Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Abstract
Fulltext PDF
References
Research Article
 

The Phytochemical Composition and Some Biochemical Effects of Nigerian Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) Tuber



Ekeanyanwu Raphael Chukwuma, Njoku Obioma and Ononogbu Ikpendu Christopher
 
ABSTRACT

The phytochemical composition of the tigernut tuber and the effect of the aqueous extract on some biochemical parameters such as blood glucose, serum protein, albumin and cholesterol, white blood cells, red blood cells, haemoglobin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and packed cell volume were determined in rats administered different concentrations of the extract. From the result of the phytochemical analysis, the presence of alkaloids, cyanogenic glycosides, resins, tannins, sterols and saponins were observed in the raw tuber, however only alkaloids, sterols and resins were observed in the roasted tuber. Analysis of the antinutrient composition yielded oxalates (0.25±0.65 g/100 g), phytate (1.97±0.81 mg/100 g), saponins (0.88±0.02/100 g), tannins (9.50±0.46 mg/100 g) and cyanogenic glycosides (1.80±0.69 mg/100 g). Roasting numerically decreased the levels of the anti-nutritive factors analyzed. At the end of the treatment period, the mean weights of the animals increased. The blood glucose level decreased significantly in concentration dependent manner (p<0.05) and serum albumin level increased significantly in a concentration dependent manner (p<0.05) in the groups administered the different concentrations of the extract. There was no significant effect (p>0.05) on serum cholesterol and protein and on total and differential white blood cell, red blood cell, haemoglobin, packed cell volume and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The results therefore indicate the absence of undesirable effect in the use of the tigernut tuber even in the raw form at least at the administered concentration and for the duration of feeding. The findings are of nutritional, health and industrial relevance since the tuber is currently being used as food in many homes in Nigeria.

Services
Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

 
  How to cite this article:

Ekeanyanwu Raphael Chukwuma, Njoku Obioma and Ononogbu Ikpendu Christopher, 2010. The Phytochemical Composition and Some Biochemical Effects of Nigerian Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus L.) Tuber. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9: 709-715.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2010.709.715

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2010.709.715

REFERENCES
AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis. 15th Edn., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC., USA., pp: 200-210.

Abodunrin, O.A. and M.A. Belewu, 2008. Preparation of kuunu from unexploited rich food source: Tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus). Pak. J. Nutr., 7: 109-111.

Adejuyitan, J.A., E.T. Otunola, E.A. Akande, I.F. Bolarinwa and F.M. Oladokun, 2009. Some physicochemical properties of flour obtained from fermentation of tigernut (Cyperus esculentus) sourced from a market in Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Afr. J. Food Sci., 3: 51-55.
Direct Link  |  

Ahamefule, F.O., B.E. Obua, I.A. Ukweni, M.A. Oguike and R.A. Amaka, 2008. Haematological and biochemical profile of weaner rabbits fed raw and processed pigeon pea seed meal based diets. Afr. J. Agric. Res., 3: 315-319.
Direct Link  |  

Akintonwa, A. and O.L. Tunwashe, 1992. Fatal cyanide poisoning from cassava-based meal. Human Exp. Toxicol., 11: 47-49.
CrossRef  |  

Amadi, B.A., C.O. Ibegbulen and A.C. Egbebu, 2006. Assessment of the effect of aqueous extract of pawpaw (Asimina triloba) root on organ weights and liver functions of albino rats. Int. J. Natl. Applied Sci., 2: 79-81.

Apata, D.F., 1990. Biochemical, nutritional and toxicological assessment of some tropical legume seeds. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

Awosanya, B., J.R. Joseph, D.F. Apata and M.A. Agbola, 1999. Performance, blood chemistry and carcass quality attributes of rabbits fed raw and processed pueraria seed meal. Trop. J. Anim. Sci., 2: 89-96.

Belewu, M.A. and A.O. Abodurin, 2006. Preparation of kuunu from unexploited rich food source: Tigernut (Cyperus esculentus). Pak. J. Nutr., 7: 109-111.

Belewu, M.A. and K.Y. Belewu, 2007. Comparative physico-chemical evaluation of tiger-nut, soybean and coconut milk sources. Int. J. Agric. Biol., 5: 785-787.
Direct Link  |  

Borges, O., B. Goncalves, J.L.S. Carvalho, P. Correia and A.P. Silva, 2008. Nutritional quality of chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) cultivars from Portugal. Food Chem., 106: 976-984.
CrossRef  |  

Bush, B.M., 1991. Interpretation of Laboratory Results for Small Animal Clinicians. Backwell Scientific Publications, London, ISBN: 9780408108492, Pages: 515.

Chubb, L.G., 1982. In Recent Advances in Animal Nutrition. W. Harvesign Butterworths, London, pp: 21-37.

Church, J.P., J.T. Judd, C.W. Young, J.L. Kelsay and W.W. Kim, 1984. Relationships among dietary constituents and specific serum clinical components of subjects eating self-selected diets. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 40: 1338-1344.
Direct Link  |  

Cortes, C., M.J. Esteve, A. Frigola and F. Torregrosa, 2005. Quality characteristics of horchata (A Spanish vegetable beverage) treated with pulsed electric fields during shelf-life. Food Chem., 91: 319-325.
CrossRef  |  

Dan, I., 2005. Health-fresh controversy over safety of soya bean. Punch News Paper, 26: 46-46.

Davies, D.A. and D.M. Gathlin, 1991. Dietary mineral requirement of fish and shrimp. Proceedings of the Aquaculture Feed Processing and Nutrition Workshop, Sept. 19-25, American Soybean Association, Singapore, pp: 49-67.

Doumas, B.T., W.A. Watson and H.G. Biggs, 1971. Albumin standards and the measurement of serum albumin with bromcresol green. Clin. Chim. Acta, 31: 87-96.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Ejigui, J., L. Savoie, J. Marin and T. Desrosiers, 2005. Influence of traditional processing methods on the nutritional composition and antinutritional factors of red peanuts (Arachis hypogea) and small red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). J. Biological Sci., 5: 597-605.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Enujiugha, V.N. and C.T. Akanbi, 2005. Compositional changes in African oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) seeds during thermal processing. Pak. J. Nutr., 4: 27-31.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

Evans, W.C., 2005. Trease and Evans Pharmacognosy. 15th Edn., Division of Reed Elsevier India Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, ISBN-13: 978-81-312-0087-2.

Frantisek, S., 1991. The Natural Guide to Medicinal Herbs and Plants. Tiger Barks Inst. Twickenham, UK., pp: 1-8.

Hackbath, H., K. Buron and G. Schimansley, 1983. Strain differences in inbred rats: Influence of strain selection and diet on haematological traits. Lab. Anim., 17: 7-12.
PubMed  |  

Harbone, J.B., 1984. Phytochemical Methods. 2nd Edn., Champion and Hall Publishers, London, UK., pp: 84-196.

Kordyias, J.M., 1990. Processing and preservation of tropical and subtropical foods. J. Agric. Food Technol., 12: 28-40.

Lorke, D., 1983. A new approach to practical acute toxicity testing. Arch. Toxicol., 54: 275-287.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Lowe, D.B. and T. Whitewell, 2000. Yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) management and tuber reduction in bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon x C. transvaalensis) turf with selected herbicide programs. Weed Technol., 14: 72-76.
Direct Link  |  

Marks, V. and A. Dawson, 1965. Rapid sticks method for determining blood glucose concentration. Br. Med. J., 1: 293-294.
CrossRef  |  

Meiattini, F., L. Prencipe, F. Bardelli, G. Giannini and P. Tarli, 1978. The 4-hydroxybenzoate/4-aminophenazone chromogenic system used in the enzymic determination of serum cholesterol. Clin. Chem., 24: 2161-2165.
PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Oberleas, D.C., 1973. Phytate content in cereals and legumes and methods of determination of Cereals. J. Food Chem., 28: 352-357.

Odumodu, C.U., 1992. Antinutrients content of some locally available legumes and cereals in Nigeria. Trop. Geographical Med., 44: 260-263.
PubMed  |  

Okafor, J.N.C., J.I. Mordi, A.U. Ozumba, H.M. Solomon and O. Olatunji, 2003. Preliminary studies on the characterization of contaminants in tigernut (Yellow variety). Proceedings of the 27th Annual Nigerian Institute of Food Science and Technology Conference, October 13-17, 2003, Kano, Nigeria, pp: 210-211.

Okaka, J.C., E.N.T. Akobundu and A.N.C. Okaka, 1992. Human Nutrition: An Integrated Approach. ESUT Publications, Enugu, Nigeria, pp: 108.

Oladele, A.K. and J.O. Aina, 2007. Chemical composition and functional properties of flour produced from two varieties of tiger nut (Cyperus esculentus). Afr. J. Biotechnol., 6: 2473-2476.
Direct Link  |  

Onifade, A.A. and O.O. Tewe, 1993. Alternative tropical energy feed resources in rabbit diets: Growth performance, diet digestibility and blood composition. World Rabbit Sci., 1: 17-24.
Direct Link  |  

Piorreck, M., K.H. Baasch and P. Pohl, 1984. Biomass production, total protein, chlorophylls, lipids and fatty acids of freshwater green and blue-green algae under different nitrogen regimes. Phytochemistry, 23: 207-216.
Direct Link  |  

Price, K.R., I.T. Johnson, G.R. Fenwick and M.R. Malinow, 1987. The chemistry and biological significance of saponins in foods and feedingstuffs. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr., 26: 27-135.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

Savage, G.P., 1993. Saponins. In: Encyclopedia of Food Science Food Technology and Nutrition, Macrae, R., R.K. Robinson and M.J. Sadler (Eds.). Academic Press, Oval Road, London, pp: 3998-4001.

Shilenko, M.P., G.S. Kalacheva, G.N. Lisovski and I.N. Trubachev, 1979. Cyperus esculentus L. as a source of vegetable oil in a closed life support system. KOSM Biol. Aviakosm Med., 13: 70-74.

Sofowora, A., 1993. Medicinal Plants and Traditional Medicine in Africa. 2nd Edn., Spectrum Books Ltd., Ibadan, Nigeria, ISBN-13: 9782462195, Pages: 289.

Swaminathan, M., 2002. Essentials of Food and Nutrition. Vol. 1. The Bangalore Printing and Publishing Co. Ltd., New York.

Umerie, S.C. and J.N.C. Enebeli, 1997. Malt caramel from the nuts of Cyperus esculentus. J. Biol. Resour. Technol., 8: 215-216.

Umerie, S.C., E.P. Okafor and A.S. Uka, 1997. Evaluation of the tubers and oil of Cyperus esculentus. Bioresour. Technol., 61: 171-173.
CrossRef  |  

©  2019 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved
Fulltext PDF References Abstract