nutrient intake than non-vegetarians. Education on proper meal planning should be implemented among vegetarians to prevent potential nutritional deficiencies.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Y.S. Wong, S. Shalini, M.R. Farah Liana, W.M.S. Wan Nurul Amera, M.Y. Mohd Naqiuddin, A.W. Norhazlina and M.I. Zaleha, 2013. Nutrient Intake Pattern of Vegetarians and Non-Vegetarians in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 12: 371-376.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2013.371.376

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2013.371.376

REFERENCES
1:  ADA, 2003. Position of the American dietetic association and dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 103: 748-765.
Direct Link  |  

2:  Craig, W.J. and A.R. Mangels, 2009. Position of the American dietetic association: Vegetarian diets. J. Am. Diet. Assoc., 109: 1266-1282.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Deriemaeker, P., K. Alewaeters, M. Hebbelinck, J. Lefevre, R. Philippaerts and P. Clarys, 2010. Nutritional status of Flemish vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians: A matched samples study. Nutrients, 2: 770-780.
CrossRef  |  

4:  Heaney, R.P., 2000. Calcium, dairy products and osteoporosis. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 19: 83S-99S.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Huang, Y.C., W.J. Lin, C.H. Cheng and K.H. Su, 1999. Nutrient intakes and iron status of healthy young vegetarians and nonvegetarians. Nutr. Res., 19: 663-674.
CrossRef  |  

6:  Key, T.J., P.N. Appleby and M.S. Rosell, 2006. Health effects of vegetarian and vegans diets. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 65: 35-41.
Direct Link  |  

7:  Key, T.J., P.N. Appleby, E.A. Spencer, R.C. Travis, N.E. Allen, M. Thorogood and J.I. Mann, 2009. Cancer incidence in British vegetarians. Br. J. Cancer, 101: 192-197.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Khor, G.L., P.C. Voon, E.S. Tee, B.H. Hsu-Hage and M.L. Wahlqvist, 2000. Cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian urban vegetarians. J. Comm. Nutr., 2: 110-118.

9:  Koebnick, C., I. Hoffmann, P.C. Dagnelie, U.A. Heins and S.N. Wickramasinghe et al., 2004. Long-term ovo-lacto vegetarian diet impairs vitamin B-12 status in pregnant women. J. Nutr., 134: 3319-3326.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

10:  Larsson, C.L. and G.K. Johansson, 2002. Dietary intake and nutritional status of young vegans and omnivores in Sweden. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 76: 100-106.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Lea, E. and A. Worsley, 2002. The cognitive contexts of beliefs about the healthiness of meat. Public Health Nutr., 5: 37-45.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Lin, T.Z., 2008. Dietary intake and bone health status among vegetarians in Klang. Ph.D. Thesis, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia.

13:  MHM, 2005. A report of the technical working group on nutritional guideline. Ministry of Health Malaysia.

14:  NAS, 2003. Dietary reference intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, arsenic, boron, chromium, copper, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, vanadium and zinc. National Academy of Science.

15:  Rajaram, S. and J. Sabate, 2000. Health benefit of vegetarian diet. Nutrition, 16: 531-533.
Direct Link  |  

16:  Shahar, S., J. Earland and S. Abdul Rahman, 2000. Validation of a dietary history questionnaire against a 7-D weighed record for estimating nutrient intake among rural elderly Malays. Malaysian J. Nutri., 6: 33-44.
Direct Link  |  

17:  Szeto, Y.T., T.C.Y. Kwok and I.F.F. Banzie, 2004. Effects of a long-term vegetarian diet on biomarkers of antioxidant status and cardiovascular disease risk. Nutrition, 20: 863-866.
CrossRef  |  

18:  Then, S.W., 2007. Comparison of nutritional status in vegetarians and non-vegetarians from Kinta Amitabha Bhuddist Society, Perak. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia.

19:  WHO., 2000. Obesity: Preventing and managing the global epidemic. WHO Technical Report Series No. 894, World Health Organization, Geneva.

20:  Wilson, A.K. and M.J. Ball, 1999. Nutrient intake and iron status of Australian male vegetarians. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr., 53: 189-194.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  Yen, C.E., C.H. Yen, M.C. Huang, C.H. Cheng and Y.C. Huang, 2008. Dietary intake and nutritional status of vegetarian and omnivorous preschool children and their parents in Taiwan. Nutr. Res., 28: 430-436.
CrossRef  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved