Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Role of Hospital Effluents in the Contribution of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria to the Aquatic Environment



Maqsood Ahmad, Amin U. Khan, Abdul Wahid, Zahid Ali Butt, Muhammad Farhan and Farooq Ahmad
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

Water samples were collected from 18 sampling sites including the three hospitals their Municipal Wastewater (MWW) drains receiving the hospital sewage and from the river Ravi. The occurrence and fate of ofloxacin (OFLX) and resistance of Vibrio cholerae due to the presence of OFLX was studied. It was found that 16 out of 18 sites were contaminated by the antibiotic. Highest concentration was observed in hospital wastewater (HWW) ranged from 7.31 to 39.13 μg/L and amount of OFLX in the municipal wastewater before mixing the hospital sewage was 0.26 to 0.43 μg/L and after mixing it raised up to 0.54 to 1.29 μg/L. At the entering point of the MWW drains to the river, concentration 0.44 and 0.31 μg/L were observed in the two drains carrying the HWW to the river, respectively. Upstream concentration from the point of entering of the first and second drains was 0.14 and 0.22 μg/L while the downstream concentration was 0.18 and 0.37 μg/L, respectively. The antibiotic was not detected from both the samples collected from the entering point of the river to the city and before entering of the first MWW drain, whereas the after mixing the first drain the concentration 0.043 μg/L was observed. The bacteria isolated from HWW, MWW drains and the river Ravi were 83% 66% and 83% resistant to OFLX, respectively.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Maqsood Ahmad, Amin U. Khan, Abdul Wahid, Zahid Ali Butt, Muhammad Farhan and Farooq Ahmad, 2012. Role of Hospital Effluents in the Contribution of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria to the Aquatic Environment. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 11: 1177-1182.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2012.1177.1182

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2012.1177.1182

REFERENCES

1:  Ash, R.J., B. Mauck and M. Morgan, 2002. Antibiotic resistance of gram-negative bacteria in rivers, United States. Emerg. Infect. Dis., 8: 713-716.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

2:  Bains, W., 1993. Detecting antibiotics and biocides in water using a bacterial bioassay. Genet. Eng. Biotechnol., 13: 149-159.
Direct Link  |  

3:  Brown, K.D., J. Kulis, B. Thomson, T.H. Chapman and D.B. Mawhinney, 2006. Occurrence of antibiotics in hospital, residential and dairy effluent, municipal wastewater and the Rio Grande in New Mexico. Sci. Total Environ., 366: 772-783.
CrossRef  |  

4:  Chang, X., M.T. Meyer, X. Liu, Q. Zhao and H. Chen et al., 2010. Determination of antibiotics in sewage from hospitals, nursery and slaughter house, wastewater treatment plant and source water in Chongqing region of Three Gorge Reservoir in China. Environ. Pollut., 158: 1444-1450.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Chee-Sanford, J.C., R.I. Aminov, I.J. Krapac, N. Garrigues-Jeanjean and R.I. Mackie, 2001. Occurrence and diversity of tetracycline resistance genes in lagoons and groundwater underlying two swine production facilities. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 67: 1494-1502.
CrossRef  |  

6:  Deblonde, T., C. Cossu-Leguille and P. Hartemann, 2011. Emerging pollutants in wastewater: A review of the literature. Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health, 214: 442-448.
CrossRef  |  

7:  Falcone-Dias, M.F., I. Vaz-Moreiraa and C.M. Manaia, 2012. Bottled mineral water as a potential source of antibiotic resistant bacteria. Water Res., 46: 3612-3622.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Dinh, Q.T., F. Alliot, E. Moreau-Guigon, J. Eurin, M. Chevreuil and P. Labadie, 2011. Measurement of trace levels of antibiotics in river water using on-line enrichment and triple-quadrupole LC-MS/MS. Talanta, 85: 1238-1245.
CrossRef  |  

9:  Duong, H.A., N.H. Pham, H.T. Nguyen, T.T. Hoang and H.V. Pham et al., 2008. Occurrence, fate and antibiotic resistance of fluoroquinolone antibacterials in hospital wastewaters in Hanoi, Vietnam. Chemosphere, 72: 968-973.
CrossRef  |  

10:  Edge, T.A and S. Hill, 2005. Occurrence of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli from surface waters and fecal pollution sources near Hamilton, Ontario. Can. J. Microbiol., 51: 501-505.
CrossRef  |  

11:  Kimiran-Erdem, A., E.O. Arslan, N.O.S. Yurudu, Z. Zeybek, N. Dogruoz and A. Cotuk, 2007. Isolation and identification of enterococci from seawater samples: Assessment of their resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals. Environ. Monit. Assess., 125: 219-228.
CrossRef  |  

12:  Gao, L., Y. Shi, W. Li, H. Niu, J. Liu and Y. Cai, 2012. Occurrence of antibiotics in eight sewage treatment plants in Beijing, China. Chemosphere, 86: 665-671.
CrossRef  |  

13:  Herwig, R.P., J.P. Gray and D.P. Weston, 1997. Antibacterial resistant bacteria in surficial sediments near salmon net-cage farms in Puget Sound, Washington. Aquaculture, 149: 263-283.
CrossRef  |  

14:  Hoa, P.T.P., S. Managaki, N. Nakada, H. Takada and A. Shimizu et al., 2011. Antibiotic contamination and occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments of northern Vietnam. Sci. Total Environ., 409: 2894-2901.
CrossRef  |  

15:  Jacobsen, A.M., B. Halling-Sorensen, F. Ingerslev and S.H. Hansen, 2004. Simultaneous extraction of tetracycline, macrolide and sulfonamide antibiotics from agricultural soils using pressurised liquid extraction, followed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatogr. A, 1038: 157-170.
CrossRef  |  

16:  Jiang, L., X. Hu, D. Yin, H. Zhang and Z. Yu, 2011. Occurrence, distribution and seasonal variation of antibiotics in the Huangpu River, Shanghai, China. Chemosphere, 82: 822-828.
CrossRef  |  

17:  Jiang, M., L. Wang and R. Ji, 2010. Biotic and abiotic degradation of four cephalosporin antibiotics in a lake surface water and sediment. Chemosphere, 80: 1399-1405.
CrossRef  |  

18:  Karthikeyan, K.G. and M.T. Meyer, 2006. Occurrence of antibiotics in wastewater treatment facilities in Wisconsin, USA. Sci. Total Environ., 361: 196-207.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

19:  Kemper, N., 2008. Veterinary antibiotics in the aquatic and terrestrial environment. Ecol. Indicators, 8: 1-13.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

20:  Kim, S., J.N. Jensen, D.S. Aga and A.S. Weber, 2007. Tetracycline as a selector for resistant bacteria in activated sludge. Chemosphere, 66: 1643-1651.
CrossRef  |  

21:  Kim, S., H. Park and K. Chandran, 2010. Propensity of activated sludge to amplify or attenuate tetracycline resistance genes and tetracycline resistant bacteria: A mathematical modeling approach. Chemosphere, 78: 1071-1077.
CrossRef  |  

22:  Kim, S.C. and K. Carlson, 2006. Occurrence of ionophore antibiotics in water and sediments of a mixed-landscape watershed. Water Res., 40: 2549-2560.
CrossRef  |  

23:  Koczura, R., J. Mokracka, L. Jablonska, E. Gozdecka, M. Kubek and A. Kaznowski, 2012. Antimicrobial resistance of integron-harboring Escherichia coli isolates from clinical samples, wastewater treatment plant and river water. Sci. Total Environ., 414: 680-685.
CrossRef  |  

24:  Kummerer, K., 2009. Antibiotics in the aquatic environment-a review-Part I. Chemosphere, 75: 417-434.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

25:  Lee, H.B., T.E. Peart and M.L. Svoboda, 2007. Determination of ofloxacin, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin in sewage by selective solid-phase extraction, liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. J. Chromatograp. A, 1139: 45-52.
CrossRef  |  

26:  Lin, A.Y.C., T.H. Yu and C.F. Lin, 2008. Pharmaceutical contamination in residential, industrial and agricultural waste streams: Risk to aqueous environments in Taiwan. Chemosphere, 74: 131-141.
CrossRef  |  

27:  Lindberg, R., P.A. Jarnheimer, B. Olsen, M. Johansson and M. Tysklind, 2004. Determination of antibiotic substances in hospital sewage water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and group analogue internal standards. Chemosphere, 57: 1479-1488.
CrossRef  |  

28:  Luczkiewicz, A., K. Jankowska, S. Fudala-Ksiazek and K. Olanczuk-Neyman, 2010. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal indicators in municipal wastewater treatment plant. Water Res., 44: 5089-5097.
CrossRef  |  

29:  Moore, J.E., P.J.A. Moore, B.C. Millar, C.E. Goldsmith, A. Loughrey, P.J. Rooney and J.R. Rao, 2010. The presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria along the River Lagan. Agric. Water Manage., 98: 217-221.
CrossRef  |  

30:  Parveen, S., R.L. Murphree, L. Edmiston, C.W. Kaspar, K.M. Portier and M.L. Tamplin, 1997. Association of multiple-antibiotic-resistance profiles with point and nonpoint sources of Escherichia coli in Apalachicola bay. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 63: 2607-2612.
Direct Link  |  

31:  Peng, X., Z. Wang, W. Kuang, J. Tan and K. Li, 2006. A preliminary study on the occurrence and behavior of sulfonamides, ofloxacin and chloramphenicol antimicrobials in wastewaters of two sewage treatment plants in Guangzhou, China. Sci. Total Environ., 371: 314-322.
CrossRef  |  

32:  Roychoudhury, S., C.E. Catrenich, E.J. Mcintosh, H.D. Mckeever, K.M. Makin, P.M. Koenigs and B. Ledoussal, 2001. Quinolone resistance in staphylococci: Activities of new nonfluorinated quinolones against molecular targets in whole cells and clinical isolates. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 45: 1115-1120..
CrossRef  |  

33:  Sacher, F., F.T. Lange, H.J. Brauch and I. Blankenhorn, 2001. Pharmaceuticals in groundwaters: Analytical methods and results of a monitoring program in Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. J. Chromatogr. A, 938: 199-210.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

34:  Santoro, D.O., C.M.C.A. Romao and M.M. Clementino, 2012. Decreased aztreonam susceptibility among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from hospital effluent treatment system and clinical samples. Int. J. Environ. Health Res., 22: 560-570.
CrossRef  |  

35:  Seifrtova, M., L. Novakova, C. Lino, A. Pena and P. Solich, 2009. An overview of analytical methodologies for the determination of antibiotics in environmental waters. Anal. Chim. Acta, 649: 158-179.
CrossRef  |  

36:  Servais, P. and J. Passerat, 2009. Antimicrobial resistance of fecal bacteria in waters of the Seine river watershed (France). Sci. Total Environ., 408: 365-372.
CrossRef  |  

37:  Sim, W.J., J.W. Lee, E.S. Lee, S.K. Shin, S.R. Hwang and J.E. Oh, 2011. Occurrence and distribution of pharmaceuticals in wastewater from households, livestock farms, hospitals and pharmaceutical manufactures. Chemosphere, 82: 179-186.
CrossRef  |  

38:  Su, H.C., G.G. Ying, R. Tao, R.Q. Zhang, J.L. Zhao and Y.S. Liu, 2012. Class 1 and 2 integrons, sul resistance genes and antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli isolated from Dongjiang River, South China. Environ. Pollut., 169: 42-49.
CrossRef  |  

39:  Tamtam, F., F. Mercier, B.L. Bot, J. Eurin, Q.T. Dinh, M. Clement and M. Chevreuil, 2008. Occurrence and fate of antibiotics in the Seine River in various hydrological conditions. Sci. Total Environ., 393: 84-95.
CrossRef  |  

40:  Theron, J., J. Cilliers, M.D. Preez, V.S. Brozel and S.N. Venter, 2000. Detection of toxigenic Vibrio cholera from environmental samples by an enrichment broth cultivation-pit-stop semi-nested PCR procedure. J. Applied Microbiol., 89: 539-546.
CrossRef  |  

41:  Verlicchi, P., A. Galletti, M. Petrovic and D. Barcelo, 2010. Hospital effluents as a source of emerging pollutants: An overview of micropollutants and sustainable treatment options. J. Hydrol., 389: 416-428.
CrossRef  |  

42:  Verlicchi, P., M. Al Aukidy, A. Galletti, M. Petrovic and D. Barcelo, 2012. Hospital effluent: Investigation of the concentrations and distribution of pharmaceuticals and environmental risk assessment. Sci. Total Environ., 430: 109-118.
CrossRef  |  

43:  Watkinson, A.J., G.B. Micalizzi, G.M. Graham, J.B. Bates and S.D. Costanzo, 2007. Antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in wastewaters, surface waters and oysters from an urban riverine system. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 73: 5667-5670.
CrossRef  |  

44:  Watkinson, A.J., E.J. Murby, D.W. Kolpin and S.D. Costanzo, 2009. The occurrence of antibiotics in an urban watershed: From wastewater to drinking water. Sci. Total Environ., 407: 2711-2723.
CrossRef  |  

45:  Xu, W.H., G. Zhang, S.C. Zou, X.D. Li and Y.C. Liu, 2007. Determination of selected antibiotics in the Victoria Harbour and the Pearl River, South China using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Environ. Pollut., 145: 672-679.
CrossRef  |  

46:  Yiruhan, Q.J. Wang, C.H. Mo, Y.W. Li and P. Gao et al., 2010. Determination of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao. Environ. Pollut., 158: 2350-2358.
CrossRef  |  

47:  Yu, D.J., X.L. Yi, Y.F. Ma, B. Yin, H.L. Zhuo, J. Li and Y. Huang, 2009. Effects of administration mode of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance of Enterococcus faecalis in aquatic ecosystems. Chemosphere, 76: 915-920.
CrossRef  |  

48:  Zarfl, C., J. Klasmeier and M. Matthies, 2009. A conceptual model describing the fate of sulfadiazine and its metabolites observed in manure-amended soils. Chemosphere, 77: 720-726.
CrossRef  |  

49:  Zhang, R., G. Zhang, Q. Zheng J. Tang and Y. Chen et al., 2012. Occurrence and risks of antibiotics in the Laizhou Bay, China: Impacts of river discharge. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 80: 208-215.
CrossRef  |  

50:  Zheng, S., X. Qiu, B. Chen, X. Yu and Z. Liu et al., 2011. Antibiotics pollution in Jiulong River estuary: Source, distribution and bacterial resistance. Chemosphere, 84: 1677-1685.
CrossRef  |  

51:  Zhou, L.J., G.G. Ying, J.L. Zhao, J.F. Yang, L. Wang, B. Yang and S. Liu, 2011. Trends in the occurrence of human and veterinary antibiotics in the sediments of the Yellow River, Hai River and Liao River in northern China. Environ. Pollut., 159: 1877-1885.
CrossRef  |  

52:  Zou, S., W. Xu, R. Zhang, J. Tang, Y. Chen and G. Zhang, 2011. Occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in coastal water of the Bohai Bay, China: Impacts of river discharge and aquaculture activities. Environ. Pollut., 159: 2913-2920.
CrossRef  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved