Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article
 

Prebiotic and Synbiotic Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Isolated from Iraq on Intestinal Tract Microflora in Mice



Sarmad Ghazi Mohammed, Ali Ahmed Sahi, Nawfal Abdul Ameer and Chen Fusheng
 
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail
ABSTRACT

In this study, Kunming mice were fed with galactooligosaccharide and Lactobacillus rhamnosus which isolated in former study from breast fed healthy infants feces in Basrah province, Iraq and chose as potential probiotic. The feed conversion efficiency and body weight of mice, contents of water and short chain fatty acid of mice feces and intestinal tract microflora in mice, were systematically investigated. The results revealed that the best treatment was when the mice (group f) were fed with infant formula plus galactooligosaccharide and L. rhamnosus, that gave best feed conversion efficiency (36.49), an increasing in Lactobacilli (9.45 cfu) and Bifidobacterium (7.35 cfu) counts and decreasing in Staphylococci (4.44 cfu) and Coliform (5.46 cfu) counts in mice feces, decreasing fecal pH (5.92), increasing fecal water content (69.71%) and best increasing in fecal SCFAs concentration of formic (1.066 μmol/g), acetic (24.766 μmol/g), propionic (16.644 μmol/g) and butyric (4.842 μmol/g) after 6 weeks of assay comparing with other groups.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Sarmad Ghazi Mohammed, Ali Ahmed Sahi, Nawfal Abdul Ameer and Chen Fusheng, 2011. Prebiotic and Synbiotic Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Isolated from Iraq on Intestinal Tract Microflora in Mice. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 10: 433-442.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2011.433.442

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2011.433.442

REFERENCES
1:  Alles, M.S., R. Hartemink, S. Meyboom, J.L. Harryvan, K.M. van Laere, F.M. Nagengast and J.G. Hautvast, 1999. Effect of transgalactooligosaccharides on the composition of the human intestinal microflora and on putative risk marker for colon cancer. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 69: 980-991.
Direct Link  |  

2:  AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 200-210.

3:  Bakker-Zierikzee, A.M., M.S. Alles, J. Knol, F.J. Kok, J.J.M. Tolboom and J.G. Bindels, 2005. Effects of infant formula containing a mixture of galacto- and fructooligosaccharides or viable Bifidobacterium animalis on the intestinal microflora during the first 4 months of life. Br. J. Nutr., 94: 783-790.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

4:  Ernet, M.F., D. Brassart, J.R. Neeser and A.L. Servin, 1994. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA1 binds to cultured human intestinal cell lines and inhibits cell attachment and cell invasion by enterovirulent bacteria. Gut, 35: 483-489.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Bouhnik, Y., B. Flourie, L. D'Agay-Abensour, P. Pochart, G. Gramet, M. Durand and J.C. Rambaud, 1997. Administration of transgalacto-oligosaccharides increases fecal bifidobacteria and modifies colonic fermentation metabolism in healthy humans. J. Nutr., 127: 444-448.
Direct Link  |  

6:  Brown, L., R. Hindmarsh and R. Mcgregor, 2001. Dynamic Agriculture Book Three. 2nd Edn., McGraw-Hill Book Company, Sydney, Australia.

7:  Bruzzese, E., M. Volpicelli, M. Squaglia, A. Tartaglione and A. Guarino, 2006. Impact of prebiotics on human health. Digestive Liver Dis., 38: S283-S287.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  Campbell, J.M., L.L. Bauer, G.C. Fahey Jr., A.J.C.L. Hogarth, B.W. Wolf and D.E. Hunter, 1997. Selected fructooligosaccharide (1-ketose, nystose and 1F-β-fructofuranosylnystose) composition of foods and feed. J. Agric. Food Chem., 45: 3076-3082.

9:  Campbell, J.M., G.C. Fahey Jr. and B.W. Wolf, 1997. Selected indigestible oligosaccharides affect large bowel mass, cecal and fecal short-chain fatty acids, pH and microflora in rats. J. Nutr., 127: 130-136.
Direct Link  |  

10:  Capela, P., T.K.C. Hay and N.P. Shah, 2006. Effect of cryoprotectants, prebiotics and microencapsulation on survival of probiotic organisms in yoghurt and freezedried yoghurt. Food Res. Int., 39: 203-211.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

11:  Chonan, O. and M. Watanuki, 1995. Effect of galacto-oligosaccharides on calcium absorption in rats. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol., 41: 95-104.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

12:  Chonan, O. and M. Watanuki, 1996. The effect of 6'-galacto-oligosaccharides on bone mineralization of rats adapted to different levels of dietary calcium. Int. J. Vitamin Nutr. Res., 66: 244-249.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

13:  Cummings, J.H. and H.N. Englyst, 1987. Fermentation in the human large intestine and the available substrates. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 45: 1243-1255.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

14:  Perez-Conesa, D., G. Lopez and G. Ros, 2007. Effects of probiotic, prebiotic and synbiotic follow-up infant formulas on large intestine morphology and bone mineralisation in rats. J. Sci. Food Agric., 87: 1059-1068.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

15:  Jenkins, D.J., V. Vuksan, C.W. Kendall, P. Wursch and R. Jeffcoat et al., 1998. Physiological effects of resistant starches on fecal bulk, short chain fatty acids, blood lipids and glycemic index. J. Am. Coll. Nutr., 17: 609-616.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

16:  Saulnier, D.M.A., G.R. Gibson and S. Kolida, 2008. In vitro effects of selected synbiotics on the human faecal microbiota composition. FEMS Microbial. Ecol., 66: 516-527.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

17:  Djouzi, Z. and C. Andrieux, 1997. Compared effects of three oligosaccharides on metabolism of intestinal microflora in rats inoculated with a human fecal flora. Br. J. Nutr., 78: 313-324.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Lee, D.K., S. Jang, E.H. Baek, M.J. Kim and K.S. Lee et al., 2009. Lactic acid bacteria affect serum: Cholesterol levels, harmful fecal enzyme activity and fecal water content. Lipids Health Dis., 8: 21-21.
CrossRef  |  

19:  Freter, R., 1988. Mechanisms of Bacterial Colonization of the Mucosal Surfaces of the Gut. In: Virulence Mechanisms of Bacterial Pathogens, Roth, J.A. (Ed.). American Society for Microbiology, Washington DC., USA., pp: 45-60.

20:  Fuller, R., 1989. Probiotics in man and animals. J. Applied Bacteriol., 66: 365-378.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

21:  Gabert, V.M. and W.C. Sauer, 1994. The effects of supplementing diets for weanling pigs with organic acids: A review. J. Anim. Feed. Sci., 3: 73-87.

22:  Gibson, G.R., E. Beatty, X. Wang and J.H. Cummings, 1995. Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenteology, 108: 975-982.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

23:  Gibson, G.R. and M.B. Roberfroid, 1995. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Introducing the concept of prebiotics. J. Nutr., 125: 1401-1412.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

24:  Gibson, G.R., R.A. Rastall and P.B. Ottaway, 2000. Prebiotics: New Developments in Functional Foods. Chadwick House Group, Oxford, UK., ISBN: 9781902423432, pp: 108.

25:  Asano, I., Y. Ikeda, S. Fujii and H. Iino, 2004. Effects of mannooligosaccharides from coffee on microbiota and short chain fatty acids in rat cecum. Food Sci. Technol. Res., 10: 273-277.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

26:  Ikegami, S., N. Tsuchihashi, S. Nagayama, H. Harada, E. Nishide and S. Innami, 1983. Effect of indigestible polysaccharides on function of digestion and absorption in rats. Jpn. Soc. Nutr. Food Sci., 36: 163-168.

27:  Ito, M., Y. Deguchi, A. Miyamori, K. Matsumoto and H. Kikuchi et al., 1990. Effects of administration of galactooligosaccharides on the human fecal microflora, stool weight and abdominal sensation. Microb. Ecol. Health Dis., 3: 285-292.
Direct Link  |  

28:  Jacobsen, C.N., V.R. Nielsen, A.E. Hayford, P.L. Moller and K.F. Michaelsen et al., 1999. Screening of probiotic activities of forty-seven strains of Lactobacillus spp. by in vitro techniques and evaluation of the colonization ability of five selected strains in humans. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 65: 4949-4956.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

29:  Lakshmi, K.B., 2009. Characterization and encapsulation of probiotic bacteria using a pea-protein alginate matrix. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Food and Bioproduct Sciences. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.

30:  Kullen, M., J. Khil, F. Busta, D. Gallaher and L. Brady, 1998. Carbohydrate source and bifidobacteria influence the growth of Clostridium perfringens in vivo and in vitro. Nutr. Res., 18: 1889-1897.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

31:  Liong, M.T. and N.P. Shah, 2006. Effects of a Lactobacillus casei synbiotic on serum lipoprotein, intestinal microflora and organic acids in rats. J. Dairy Sci., 89: 1390-1399.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

32:  Liu, Q., Z.P. Duan, K. Ha da, S. Bengmark, J. Kurtovic and S.M. Riordan, 2004. Synbiotic modulation of gut flora: Effect on minimal hepatic encephalopathy in patients with cirrhosis. Hepatology, 39: 1441-1449.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

33:  Makni, M., H. Fetoui, N.K. Gargouri, E.M. Garoui and H. Jaber et al., 2008. Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of flax and pumpkin seed mixture rich in ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids in hypercholesterolemic rats. Food Chem. Toxicol., 46: 3714-3720.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

34:  Marteau, P., P. Pochart, B. Flourie, P. Pellier, L. Santos, J.F. Desjeux and J.C. Rambaud, 1990. Effect of chronic ingestion of a fermented dairy product containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum on metabolic activities of the colonic flora of humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 52: 685-688.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

35:  Finney, M., J. Smullen, H.A. Foster, S. Brokx and D.M. Storey, 2007. Effects of low doses of lactitol on faecal microflora, pH, short chain fatty acids and gastrointestinal symptomology. Eur. J. Nutr., 46: 307-314.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

36:  Haarman, M. and J. Knol, 2006. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of fecal lactobacillus species in infants receiving a prebiotic infant formula. Applied Environ. Microbiol., 72: 2359-2365.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

37:  Moro, G., I. Minoli, M. Mosca, S. Fanaro, J. Jelinek and B. Stahl, 2002. Dosage-related bifidogenic effects of galacto- and fructooligosaccharides in formula-fed term infants. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr., 34: 291-295.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

38:  Mortensen, P.B. and M.R. Clausen, 1996. Short-chain fatty acids in the human colon: Relation to gastrointestinal health and disease. Scand. J. Gastroenterol., 31: 132-148.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

39:  Mul, A.J. and F.G. Perry, 1994. The Role of Fructo-Oligosaccharide in Animal Nutrition. In: Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition, Garnsworthy, P.C. and D.J.A. Cole (Eds.). Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK., pp: 57-79.

40:  Mutai, M. and R. Tanaka, 1987. Ecology of Bifidobacterium the human intestinal flora. Bifidobacteria Microflora, 6: 33-41.

41:  Iyer, R., S.K. Tomar, S. Kapila, J. Mani and R. Singh, 2010. Probiotic properties of folate producing Streptococcus thermophilus strains. Food Res. Int., 43: 103-110.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

42:  Robertfroid, M.B., F. Bornet, C. Bouley and J.H. Cummings, 1995. Colonic microflora: Nutrition and health. Summary and conclusions of an International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI Europe) workshop held in Barcelona, Spain. Nutr. Rev., 53: 127-130.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

43:  Khalil, R., K. El-Halafawy, H. Mahrous, K. Kamaly, J. Frank and M. El-Soda, 2007. Evaluation of the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria isolated from faeces of breast-fed infants in Egypt. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 6: 939-949.
Direct Link  |  

44:  Rowland, I.R. and R. Tanaka, 1993. The effects of transgalactosylated oligosaccharides on gut flora metabolism in rats associated with a human faecal microflora. J. Applied Bacteriol., 74: 667-674.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

45:  Salminen, S., C. Bouley, M.C. Boutron, J.H. Cummings and A. Franck et al., 1998. Functional food science and gastrointestinal physiology and function. Br. J. Nutr., 80: S147-S171.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

46:  Schrezenmeir, J. and M. de Vrese, 2001. Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics-approaching a definition. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 73: 361S-364S.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

47:  Fanaro, S., G. Boehm, J. Garssen, J. Knol, F. Mosca, B. Stahl and V. Vigi, 2005. Galacto-oligosaccharides and long-chain fructo-oligosaccharides as prebiotics in infant formulas: A review. Acta Paediatr., 94: 22-26.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

48:  SPSS, 1998. Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences. Version 9, SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL., USA.

49:  Swanson, K.S., C.M. Grieshop, E.A. Flickinger, L.L. Bauer and J. Chow et al., 2002. Fructooligosaccharides and Lactobacillus acidophilus modify gut microbial populations, total tract nutrient digestibilities and fecal protein catabolite concentrations in healthy adult dogs. J. Nutr., 132: 3721-3731.
PubMed  |  

50:  Swennen, K., C.M. Courtin and J.A. Delcourt, 2006. Non-digestible oligosaccharides with prebiotic properties. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 46: 459-471.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

51:  Tanaka, R., H. Takayama, M. Morotomi, T. Kuroshima and S. Ueyama et al., 1983. Effects of administration of TOS and Bifidobacterium breve 4006 on the human fecal flora. Bifidobacteria Microflora, 2: 17-24.

52:  Topping, D.L. and P.M. Clifton, 2001. Short chain fatty acids and human colonic function: Roles of resistant starch and non starch polysaccharides. Physiol. Rev., 8: 1031-1064.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

53:  Tsuchihashi, N., T. Watanabe, H. Nishihashi, M. Tokusanai, E. Kitagawa and Y. Takai, 1988. Effects of galacto-oligosaccharide on growth and enteric bacterial flora in rat. Bull. Chiba Prefecture Health Coll., 7: 9-17.

54:  Tzortzis, G., A.K. Goulas, M.L.A. Baillon, G.R. Gibson and R.A. Rastall, 2004. In vitro evaluation of the fermentation properties of galactooligosaccharides synthesised by α-galactosidase from Lactobacillus reuteri. Applied Microbiol. Biotechnol., 64: 106-111.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

55:  Wang, X. and G.R. Gibson, 1993. Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. J. Applied Bacteriol., 75: 373-380.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

56:  Pan, X.D., F.Q. Chen, T.X. Wu, H.G. Tang and Z.Y. Zhao, 2009. Prebiotic oligosaccharides change the concentrations of short-chain fatty acids and the microbial population of mouse bowel. J. Zhejiang Univ. Sci. B, 10: 258-263.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

57:  Yajima, T., 1985. Contractile effects of short-chain fatty acids on the isolated colon of the rat. J. Physiol., 368: 667-678.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

58:  Yap, K.W., S. Mohamed, A.M. Yazid, I. Maznah and D.M. Meyer, 2005. Dose-response effects of inulin on the faecal short-chain fatty acids content and mineral absorption of formula-fed infants. Nutr. Food Sci., 35: 208-219.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

59:  Zimmer, C.J. and G.R. Gibson, 1998. An overview of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in the functional food concept: Perspectives and future strategies. Int. Dairy J., 8: 473-479.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved