Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Abstract
Fulltext PDF
References
Research Article
 

The Effect of Enzymatic Alcoholysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Cocoa Butter Substitutes



R. Nazaruddin, S. Nurul i Zakiyan and S. Mamot
 
ABSTRACT

The need for low-calorie fats has increased because of recent changes in consumers’ concerns about leading healthier lifestyles. Three types of commercial Cocoa Butter Substitutes (CBSs) were studied for use as substrates in the production of low-calorie structured lipids. Mixtures of commercial CBSs, ethanol and medium-chain fatty acids in a molar ratio of 1:2:1 were incubated in a water bath at 50oC for 24 h at 250 rpm, using 10% immobilized lipase as a catalyst. The following physicochemical properties were determined before and after enzymatic alcoholysis: the Solid Fat Content (SFC), the slip melting point, the iodine value, the free fatty acid content, the thermal behavior and the fatty acid composition. Hisomel CBSs was chosen as a substrate for further analysis because of its sharp melting profile between room temperature (25oC) and body temperature (37.5oC). At room temperature, the SFC of Hisomel was 60.56% and after the reaction with either caprylic or capric acid, it became 12.50% and 14.26%, respectively, which was the highest value among other CBS sample. Furthermore, Hisomel also had samilar fatty acid profile with cocoa butter before the enzymatic alcoholysis, which was 31.13% palmitic acid, 50.05% stearic acid and 18.80% oleic acid.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

R. Nazaruddin, S. Nurul i Zakiyan and S. Mamot, 2011. The Effect of Enzymatic Alcoholysis on the Physicochemical Properties of Commercial Cocoa Butter Substitutes. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10: 718-723.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2011.718.723

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2011.718.723

REFERENCES
AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA.

Akoh, C.C., 1995. Structured lipids-enzymatic approach. Inform, 6: 1055-1061.

Ali, A.R.M. and P.S. Dimick, 1994. Melting and solidification characteristics of confectionery fats: Anhydrous milk fat, cocoa butter and palm kernel stearin blends. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 71: 803-806.

Chen, C.W., C.L. Chong, H.M. Ghazali and O.M. Lai, 2007. Interpretation of triacylglycerol profiles of palm oil, palm kernel oil and their binary blends. Food Chem., 100: 178-191.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

De Oliveira, D. and T.L.M. Alves, 2000. A kinetic study of lipase-catalyzed alcoholysis of palm kernel oil. Applied Biochem. Biotechnol., 84-86: 59-68.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Gunstone, F.D., 2004. The Chemistry of Oils and Fats: Sources, Composition, Properties and Uses. Blackwell Publishing Ltd., Oxford, ISBN: 9780849323737, Pages: 288.

Hamilton, R.J. and A. Bhati, 1980. Fats and Oils: Chemistry and Technology. Applied Science Published Ltd., London, UK., 0853349150, Pages: 225.

Haryati, T., Y.B. Che Man, A. Asbi, H.M. Ghazali and L. Buana, 1998. Determination of iodine value of palm oil based on triglyceride composition. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 75: 789-792.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Hayes, D.G., 2004. Enzyme-catalyzed modification of oilseed materials to produce eco-friendly products. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 81: 1077-1103.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Irimescu, R., Y. Iwasaki and C.T. Hou, 2002. Study of TAG ethanolysis to 2-MAG by immobilized Candida antarctica lipase and synthesis of symmetrically structured TAG. J. Am. Oil Chemists Soc., 79: 879-883.
Direct Link  |  

Kandhro, A., S.T.H. Sherazi, S.A. Mahesar, M.I. Bhanger, M.Y. Talpur and S. Arain, 2008. Monitoring of fat content, free fatty acid and fatty acid profile including trans fat in Pakistani biscuits. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 85: 1057-1061.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Lida, H.M.D.N., S.W. Lin, C.C. Let and K. Sundram, 2001. Characteristics of simple and chemically interesterified blends containing palm stearin, sunflower oil and palm kernel olein and potential application of the blends in fats spread formulations. Oil Palm Bull., 43: 38-49.

Lipp, M. and E. Anklam, 1998. Review of cocoa butter and alternative fats for use in chocolate: Part B. Analytical approaches for identification and determination. Food Chem., 62: 99-108.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Lumor, S.E. and C.C. Akoh, 2005. Enzymatic incorporation of stearic acid into a blend of palm olein and palm kernel oil: Optimization by response surface methodology. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 82: 421-426.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Mangos, T.J., K.C. Jones and T.A. Foglia, 1999. Lipase-catalyzed synthesis of structured low-calorie triacylglycerols. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 76: 1127-1132.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Norizzah, A.R., C.L. Chong, C.S. Cheow and O. Zaliha, 2004. Effects of chemical interesterification on physicochemical properties of palm stearin and palm kernel olein blends. Food Chem., 86: 229-235.
CrossRef  |  

PORIM, 1995. Methods of Test for Palm Oil and Palm Oil Products. In: PORIM Test Methods, PORIM (Ed.). Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia, Bangi.

Rousseau, D., A.R. Hill and A.G. Marangoni, 1996. Restructuring butterfat through blending and chemical interesterification. 3. Rheology. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 73: 983-989.
CrossRef  |  

Shi, J., G. Mazza and M. Le Maguer, 2002. Functional Foods: Biochemical and Processing Aspects, Volume II. 1st Edn., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA., ISBN: 1566769027 Pages: 407.

Siew, W.L. and W.L. Ng, 2000. Differential scanning thermograms of palm oil triglycerides in the presence of diglycerides. J. Oil Palm Res., 12: 1-7.

Undurraga, D., A. Markovits and S. Erazo, 2001. Cocoa butter equivalent through enzymic interesterification of palm oil midfraction Process Biochem., 36: 933-939.

©  2019 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract