Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

The Effects of Processing on the Proximate and Phytochemical Compositions of Mucuna pruriens Seeds (Velvet Beans)

R.N. Nwaoguikpe, W. Braide and C.O. Ujowundu
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

The effects of processing on the proximate and phytochemical compositions of Mucuna pruriens seed extract were investigated. The proximate analysis of the hulled seeds revealed the following nutrients and antinutrients: Crude lipid (2.69%), crude fiber (3.86%), crude protein (28.23%), ash (5.26%), carbohydrate (60.03%) and moisture content (12.32%). The boiled or cooked samples exhibited the following results: Crude lipid (2.51%), crude fiber (3.83%), protein (22.17%), ash (4.24%), carbohydrate (67.92%) and moisture content (12.32%). After soaking prior to boiling or cooking at 98oC for one hour, the results were: Crude lipid (2.51%), crude fiber (3.81%), protein (22.05%), ash (3.10%), carbohydrate (68.52%) and moisture content (11.92%). Quantitative phytochemical analysis of the raw seed extract indicated: Flavonoids (0.42%), alkaloids (1.07%), saponins (0.47%), tannins (0.28%), hydrogen cyanide (12.69 mg/kg), phenol (2.82%) and phytate (0.43%). The concentrations of the phytochemicals in the boiled samples were as follows: Flavonoids (0.35%), alkaloids (0.88%), saponins (0.39%), tannins (0.09%), hydrogen cyanide (6.59 mg/kg), phenols (0.33%) and phytate (0.24%). The soaked and boiled samples showed the following result: Flavonoids (0.31%), alkaloids (0.88%), saponins (0.37%), tannins (0.08%), hydrogen cyanide (5.54 mg/kg), phenols (0.32%) and phytate (0.22%). The effects of processing involving soaking, soaking and boiling, have remarkable detoxification effect, anti-nutrient and nutrient composition reduction on Mucuna pruriens seeds. The most highly affected anti-nutrient and toxicant in the seed is hydrogen cyanide, which showed a reduction from 12.67 mg/kg for the raw sample to 5.54 mg/kg for the soaked and boiled samples; a reduction of 56.34%. Another anti-nutrient, phytate was reduced by more than 48.84%; phenols from 2.83% to 0.32%, a reduction of 88.69%; we therefore conclude that the effects of processing vis a vis the methods employed, have significant effects in the reduction of the concentrations of the anti-nutrients and toxicants present in the seeds of this under-utilized legume. We recommend that these novel processes be employed by individuals, farmers and food processing companies wishing to include this all important legume as part of family dietary as well as in poultry, animal feeds or in the formulation of diets for the undernourished and low income groups.

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

R.N. Nwaoguikpe, W. Braide and C.O. Ujowundu , 2011. The Effects of Processing on the Proximate and Phytochemical Compositions of Mucuna pruriens Seeds (Velvet Beans). Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10: 947-951.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2011.947.951


1:  AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA.

2:  Arinathan, V., V.R. Mohan and A.J. De Britto, 2003. Chemical composition of certain tribal pulses in South India. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr., 54: 209-217.
CrossRef  |  

3:  Anderson, J.W., B.M. Johnstone and M.E. Cook-Newel, 1995. Analysis of the effects of soy-protein intake on serum lipids. New Eng. J. Med., 333: 276-282.
Direct Link  |  

4:  Augustin, J. and B.P. Klein, 1989. Nutrient Composition of Raw, Rooked, Canned and Sprouted Legumes. In: Legumes, Chemistry, Technology and Human Nutrition, Mathews, R.H. (Ed.). Marcel Dekkar Inc., New York, pp: 187-217.

5:  Bressani, R., 2002. Factors influencing nutritive value in food grain legumes: Mucuna compared to other grain legumes. Proceedings of International Workshop on Food and Feed from Mucuna: Current Uses and the Way Forward, April 26-29, 2002, World Hunger Research Center, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, pp: 164-188.

6:  Chel-Guerrero, L., V. Perez-Flores, D. Bentacur-Ancona and G. Davila-Ortiz, 2002. Functional properties of flours and protein isolates from Phaseolus lunatus and Canavalia ensiformis seeds. J. Agric. Food Chem., 50: 584-591.
PubMed  |  

7:  Costa, G.E.A., K.S. Queiroz-Monici, S.M.P. Reis and A.C. Oliveira, 2006. Chemical composition, dietary fiber and resistant starch contents of raw and cooked pea, common beans, chicken pea and lentil legumes. J. Food Biochem., 94: 327-330.
Direct Link  |  

8:  Dako, D.Y. and D.C. Hill, 1977. Chemical and biological evaluation of Mucuna pruriens (utilis) beans. Nutr. Report Int., 18: 239-244.

9:  Duke, J.A., 1981. Handbook of Legumes of World Economic Importance. Plenum Press, New York, USA. Pages: 345.

10:  Ezeagu, I.E., B. Maziya-Dixon and G. Tarawali, 2003. Seed characteristics and nutrient composition of 12 Mucuna accessions from Nigeria. Trop. Subtropical Agroecosys., 1: 129-139.
Direct Link  |  

11:  Harborne, J.B., 1973. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analyses. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA., ISBN-13: 9780412105401, pp: 18-215.

12:  Iyayi, E.A. and J.I. Egharevba, 1998. Biochemical evaluation of seeds of an underutilized legume (Mucuna utilis). Nig. J. Anim. Prod., 25: 40-45.

13:  Janardhanan, K., P. Gurumoortha and M. Pugalenthi, 2003. Nutritional potential of five accessions of a South Indian tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens var. utilis L. The effect of processing methods on the content of L-dopa, phytic acid and oligosaccharides. J. Trop. Subtrop. Agroecosys., 1: 153-158.
Direct Link  |  

14:  James, C.S., 1995. Analytical Chemistry of Foods. Capman and Hall, New York.

15:  Krause, J.P., R. Mothes and K.D. Schwenke, 1996. Some phytochemical and interfacial properties of native and acetylated legumes from Faba beans (Vicia faba L.). J. Agric. Food Chem., 44: 427-437.
Direct Link  |  

16:  Kumar, S., G.K. Singh, R. Kumar, N.K. Bhatia and C.P. Awasthi, 1991. Variation in quality traits of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Mill. sp) varieties. J. Food Sci. Technol., 28: 174-178.

17:  Michaelson, K.F. and F. Henrik, 1998. Complimentary feeding, a global perspective. Nutrition, 14: 763-766.
Direct Link  |  

18:  Josephine, R.M. and K. Jonardhanama, 1992. Studies on chemical composition and nutritional factors in three Germplasm seed materials of the tribal pulse, Mucuna pruriens (L). Food Chem., 43: 13-18.
Direct Link  |  

19:  Mugendi, J.B., E.N.M. Ngaji, E.N. Kuria, M.A. Mwasamu, J.G. Muriethi and Z. Apostolides, 2010. Effects of processing techniques on the nutritional composition and anti-nutriient content of Mucuna bean (Mucuna pruriens L.). Afr. J. Food Sci., 4: 156-166.
Direct Link  |  

20:  National Research Council, 1974. Recommended daily dietary allowance. Nutr. Rev., 31: 373-395.

21:  Pelletier, D.L., 1994. The potentiating effects of malnutrition on child mortality: Epidemiologic evidence and policy implications. Nutr. Rev., 52: 409-415.
CrossRef  |  

22:  Pearson, D., 1976. The Chemical Analysis of Foods. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh.

23:  Rajeshwar, Y., M. Gupta and U.K. Mazunder, 2005. Antitumor activity and in vitro antioxidant status of Mucuna pruriens (Fabaceae) seeds against ehrlich ascites carcinoma in swiss albino mice. Iranian J. Pharmacol. Ther., 4: 46-53.
Direct Link  |  

24:  Ravindran, V. and G. Ravindran, 1988. Nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of Mucuna (Mucuna utilis) bean seeds. J. Sci. Food Agric., 46: 71-79.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

25:  Sridhar, K.R. and R. Bhat, 2007. Agrobotanical, nutritional and bioactive potential of unconventional legume, Mucuna. Livest. Res. Rural Dev., 19: 5-10.
Direct Link  |  

26:  Siddhuragu, P., K. Becker and H.P.S. Makkar, 2000. Studies on the nutritional composition and anti-nutritional factors of three different germplasm seed materials of an underutilized tropical legume, Mucuna pruriens var.utilis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 49: 6048-6060.
CrossRef  |  

27:  Salvin, J., D.R. Jacobs and L. Marquat, 1997. Whole-grain consumption and chronic disease: Protective mechanisms. Nutr. Cancer, 27: 14-21.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  Udedibie, A.B.I. and C.R. Carlini, 1998. Brazilian Mucuna pruriens (Velvet beans) lack haemagglutinating activity. J. Agric. Food Chem., 46: 1450-1452.

29:  Vedivet, V. and K. Janardhan, 2000. Nutrition and anti-nutrition of Velvet beans. An under-utilized food legum in South India. Int. J. Sci. Nutr., 51: 279-287.
PubMed  |  

30:  Doyle, J.J., 1994. Phylogeny of the legume family: An approach to understanding the origins of nodulation. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 25: 325-349.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

31:  Griffiths, D.W. and T.A. Thomas, 1981. Phytate and total phosphorus content of field beans (Vicia faba). J. Sci. Food Agric., 32: 187-192.
CrossRef  |  

©  2021 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved