Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Fungal Spoilage of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Fruits During Storage and the Growth Differential of Isolates on Selected Amino Acids and Carbohydrates

P.N. Okolie, C.L. Obi and P.O. Uaboi-Egbenni
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Husked and dehusked coconut fruits were stored at 10°C and 30°C for three months. The husked coconut fruits stored at both 10°C and 30°C and the dehusked coconut fruits stored at 10°C showed no evidence of microbial spoilage at the end of the three months storage period. However, dehusked coconut fruits stored at 30°C deteriorated. Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger were the principal fungal agents associated with the spoilage. An investigation of the proximate composition of the dehusked fruits stored at 30°C indicated a marked significant difference in the percentage composition of moisture, protein, ascorbic acid and carbohydrate content of 3.97±0.28, 3.98±0.07, 0.01±0.002 and 9.27±1.02 respectively as against 46.82±0.43, 3.77±0.05, 2.48±0.15 and 11.89±0.22 obtained for dehusked coconut fruits prior to storage. These results suggest that the deterioration in nutritional composition was due to breakdown of protein and carbohydrate by the spoilage fungi. Further tests confirmed the ability of the isolated spoilage fungi to utilize the different carbohydrate and nitrogen sources as source of carbon and energy. Aspergillus flavus showed the ability to grow and utilize more of the various carbohydrate sources than Aspergillus niger, although the latter utilized lactose better. Both fungi showed evidence of growth and complete utilization of nearly all the nitrogen sources, except cysteine and L-glutamine, which could not support the growth Aspergillus niger. Likewise, cysteine and L-glutamine, in addition to D-β-phenylalanine could not support the growth of Aspergillus flavus.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

P.N. Okolie, C.L. Obi and P.O. Uaboi-Egbenni , 2011. Fungal Spoilage of Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Fruits During Storage and the Growth Differential of Isolates on Selected Amino Acids and Carbohydrates. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10: 965-973.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2011.965.973


1:  Anon, 1993. Coconut processing: New dawn for a sunset trade. Asia Pacific Food Ind., 5: 48-53.

2:  Asiedu, J.J., 1989. Processing Tropical Crops-A Technological Approach. 10th Edn., The Macmillan Press Ltd, London, ISBN: 9780333448571, Pages: 266.

3:  AOAC., 2002. Official methods of analysis. 13th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.

4:  Aten, A., M. Manni and F.C. Cooke, 1958. Copra processing in rural industries. Food and Agriculture Organization Development Paper No. 63. pp: 55

5:  Cheek, C.W. and J.T. Barrett, 1962. Antigenic relationship of Geotrichum candidum strains. Mycopathologia, 17: 47-54.
CrossRef  |  

6:  Becaria, A., A. Campbell and S.C. Bondy, 2002. Aluminum as a toxicant. Toxicol. Ind. Health, 18: 309-320.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

7:  Bessey, E.A., 1950. Morphology and Taxonomy of Fungi. The Blakiston Co., Philadelphia, USA., Pages: 791.

8:  Fox, B.A. and A.G. Cameron, 1982. Food Science: A Chemical Approach. 4th Edn., Academic press, London, Pages: 247.

9:  George, M.V., K. Vijayakumar and J. Matthew, 1991. Trend of production and productivity of coconut in India. Coconut J., 22: 45-49.

10:  Gonealves, J.R. and N.R.O. Teixeira, 1982. Industrial aspects to preservation of coconut milk. Boletin Inst. Tech. Alimentos, 19: 359-368.

11:  Gwee, C.N., 1988. New Technologies Open the Passage into New Usage of Coconut Milk Products. In: Food Science and Technology in Industrial Development, Maneepun, S., P. Varangoon and B. Phithakpol, (Eds). Vol. 1, Institute of Food Research and Product Development, Bangkok, pp: 157-162Maneepun, S., P. Varangoon and B. Phithakpol, (Eds). Vol. 1, Institute of Food Research and Product Development, Bangkok, pp: 157-162.

12:  Hagenmaier, R., 1977. Coconut Aqueous Processing. University of San Carlos Press, Cebu City, Philippines.

13:  Hargrave, K.M., M.J. Azain and J.L. Miner, 2005. Dietary coconut oil increases conjugated linoleic acid-induced body fat loss in mice independent of essential fatty acid deficiency. Biochim. Biophys. Acta Mol. Cell Biol Lipids, 1737: 52-60.
CrossRef  |  

14:  Hargrave, K.M., C.L. Li, B.J. Meyer, S.D. Kachman and D.L. Hartzell et al., 2002. Adipose depletion and apoptosis induced by trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in mice. Obes. Res., 10: 1284-1290.
CrossRef  |  

15:  Husin, A. and H.M. Hassan, 1978. Processing of coconut milk (santan): Processing of santan into coconut butter. Malaysian Agric. J., 51: 299-304.

16:  Ip, C., S. Banni, E. Angioni, G. Carta and J. McGinley et al., 1999. Conjugated linoleic acid-enriched butter fat alters mammary gland morphogenesis and reduces cancer risk in rats. J. Nutr., 129: 2135-2142.
Direct Link  |  

17:  Jarman, C.G. and D.S. Jayasundara, 1975. The Extraction and Processing of Coconut Fibre. Tropical Products Institute, London, ISBN: 9780859540438, Pages: 24.

18:  Kritchevsky, D., S.A. Tepper, S. Wright and S.K. Czarnecki, 2002. Influence of graded levels of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Nutr. Res., 22: 1275-1279.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Kuku, F.O. and S.D. Agboola, 1984. Moulds associated with some vegetable oils and their effects on free fatty acid content. Nig. J. Microbiol., 4: 105-111.

20:  Kuku, F.O. and M.O. Adeniji, 1976. The effect of moulds on quality of Nigerian palm kernel. Int. Biodeterior. Bull., 12: 37-41.

21:  Kuku, F.O. and J.A. Broadbent, 1979. Studies on mould deterioration of midwestern Nigerian palm fruits and pre-storage palm kernels at various stages of processing. Nig. Stored Prod. Res. Inst. Tech. Rep., 6: 49-53.

22:  Kuku, F.O., 1976. Some mould-induced changes in palm kernels. Nig. Stored Products Res. Inst. Tech. Rep., 9: 62-72.

23:  Lee, K.N., D. Kritchevsky and M.W. Pariza, 1994. Conjugated linoleic acid and atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis, 108: 19-25.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

24:  Jae-Woob, P., R. Migitaa and Q. Gang, 2002. Experiments of a prototype wind-driven reverse osmosis desalination system with feedback control. Desalination, 150: 277-287.
Direct Link  |  

25:  Lupke, J., 1979. Gekremte kokosnuss. Gordian, 79: 86-89.

26:  Maera, R., R.K. Robinson and M.J. Sadler, 1993. Energyy of Food Science, Food Technology and Nutrition. Vol. 5, Academic Press, London, Pages: 12.

27:  Muller, H., A.S. Lindman, A. Blomfeldt, I. Seljeflot and J.I. Pedersen, 2003. A diet rich in coconut oil reduces diurnal postprandial variations in circulating tissue plasminogen activator antigen and fasting lipoprotein (a) compared with a diet rich in unsaturated fat in women. J. Nutr., 133: 3422-3427.
Direct Link  |  

28:  Munday, J.S., K.A. James, L.M. Fray, S.W. Kirkwood and K.G. Thompson, 1999. Daily supplementation with aged garlic extract, but not raw garlic, protects low density lipoproteins against in vitro oxidation. Atherosclerosis, 143: 399-404.
PubMed  |  

29:  Nevin, K.G. and T. Rajamohan, 2004. Beneficial effects of virgin coconut oil on lipid parameters and in vitro LDL oxidation. Clin. Biochem., 37: 830-835.
PubMed  |  

30:  Nicolosi, R.J, T.A. Wilson, C. Lawton and G.J. Handelman, 2001. Dietary effects on cardiovascular disease risk factors: Beyond saturated fatty acids and cholesterol. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 20: 421S-427S.
Direct Link  |  

31:  Okpokwasili, G.C. and T.O. Williams, 1991. Stability to deterioration of vegetable oil biodeterioration. Mater. Organismen, 26: 53-62.

32:  Okpokwasili, G.C. and C.N. Molokwu, 1996. Biochemical characteristics of vegetable oil biodeterioration. Mater. Organismen, 30: 307-314.

33:  Park, T., J. Oh and K. Lee, 1999. Dietary taurine or glycine supplementation reduces plasma and liver cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Nutr. Res., 19: 1777-1789.
Direct Link  |  

34:  Pelczar, M.J., D.R. Roger and E.C.S. Chan, 1983. Microbiology. 4th Edn., Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.

35:  Prasanna, H.A., R.G. Rao, B.L.M. Desai and S. Chandrasekhara, 1969. Use of spray dried infant food based on coconut for the treatment of protein malnutrition (kwashiorkor). J. Food Sci. Technol., 6: 187-188.
Direct Link  |  

36:  Preuss, H.G., B. Echard, A. Dadgar, N. Talpur and V. Manohar et al., 2005. Effects of essential oils and monolaurin on Staphylococcus aureus: In vitro and in vivo studies. Toxicol. Mech. Methods, 15: 279-285.
PubMed  |  

37:  Rao, T.S.S., N.M. Kaverappa, R. Hemaprakash, and K.S. Jayarawan, 1990. Development of ready-to-eat traditional Indian sweet dishes based on jaggery and coconut. J. Food Sci. Tech., 27: 355-358.
Direct Link  |  

38:  Rao, T.S.S., N.M. Kaverappa, and K.S. Jayarawan, 1990. Development of shelf stable ready-to-eat Indian sweet meats based on sugar and coconut. J. Food Sci. Tech., 27: 359-361.
Direct Link  |  

39:  Shalini, K.V., S. Manjunatha, P. Lebrum, A. Berger and L. Bandouin et al., 2007. Identification of molecular markers associated with mite resistance in coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Genome, 50: 35-42.
PubMed  |  

40:  Sowunmi, O. and S.A. Adesuyi, 1981. Storage losses in tropical stored products caused by insect pests. NSPRI Tech. Rep., 11: 103-111.

41:  Stephens, N.G., A. Parsons, P.M. Schofield, F. Kelly, K. Cheeseman and M.J. Mitchinson, 1996. Randomized controlled trial of vitamin E in patients with coronary disease: Cambridge Heart Antioxidant Study (CHAOS). Lancet, 347: 781-786.
PubMed  |  

42:  Timmins, W.H. and E.C. Kramer, 1977. The canning of coconut cream Philippine J. Coconut Stud., 2: 15-25.

43:  Ward, H.S. and U.L. Diener, 1961. Biochemical changes in shelled peanut caused by storage fungi. Phytopath., 51: 244-250.

44:  Winsted, N.N. and J.C. Walker, 1954. Production of vascular browning by metabolites from several pathogens. Phytopathology, 44: 153-158.

45:  Wyatt, C.J., S.P. Carballido and R.O. Mendez, 1988. α- and γ-Tocopherol content of selected foods in the mexican diet: Effect of cooking losses. J. Agric. Food Chem., 46: 4657-4661.

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved