Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Vitamin D Status of Healthy School Children from Western Saudi Arabia

Osama Adnan Kensarah and Firas Sultan Azzeh
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

This study was conducted to evaluate vitamin D in healthy school children from Makkah area. A total of 148 healthy school children (87 boys and 61 girls) were included in this study. Vitamin D as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH)-D] was measured as indication of vitamin D status. Serum 25 (OH)-D less than 20 ng/ml was considered as vitamin D deficient subject. Other biochemical indicators were also measured as calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase and parathyroid hormone. The mean age of the subjects was 10.1 years. Overall serum vitamin D was 10.5 ng/ml, which was significantly higher in male group than female. About 96.7% and 78.2% of females and males were deficient in vitamin D, respectively. No sufficient vitamin D female subject was recognized. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in children school from Makkah was very high and the deficiency was higher in females than males. The main reason for vitamin D deficiency was the restriction to sunlight exposure.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Osama Adnan Kensarah and Firas Sultan Azzeh, 2012. Vitamin D Status of Healthy School Children from Western Saudi Arabia. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11: 288-292.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2012.288.292


1:  Al-Qaq, K., 2000. Children at high risk for developing nutritional rickets. Farah Jordanian Rehabilitation Center, King Hussein Medical Center. Amman, Jordan.

2:  Al-Turki, H., M. Sadat-Ali, A. Al-Elq, F.A. Al-Mulhim and A.K. Al-Ali, 2008. 25-Hydoxyvitamin D levels among healthy Saudi Arabian women. Saudi Med. J., 29: 1765-1768.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

3:  Combs, G.F., 1988. The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. 2nd Edn., Academic Press, New York, pp: 155-182.

4:  Damanhouri, L.H., 2009. Vitamin D Status in Saudi patients with systemic Lupus erythematosus. Saudi Med. J., 30: 1291-1295.
PubMed  |  

5:  DeLuca, H.F., 2004. Overview of general physiologic features and functions of vitamin D. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 80: 1689S-1696S.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Deluca, H.F., J.M. Prahl and L.A. Plum, 2011. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D is not responsible for toxicity caused by vitamin D or 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Arch. Biochem. Biophys., 505: 226-230.
PubMed  |  

7:  Donath, S.M. and L.H. Amir, 2005. Breastfeeding and the introduction of solids in Australian infants: Data from the 2001 National health survey. Aust. NZ. J. Public Health, 29: 171-175.
PubMed  |  

8:  Elsammak, M.Y., A.A. Al-Wosaibi, A. Al-Howeish and J. Alsaeed, 2010. Vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabs. Horm. Metab. Res., 42: 364-368.
PubMed  |  

9:  Faraj, S. and K. Mutairi, 2003. Vitamin D deficiency and chronic low back pain in Saudi Arabia. Spine, 28: 177-179.
PubMed  |  

10:  Fonseca, V., R. Tongia, M. El-Hazmi and H. Abu-Aisha, 1984. Exposure to sunlight and vitamin D deficiency in Saudi Arabian women. Postgr. Med. J., 60: 589-591.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Fuleihan, G.H., M. Nabulsi, M. Choucair, M. Salamoun, C.H. Shahine, A. Kizirian and R. Tannous, 2001. Hypovitaminosis D in healthy schoolchildren. Pediatrics, 107: E53-E53.

12:  Gannage-Yared, M.H., R. Chemali, N. Yaacoub and G. Halaby, 2000. Hypovitaminosis D in a sunny country: Relation to lifestyle and bone marker. J. Bone Mineral Res., 15: 1856-1862.
PubMed  |  

13:  Glerup, H., K. Mikkelsen, L. Poulsen, E. Hass and S. Overbeck et al., 2000. Commonly recommended daily intake of vitamin D is not sufficient if sunlight exposure is limited. J. Int. Med., 247: 260-268.
PubMed  |  

14:  Holick, M.F., 2006. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 10th Edn., Libbincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp: 377-393.

15:  Holick, M.F., 2007. Vitamin D deficiency. N. Engl. J. Med., 357: 266-281.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Kelly, J., A. Lin, C.J. Wang, S. Park and I. Nishimura, 2009. Vitamin D and bone physiology: Demonstration of vitamin D deficiency in an implant osseointegration rat model. J. Prosthodont., 18: 473-478.
PubMed  |  

17:  Leanne, M.W., I. Gaboury, M. Ladhani and S. Zlotkin, 2007. Vitamin D deficiency rickets among children in Canada. Can. Med. Asso. J., 177: 161-166.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Mahdy, S., S.A. Al-Emadi, I.A. Khanjar, M.M. Hammoudeh and H.A. Sarakbi et al., 2010. Vitamin D status in health care professionals in Qatar. Saudi Med. J., 31: 74-77.
PubMed  |  

19:  Masri, B., E. Azar and A. Faqih, 2005. The first Jordanian National osteoporosis record Amman-Jordan.

20:  Misra, M., D. Pacaud, A. Petryk, P.F. Collett-Solberg and M. Kappy, 2008. Vitamin D deficiency in children and its management: Review of current knowledge and recommendations. Pediatrics, 122: 398-417.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  NIH, 2008. Dietary supplement fact sheet: Vitamin D. Maryland, USA. National Institutes of Health, VitaminD-Consumer/.

22:  Sadat-Ali, M., A. AlElq, H. Al-Turki, F. Al-Mulhim and A. Al-Ali, 2009. Vitamin D level in healthy men in eastern Saudi Arabia. Ann. Saudi Med., 29: 378-382.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

23:  SACN, 2007. Update on vitamin D. London. Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition,

24:  Schwalfenberg, G., 2007. Not enough vitamin D: Health consequences for Canadians. Can. Family Phys., 53: 841-854.

25:  Sedrani, S.H., A.W. Elidrissy and K.M. El-Arabi, 1983. Sunlight and vitamin D status in normal Saudi subjects. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 38: 129-132.
Direct Link  |  

26:  Weiler, H., S. Fitzpatrick-Wong, R. Veitch, H. Kovacs and J. Schellenberg et al., 2005. Vitamin D deficiency and whole-body and femur bone mass relative to weight in healthy newborns. Canad. Med. Asso. J., 172: 757-761.

27:  Whitney, E. and S. Rolfes, 2008. Understanding Nutrition. Thompson Learning Press, USA., pp: 377-381.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved