Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Fulltext PDF
Research Article

Intake, Digestibility, Live Weight Changes and Rumen Parameters of Washera Sheep Fed Mixtures of Lowland Bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) Leaves and Natural Pasture Grass Hay at Different Ratios

Yeshambel Mekuriaw, Mengistu Urge and Getachew Animut

This study evaluated the feeding value of Lowland Bamboo Leaf Hay (LBLH) as basal diet when offered sole or in mixture with Natural Pasture Grass Hay (NPGH). Thirty local ‘Washera’ yearling male lambs with initial body weight of 23.8±1.35 kg (mean±SD) were grouped into six blocks of five animals and randomly assigned to five dietary treatments consisting of NPGH and LBLH at a ratio of 100:0 (T1), 75:25 (T2), 50:50 (T3), 25:75 (T4) and 0:100% (T5), respectively. The basal diets were fed ad libitum and all animals received 150 g Dry Matter (DM) Noug Seed Meal (NSM)/day. The study consisted of 90 days growth and 7 days digestibility trials. Rumen fluid was sampled at the end for pH and ammonia nitrogen determination. The Crude Protein (CP) level in NPGH, LBLH and NSM were 73, 111 and 322 g/kg DM, respectively. Total DM intake [705, 704, 644, 691 and 649 g/day (SEM = 3.1)] was similar (p>0.05) and CP intake [90, 99, 99, 103 and 109 for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively (SEM = 0.9)] differ (p<0.05) among treatments. Digestibility coefficient of DM was similar among treatments and that of CP was in the order of T1 < T2 = T3 = T4 < T5 (p<0.001). Ruminal ammonia concentration was in the order of T5 > T4 > T3 > T2 = T1 (p<0.05). Average daily gain [25, 24, 25, 31 and 37 g/day (SEM = 1.1)] and feed conversion efficiency [0.035, 0.034, 0.038, 0.045 and 0.057 for T1, T2, T3, T4 and T5, respectively (SEM = 0.040)] were greater (p<0.05) for T5 as compared to T1, T2 and T3 and values for T4 was similar with all other treatments. In conclusion LBLH had a relatively better feeding value as compared to the NPGH used in this study and hence can be a good substitute to hay especially in the dry season when conventional roughages are in short supply and low in CP content.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Yeshambel Mekuriaw, Mengistu Urge and Getachew Animut, 2012. Intake, Digestibility, Live Weight Changes and Rumen Parameters of Washera Sheep Fed Mixtures of Lowland Bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) Leaves and Natural Pasture Grass Hay at Different Ratios. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11: 322-331.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2012.322.331


AFRC, 1993. Energy and protein requirements of ruminants. Agricultural Food and Research Council Technical Committee on Responses to Nutrients, CAB International, Wallingford, UK., pp: 1-342.

AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA.

ARC, 1980. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Technical Review by Agricultural Research Council Working Party, The Agricultural Research Council by the Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, pp: 1-351.

Alem, M., B. Tamir and M.Y. Kurtu, 2011. Feed utilisation of Ethiopian Highland lambs on a basal diet of Eleucine coracana straw and supplemented with variously sourced protein mixed with wheat bran. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 43: 115-120.
PubMed  |  

Asaolu, V.O., S.M. Odeyinka, O.O. Akinbamijo and F.G. Sodeinde, 2009. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen utilization of graded levels of Moringa and bamboo leaf by West African Dwarf goats. Bull. Anim. Health Prod. Africa, 57: 361-368.
Direct Link  |  

Asaolu, V.O., S.M. Odeyinka, O.O. Akinbamijo and F.G. Sodeinde, 2010. Effects of moringa and bamboo leaf on groundnut hay utilization by West African Dwarf goats. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 22.

Asaolu, V.O., S.M. Odeyinka, O.O. Akinbamijo, O.J. Babayemi and E. Hoffmann, 2009. Preliminary evaluation of Moringa oleifera and Oxytenanthera abyssinica (bamboo) leaf as feed supplements for ruminants. Bull. Anim. Health Prod. Afr., 57: 349-360.
Direct Link  |  

Asmare, B., S. Melaku and K.J. Peters, 2010. Supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with graded levels of concentrate mix consisting of noug seed meal and rice bran. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 42: 1345-1352.
PubMed  |  

Berhanu, G., H. Adane and B. Kahsay, 2009. Feed marketing in Ethiopia: Results of rapid market appraisal. Improving Productivity and Market Success (IPMS) of Ethiopian Farmers Project Working Paper 15, International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, pp: 1-64.

Bishaw, F. and S. Melaku, 2008. Effects of supplementation of Farta sheep fed hay with sole or mixtures of noug seed meal and wheat bran on feed intake, digestibility and body weight change. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 40: 597-606.
PubMed  |  

BoARD, 2006. Livestock Resource Development and Animal Health: Development Annual Report. Bureau of Agriculture and Rural Development, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia, Pages: 855.

Brias, V. and H. Tesfaye, 2009. Bamboo cultivation manual: Guidelines for cultivating Ethiopian lowland bamboo. East Africa Bamboo Project Document, UNIDO.

Buxton, D.R., 1996. Quality-related characteristics of forages as influenced by plant environment and agronomic factors. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 59: 37-49.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Denbeshu, D., 2010. Utilization and nutritive value of mountain bamboo (Yushania alpina) leaf from Sidama highlands, Southern Ethiopia. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Hawassa College of Agriculture, School of Graduate Studies Hawassa University, Hawassa, Ethiopia.

Embaye, K., M. Weih, S. Ledin and L. Christersson, 2005. Biomass and nutrient distribution in a highland bamboo forest in southwest Ethiopia: Implications for management. For. Ecol. Manage., 204: 159-169.
Direct Link  |  

Estifanos, A. and S. Melaku, 2009. Supplementation of graded levels of wheat bran to intact and castrated afar sheep fed urea treated tef straw: Effects on feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass characteristics. East Afr. J. Sci., 3: 29-36.
Direct Link  |  

Eyob, G., 2010. The effect of substitution of dry bamboo leaf at different proportions with concentrate mix on feed intake, digestibility, live weight gain and carcass characteristics of local sheep fed tef straw. M.Sc. Thesis, School of Graduate Studies Haramaya University, Ethiopia.

Gebru, T., 2010. Supplementation with different forms of lupin () grain in hay based feeding of Washera sheep: Effects on feed intake, digestibility, body weight and carcass parameters. M.Sc. Thesis, School of Graduate Studies of Haramaya University.

Girma, T., D. Peden, A. Abiye and A. Wagnew, 2003. Effect of manure on grazing lands in Ethiopia, East African highlands: International mountain society. Mountain Res. Dev., 23: 156-160.
Direct Link  |  

Greenway, S.L., 1999. Evaluation of bamboo as livestock forage and applications of Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponaria products in agriculture. M.S. Thesis, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA

Hailu, A., S. Melaku, B. Tamir and A. Tassew, 2011. Body weight and carcass characteristics of Washera sheep fed urea treated rice straw supplemented with graded levels of concentrate mixiture. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 23.

Halvorson, J.J., K.A. Cassida, K.E. Turner and D.P. Belesky, 2010. Nutritive value of bamboo as browse for livestock. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems, Cambridge University Press, UK.

ILRI, 1997. Analytical methods for Feeds, Animal Excrements and Animal Tissues. International Livestock Research Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, pp: 38-39.

Kassahun, E., 2000. The indigenous bamboo forests of Ethiopia: An overview. Ambio, 29: 518-521.
Direct Link  |  

Keir, B., N.V. Lai, T.R. Preston and E.R. Orskov, 1997. Nutritive value of leaf from tropical trees and shrubs: 1. In vitro gas production and in sacco rumen degradability. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 9.

LUSO Consult, 1997. Study on sustainable bamboo management. Commissioned by GTZ, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

Liu, J.X., X.Q. Wang, Z.Q. Shi and H.W. Ye, 2000. Nutritional evaluation of bamboo shoot shell and its effect as supplementary feed on performance of heifers offered ammoniated rice straw diets. Asian Australasian J. Anim. Sci., 13: 1388-1393.
Direct Link  |  

McDonald, P., R.A. Edwards, J.F.D. Greenhalgh and C.A. Morgan, 2002. Animal nutrition. 6th Edn., Prentice Hall, USA.

Meissner, H.H., H.H. Koster, S.H. Nieuwoudt and R.J. Coertze, 1991. Effect of energy supplementation on intake and digestion of early and mid season ryegrass and panicum/smuts finger hay and on in sacco disappearance of various forage species. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci., 21: 33-42.
Direct Link  |  

Mekuriaw, Y., U. Mengistu and A. Getachew, 2011. Role of indigenous Bamboo species (Yushania alpina and Oxytenanthera abyssinica) as ruminant feed in northwestern Ethiopia. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 23.

Morris, E.J., 1988. Characteristics of the adhesion of Ruminococcus albus to cellulose. FEMS Microbiol. Lett., 51: 113-117.

Mould, F.L. and E.R. Orskov, 1983. Manipulation of rumen fluid pH and its influence on cellulolysis in sacco, dry matter degradation and rumen microflora of sheep offered either hay or concentrate. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 10: 1-4.

Mulat, D., 1999. Agricultural technology, economic viability and poverty alleviation in Ethiopia. The Agricultural Transformation Policy Workshop in Nairobi, Kenya.

Mupangwa, J.F., N.T. Ngongoni, D.E. Daka and H. Hamudikuwanda, 2002. The effect of supplementing a basal diet of veld grass hay with increasing levels of velvet bean hay (Mucuna pruriens) on nutrient parameters in sheep. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 14, No. 4.

Norton, B.W., 2003. The Nutritive Value of Tree Legumes. In: Forage Tree Legumes in Tropical Agriculture, Gutteridge, R.C. and H.M. Shelton (Eds.). CAB International, UK., pp: 1-10.

Perdok, H.B. and R.A. Leng, 1989. Rumen Ammonia Requirements for Efficient Digestion and Intake of Straw by Cattle. In: Protozoa and Fungus in Ruminant Digestion, Nolan, J.V., R.A. Leng and D.I. Demeyer (Eds.). Armidale, Australia, pp: 291-293.

Russell, J.B. and D.B. Wilson, 1996. Why are ruminal cellulolytic bacteria unable to digest cellulose at low pH? J. Dairy Sci., 79: 1503-1509.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

SAS, 2002. Statistical Analysis for Science, Software Release 9.1.3. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC., USA.

Sahoo, A., R.K. Ogra, A. Sood and P.S. Ahuja, 2010. Nutritional evaluation of bamboo cultivars in sub-Himalayan region of India by chemical composition and in vitro ruminal fermentation. Grassland Sci., 56: 116-125.
CrossRef  |  

Sath, K., K. Borin and T.R. Preston, 2008. Survey on feed utilization for cattle production in Takeo province. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 20.

Satter, L.D. and L.L. Slyter, 1974. Effect of ammonia concentration on microbial protein production in vitro. Br. J. Nutr., 32: 199-208.
PubMed  |  

Serrato-Corona, J.S., J.I.S. Duarte, M.M. Ortiz and E.C. Perez, 2011. Oat hay apparent digestibility, rumen ammonia nitrogen and bun in goats supplemented with fermented molasses-poultry litter. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 10: 808-812.

Smith, O.B., O.A. Idowu, V.O. Asaolu and O. Odunlami, 1991. Comparative rumen degradability of forages, browse, crop residues and agricultural by-products. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 3.

Stewart, C.S., 1977. Factors affecting the cellulolytic activity of rumen contents. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 33: 497-502.
Direct Link  |  

Susan, S., 2003. Introduction to feeding small ruminants. Area Agent, sheep and goats. Western Maryland Research and Education Center. Maryland Cooprative Extension.

Taye, M., 2009. Growth of washera ram lambs fed on Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and Sesbania (Sesbania sesban) mixture at different levels of combination. Livestock Res. Rural Dev., Vol. 21.

Teklu, B., T. Negesse and A. Angassa, 2010. Effects of farming systems on floristic composition, yield and nutrient content of forages at the natural pasture of Assosa zone (Western Ethiopia). Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosyst., 12: 583-592.
Direct Link  |  

Van Soest, P.J. and J.B. Robertson, 1985. Analysis of Forage and Fibrous Foods. A laboratory manual for Animal Science 613, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA.

Van Soest, P.J., 1965. Symposium on factors influencing the voluntary intake of herbage by ruminants: Voluntary intake in relation to chemical composition and digestibility. J. Anim. Sci., 24: 834-843.
Direct Link  |  

Van Soest, P.J., 1994. Nutritional Ecology of Ruminants. 2nd Edn., Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York.

Van Soest, P.J., J.B. Robertson and B.A. Lewis, 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J. Dairy Sci., 74: 3583-3597.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Yayota, M., J. Karashima, T. Kouketsu, M. Nakano and S. Ohtani, 2009. Seasonal changes in the digestion and passage rates of fresh dwarf bamboo (Pleioblastus argenteostriatus f. glaber) in sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 149: 89-101.

Yayota, M., M. Kobayashi and S. Ohtani, 2003. A comparison of nutrient intake and digestibility in beef cows grazed on Nezasa dwarf bamboo (Pleioblastus chino var. viridis)-dominated pasture and improved grass pasture. Grassland Sci., 49: 430-437.

©  2019 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract