Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Improving the Nutrient Quality of Juice Wastes Mixture Through Fermentation by Using Trichodherma viride for Poultry Diet

Yose Rizal, Maria Endo Mahata, Indra Joli and Guoyao Wu
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Two experiments were conducted to improve Juice Wastes Mixture’s (JWM’s) nutrient quality by using Trichoderma viride and to compare between treated vs. untreated one. This JWM consists of carrot, apple, mango, avocado, orange, melon and tree-tomato in the same proportion. Experiment 1 was performed in a 3 x 5 factorial experiment of completely randomized design with 3 replicates. First factor was Trichoderma viride concentration (5, 7 and 9%) and second factor was incubation period (0, 5, 7, 9 and 11 days). Measured variables were Crude Fiber (CF), Crude Protein (CP) and Ether Extract (EE). Experiment 2 was to compare nutrient content between treated vs. untreated one. Measured variables were JWM’s CF, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemi-cellulose, lignin, nitrogen retention, amino acid profile and Metabolizable Energy (ME). There was a very significant (p<0.01) interaction between Trichoderma viride concentration and incubation period in which 7% Trichoderma viride and 5 day incubation period reduced CF and EE and increased CP content. CF, EE, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin contents between untreated vs. treated one declined from 17.10, 6.24, 34.30, 24.40, 12.20, 9.90 and 11.80% to 12.23, 3.72, 31.55, 22.43, 11.15, 9.12 and 11.28%, respectively. Meanwhile, nitrogen retention and CP increased from 58.40 and 8.40% to 63.64 and 11.29%, respectively. ME content of treated was better than untreated JWM (1774 vs. 2599 kkal/kg). Trichoderma viride treatment improved JWM’s amino acids profile. In conclusion, fermentation by 7% Trichoderma viride at 5 day incubation period was the best treatment for improving JWM’s nutrient quality.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

Yose Rizal, Maria Endo Mahata, Indra Joli and Guoyao Wu, 2012. Improving the Nutrient Quality of Juice Wastes Mixture Through Fermentation by Using Trichodherma viride for Poultry Diet. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11: 203-207.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2012.203.207


1:  Al-Betawi, N.A., 2005. Preliminary study on tomato pomace as unusual feedstuff in broiler diets. Pak. J. Nutr., 4: 57-63.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  AOAC., 1994. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

3:  Diarra, S.S., B.A. Usman and J.U. Igwebuike, 2010. Replacement value of boiled mango kernel meal for maize in broiler finisher diets. ARPN J. Agric. Biol. Sci., 5: 47-52.
Direct Link  |  

4:  Ezekiel, O.O., O.C. Aworh, H.P. Blaschek and T.C. Ezeji, 2010. Protein enrichment of cassava peel by submerged fermentation with Trichoderma viride (ATCC 36316). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 9: 187-194.
Direct Link  |  

5:  Iyayi, E.A. and Z.A. Aderolu, 2004. Enhancement of the feeding value of some agro-industrial by-products for laying hens after their solid state fermentation with Trichoderma viride. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 3: 182-185.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

6:  NRC., 1994. Nutrient Requirements of Poultry. 9th Edn., National Academy Press, Washington, DC., USA., ISBN-13: 9780309048927, Pages: 155.

7:  Oluremi, O.I.A., V.O. Ojighen and E.H. Ejembi, 2006. The nutritive potentials of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) rind in broiler production. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 5: 613-617.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Pelczar, M.J. and R.D. Reid, 1974. Microbiology. McGraw Hill Book Co., New York.

9:  Rabayaa, E., J.M.A. Omar and R.A. Othman, 2001. Utilization of olive pulp in broiler rations. An-Najah University J. Res., Vol. 15

10:  Rizal, Y., Y. Harnentis, R. Marlida, Y. Sari and D.P. Sari, 2006. Alteration of crude fiber, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose contents of rutin-isolated cassava leaves under Trichoderma viride fermentation. J. Stigma, Vol. 14.

11:  Rizal, Y., M.E. Mahata, M. Andriani and G. Wu, 2010. Utilization of juice wastes as corn replacement in the broiler diet. Int. J. Poult. Sci., 9: 886-889.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and Procedures Statistics a Biometric Approach. McGraw Hill, New York, USA.

13:  Wiseman, A., 1981. Topics in Enzyme Fermentation Biotechnology. Jhon Willey and Sons, New York.

14:  Zafar, F., M. Idrees and Z. Ahmed, 2005. Use of apple by-products in poultry rations of broiler chicks in Karachi. Pak. J. Physiol., 1: 32-34.
Direct Link  |  

15:  Rizal, Y. and M.E. Mahata, 2009. Juice wastes prospect as alternative feed-stuffs for poultry. A Research Report. University of Andalas, Padang, Indonesia.

16:  Rizal, Y. and G. Wu, 2009. Program of academic recharging report. Project of Department of National Education, Republic of Indonesia, Indonesia.

17:  Ikhsan, I., 1999. The effect of innoculum Trichoderma viride levels an d fermentation period on crude protein content of palm aren wastes (Arenga pinnata) sarjana scription. Faculty of Animal Science, University of Andalas, Padang.

18:  Ghazi, S. and A. Drakhshan, 2006. The effects of different levels of tomato pomace feedstuff on broiler performances. Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, Razi University, Iran.

19:  Goering, H.K. and P.J. Van Soet, 1970. Forage fiber analyses (apparatus, reagents, procedures and some applications). Agriculture Handbook No. 379, ARS-USDA, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 1-20.

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved