Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Lipid Profile of the Yolk under the Influence of Supplementaries Sources Rich in Ω-3 PUFAs in the Diet of Laying Hens in the Time



Paulo Reis de Carvalho, Maria Carolina Goncalves Pita, Eduardo Piber Neto and Cassio Xavier de Mendonca
 
ABSTRACT

Two hundred eighty-eight 32-wk-old Hisex White laying hens were used in this research during a 10 weeks period, arranged in a 2 x 5 completely randomized factorial design, with three replicates of eight birds per treatment. Two groups: fish oil (OP) and Marine Algae (AM) with five DHA levels (120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 mg/100 g diet) were assigned including two control groups birds fed corn and soybean basal diet (CON) and a diet supplemented with AM (AM420) to study the effect of time 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks (wk) on the efficiency of egg yolk fatty acid enrichment. The means varied (p<0.01) of 17.63% (OP360) to 22.08% (AM420) is the total Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFAs) and 45.8 mg/g (OP360), 40.37 mg/g (OP360, 4 wk) to 65.82 mg/g (AM420) and 68.79 mg/g/yolk (AM120, 8 wk) for n-6 PUFAs. On the influence of sources and levels in the times, the means of n-3 PUFAs increased by 5.58 mg/g (AM120, 2 wk) to 14.16 mg/g (OP360, 6 wk) when compared to average of 3.34 mg PUFAs Ω/g/yolk (CON). Usually, the means DHA also increased from 22.34 (CON) to 176.53 mg (μ, OP360), 187.91 mg (OP360, 8 wk) and 192.96 mg (OP360, 6 wk) and 134.18 mg (μ, OP360), 135.79 mg (AM420, 6 wk), 149.75 mg DHA (AM420, 8 wk) per yolk. The opposite was observed for the means AA, so the effect of the sources, levels and times, decreased (P <0.01) of 99.83 mg (CON) to 31.99 mg (OP360, 4 wk), 40.43 mg (μ, OP360) to 61.21 mg (AM420) and 71.51 mg AA / yolk (μ, AM420). Variations of the average weight of 15.75g (OP360) to 17.08g (AM420) yolks of eggs de 32.55% (AM420) to 34.08% (OP360) of total lipids and 5.28 g (AM240) to 5.84 g (AM120) of fat in the yolk were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments, sources, levels and times studied. Starting of 2 week, the hens increased the level of n-3 PUFAs in the egg yolks, being expressively increased (p<0.01) until 4 weeks, which after the increased levels of n-3 PUFAs tended to if stabilize around of time of 8 experimental weeks, when it was more effective saturation of the tissues and yolk.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Paulo Reis de Carvalho, Maria Carolina Goncalves Pita, Eduardo Piber Neto and Cassio Xavier de Mendonca, 2011. Lipid Profile of the Yolk under the Influence of Supplementaries Sources Rich in Ω-3 PUFAs in the Diet of Laying Hens in the Time. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10: 760-772.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2011.760.772

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2011.760.772

REFERENCES
AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 15th Edn., AOAC., Washington, DC., USA.

Balnave, D., 1970. Essential fatty acids in poultry nutrition. World's Poult. Sci. J., 26: 442-459.

Bang, H.O. and J. Dyerberg, 1972. Plasma lipids and lipoproteins in Greenlandic west cost Eskimos. Acta Med. Scand., 192: 85-94.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Baucells, M.D., N. Crespo, A.C. Barroeta, S. Lopez-Ferrer and M.A. Grashorn, 2000. Incorporation of different polyunsaturated fatty acids into eggs. Poult. Sci., 79: 51-59.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Beitz, D.C. and R.S. Allen, 1984. Lipid metabolism. In: Dukes Physiology of Domestic Animals, Swenson, M.J. (Ed.). CU. Press, Ithaca, New York, pp: 386-397.

Bligh, E.G. and W.J. Dyer, 1959. A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Can. J. Biochem. Physiol., 37: 911-917.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Chang, N.W. and P.C. Huang, 1990. Effects of dietary monounsaturated fatty acids on plasma lipids in humans. J. Lipid Res., 31: 2141-2147.
Direct Link  |  

Cherian, G. and J.S. Sim, 1991. Effect of feeding full fat flax and canola seeds to laying hens on the fatty acid composition of eggs, embryos and newley hatched chicks. Poult. Sci., 70: 917-922.

Cherian, G. and J.S. Sim, 1993. Net transfer and incorporation of yolk n-3 fatty acids into developing chick embryos. Poult. Sci., 72: 98-105.
PubMed  |  

Folch, J., M. Lees and G.H.S. Stanley, 1957. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem., 226: 497-509.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Freeman, B.M., 1984. Physiology and Biochemistry of the Domestic Fowl. Academic Press, London.

Galobart, J., A.C. Barroeta, L. Cortinas, M.D. Baucells and R. Codony, 2002. Accumulation of α-tocopherol in eggs enriched with omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poult. Sci., 81: 1873-1876.
Direct Link  |  

Griminger, P., 1986. Lipid Metabolism. 4th Edn., PD Springer-Verlag, New York.

Grobas, S., J. Mendez, R. Lazaro, C. de Blas and G.G. Mateo, 2001. Influence of source and percentage of fat added to diet on performance and fatty acid composition of egg yolks of two strains of laying hens. Poult. Sci., 80: 1171-1179.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Hargis, P.S., M.E. van Elswyk and B.M. Hargis, 1991. Dietary modification of yolk lipid with menhaden oil. Poult. Sci., 70: 874-883.
PubMed  |  

Hartman, L. and R.C.A. Lago, 1973. Rapid preparation of fatty acid methyl esters from lipids. Lab. Pract., 22: 475-476.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Huang, Z., H. Leibovitz, C.M. Lee and R. Millar, 1990. Effect of dietary fish oil on w-3 fatty acids levels in chicken eggs and thig flesh. J. Agric. Food Chem., 38: 743-747.

Hwang, D., 1989. Essential fatty acids and immune response. FASEB J., 3: 2052-2061.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Jiang, Z. and J. Sim, 1992. Effects of dietary n-3 fatty acid enriched chicken eggs on plasma and tissue cholesterol and fatty acid composition of rats. Lipids, 27: 279-284.
CrossRef  |  

Jiang, Z. and J.S. Sim, 1994. Fatty Acid Modification of Yolk Lipids and Cholesterol-lowering Eggs. In: Egg Uses and Processing Technologies: New Developments, Sim, J.S. and S. Nakai (Eds.). CAB International, Oxon, UK., pp: 349-361.

Leskanich, C.O. and R.C. Noble, 1997. Manipulation of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid composition of avian eggs and meat. World's Poult. Sci. J., 53: 155-183.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Lopez-Ferrer, S., M.D. Baucells, A.C. Barroeta and M.A. Grashorn, 1999. N-3 Enrichment of chicken meat using fish oil: Alternative substitution with rapeseed and linseed oils. Poult. Sci., 78: 356-365.
Direct Link  |  

Mori, A.V., 2001. Utilizacao de oleo de peixe e linhaca na racao como fontes de acidos graxos poliinsaturados omega-3 em ovos. Tese de doutorado, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Pages: 162

Nash, D.M., R.M.G. Hamilton and H.W. Hulan, 1995. The effect of dietary herring meal on the ω-3 fatty acid content of plasma and egg yolk lipids of laying hens. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 75: 247-253.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

National Research Council (NRC), 1994. Nutrient Requeriments of Poultry. 9th Edn., NRC, Washigton, DC.

Neto, E.P., 2006. Enriquecimento do ovo: Utilizacao de oleos de peixes e alga marinha como fontes de acidos graxos poliinsaturados Omega-3 em racoes de galinhas. Dissertacao de Mestrado, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, pp: 82. http://www.teses.usp.br/teses/disponiveis/10/10136/tde-29012007-132108/

Nielsen, H., 1998. Hen age and fatty acid composition of egg yolk lipid. Br. Poult. Sci., 39: 53-56.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Noble, R.C., 1987. Egg lipids. In: Egg quality-current problems and recent advances, Wells, R.G. and C.G. Belyavin (Eds.). PSS., n. 20, Butterworths, London, pp: 159-177.

Pita, M.C.G., 2003. Efeito da suplementacao de linhaca, oleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta, sobre as concentracoes de acidos graxos poliinsaturados e alfa tocoferol em ovos de galinha. Dissertacao de Mestrado, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia. Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Pages: 141

Pita, M.C.G., E.P. Neto, P.R. Carvalho and C.X. Mendonca Jr., 2006. Efeito da suplementacao de linhaca, oleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta sobre as concentracoes de acidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos de galinha. [Effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, canola oil and vitamin E upon polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs]. Arq. Bras. Med. Vet. Zootec., 58: 925-931.
Direct Link  |  

Scheuermann, G.N. and C. Bellaver, 1995. Estado da arte e a perspectiva para pesquisa futura em nutricao de aves. Reuniao Anual Da Sociedade Brasileira De Zootecnia, 32. Anais. Brasilia, DF., pp: 465-473. http://orton.catie.ac.cr/cgi-bin/wxis.exe/?IsisScript=ACERVO.xis&method=post&formato=2&cantidad=1&expresion=mfn=028519.

Simopoulos, A.P., 2009. Omega-6/omega-3 essential fatty acids: Biological effects. World Rev. Nutr. Diet., 99: 1-16.
PubMed  |  

Simopoulos, A.P., A. Leaf and N. Salem Jr., 1999. Workshop on the essentiality of and recommended dietary intakes for omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids. J. Am. College Nutr., 18: 487-489.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Snedecor, G.W. and W.G. Cochran, 1967. Statistical Methods. 6th Edn., Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, Pages: 593.

Von Schacky, C. and J. Dyerberg, 2001. Omega 3 fatty acids from eskimos to clinical cardiology-what took us so long? World Rev. Nutr. Diet, 88: 90-99.
Direct Link  |  

Watkins, B.A., 1991. Importance of essential fatty acids and their derivatives in poultry. J. Nutr., 121: 1475-1485.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Watkins, B.A., C.L. Shen, J.P. McMurtry, H. Xu, S.D. Bain and K.G. Allen, 1997. Dietary lipids modulate bone prostaglandin E2 production, insulin-like growth factor-1 concentrations and formation rate in chicks. J. Nutr., 127: 1084-1091.
Direct Link  |  

Watkins, B.A., Y. Li and M.F. Seifert, 2001. Nutraceutical fatty acids as biochemical and molecular modulators of skeletal biology. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 20: 410S-416S.
Direct Link  |  

Whitehead, C.C., 1981. The response of egg weight to the inclusion of different amounts of vegetable oil and linoleic acid in the diet of laying hens. Br. Poult. Sci., 22: 525-532.
Direct Link  |  

Zeidler, G., 2003. Eggs vital to human and animal medicine. W. Poult., 140: 33-34.

©  2019 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved