Subscribe Now Subscribe Today
Research Article

Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Cookies Supplemented with Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Seed Flour

A.C. Atuonwu and E.N.T. Akobundu
Facebook Twitter Digg Reddit Linkedin StumbleUpon E-mail

Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed was processed into defatted flour (DCPF) and evaluated for nutritional and sensory attributes. The potential of the flour as composite with wheat flour in cookie production was also evaluated. The crude protein content of DCPF was as high as 57.50% with highly valuable amino acid profile, rich in essential amino acids and minerals. DCPF was highly digestible (77.91%) and has a Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of 1.80. The anti-nutrients were below allowable limits. Cookie diameter negatively correlated with alkaline water retention capacity of Cucurbita pepo seed/wheat flour blends with correlation coefficient of -0.89. The physico-chemical and sensory evaluation of cookies revealed that up to 10% substitution of wheat flour with DCPF produced acceptable cookies similar to the control (100% wheat flour).

Related Articles in ASCI
Similar Articles in this Journal
Search in Google Scholar
View Citation
Report Citation

  How to cite this article:

A.C. Atuonwu and E.N.T. Akobundu, 2010. Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Cookies Supplemented with Defatted Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) Seed Flour. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 9: 672-677.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2010.672.677


1:  Akobundu, E.N.T., J.P. Cherry and J.G. Simmons, 1982. Chemical, functional and nutritional properties of egusi (Colocynthis citrullus L.) seed protein products. J. Food Sci., 47: 829-835.
CrossRef  |  

2:  Alsmeyer, R.H., A.E. Cunningham and M.L. Happich, 1974. Equations predict PER from amino acid analysis. Food Technol., 28: 34-38.
Direct Link  |  

3:  AOAC., 1990. Official Methods of Analysis: Association of Analytical Chemistry. 5th Edn., Arlington, VA: The Association, Indiana, Virginia, ISBN: 9780935584424 pp: 84-85.

4:  Arntifield, S.D., M.A.H. Ismond and E.D. Murray, 1985. The fate of antinutritional factors during the preparation of a fababean protein isolate using a micellization technique. Can. Inst. Food Sci. Tech. J., 18: 137-143.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

5:  Balagopalan, C., G. Padmosa, S.K. Nanda and S.N. Moorthy, 1988. Cassava in Foods, Feed and Industry. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, Florida.

6:  Barroga, C.F., A.C. Laurena and M.L. Happich, 1985. Polyphenol in mung bean (Vigna radiate L. Wilczek) determination and removal. J. Agric. Food Chem., 23: 1006-1009.
CrossRef  |  

7:  Fu, C., H. Shi and Q. Li, 2006. A review on pharmacological activities and utilization technologies of pumpkin. Plant Foods Hum. Nutr., 61: 70-77.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

8:  El-Adawy, T.A., E.H. Rahma, A.A. El-Bedawey and A.F. Gafar, 2001. Nutritional potential and functional properties of sweet and bitter lupin seed protein isolates. Food Chem., 74: 455-462.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

9:  James, C.S., 1995. The Analytical Chemistry of Foods. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA., pp: 60-91.

10:  Liew, C.C.V. and K.A. Buckle, 1990. Oligosaccharide Levels in Pigeonpea and Pigeonpea Tempe. ASEAN Food J., 5: 79-81.

11:  Martin, F.W. and R. Ruberte, 1976. Bitterness of Discorea cayenensis. J. Agric. Food Chem., 24: 67-73.

12:  McWatters, K.H., 1978. Cookie baking properties of defatted peanut, soybean and field pea flours. Cereal Chem., 55: 853-863.
Direct Link  |  

13:  Nkosi, C.Z., A.R. Opoku and S.E. Terblanche, 2006. Antiooxidant effects of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate in CCl4-induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats. Phytother. Res., 20: 935-940.
PubMed  |  

14:  Ojiako, A.O. and E.I. Akubugwo, 1997. An introductory Approach to Practical Biochemistry. Cee Publication, Owerri, pp: 80-82.

15:  Okaka, J.C. and M.J. Isieh, 1990. Development and quality evaluation of cowpea-wheat biscuits. Niger. Food J., 8: 56-62.

16:  Onwuka, G.I., 2005. Food Analysis and Instrumentation: Theory and Practice. 1st Edn., Naphthali Prints, Lagos, Nigeria, pp: 1-219.

17:  Onyeike, F.N., T. Olungwe and A.A. Uwakwe, 1995. Effect of heat treatment and defatting on the proximate composition of some Nigerian local soup thickners. Food Chem., 53: 173-175.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

18:  Pearson, D., 1976. The Chemical Analysis of Foods. 7th Edn., Churchill Livingstone, London, ISBN-13: 9780700014576, pp: 7-11.

19:  Quanhong, L., T. Ze and C. Tongyi, 2003. Study on the hypoglycemic action of pumpkin extract in diabetic rats. Acta Nutrimenta Sinica, 25: 34-36.
Direct Link  |  

20:  Rangel, A., G.B. Domont, C. Pedrosa and S.T. Ferriera, 2003. Functional properties of purified vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) and cowpea protein isolate. J. Agric. Food Chem., 51: 5792-5797.
CrossRef  |  

21:  Rasco, B.A., 2002. Protein Quality Test. In: Introduction to the Chemical Analysis of Foods, Suzanne Nielson, S. (Ed.). CBS Publishers, New Delhi, India, pp: 237-246.

22:  Sanchez-Vioque, R., A. Clemente, J. Vioque, J. Bautista and F. Millan, 1999. Protein isolates from chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.): Chemical composition, functional properties and protein characterization. J. Food Chem., 64: 237-243.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

23:  Sathe, S.K., V. Iyer and D.K. Salunkhe, 1982. Functional properties of great northern bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Proteins. Amino acid composition, in vitro digestibility and application to cookies. J. Food Sci., 47: 71-81.
CrossRef  |  

24:  Saunders, R.M., M.A. Connor, A.N. Booth, M.M. Bickoff and G.O. Kohler, 1973. Measurement of digestibility of alfalfa protein concentrate by in vitro methods. J. Nutr., 103: 530-535.
Direct Link  |  

25:  Udensi, E.A., N.U. Arisa and M. Maduka, 2008. Effect of Processing methods on the levels of antinutritional factors in Mucuna flagellipes. Nig. Food J., 26: 53-59.

26:  Yamazaki, W.T., J.R. Donelson and W.F. Kwolek, 1977. Effects of flour fraction composition on cookie diameter. Cereal Chem., 54: 352-360.
Direct Link  |  

27:  Wang, H.X. and T.B. Ng, 2003. Isolation of cucurmoschin: A novel antifungal peptide abundant in arginine, glutamate and glycine residues from black pumpkin seeds. Peptides, 24: 969-972.
CrossRef  |  PubMed  |  Direct Link  |  

28:  FAO/WHO, 1973. Energy and Protein Requirements. FAO, Italy, Rome.

29:  Haug, W. and H.J. Lantzsch, 1983. Sensitive method for the rapid determination of phytate in cereals and cereal products. J. Food Sci. Agric., 34: 1423-1426.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

30:  Harborne, J.B., 1973. Phytochemical Methods. A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. Chapman and Hall, London, New York.

31:  Henley, E.C. and J.M. Kuster, 1974. Protein quality evaluation by protein digestibility, amino acid scoring. Food Technol., 28: 74-77.

32:  Hidvegi, M. and F. Bekes, 1984. Mathematical modeling of protein quality from amino acid composition. Processing of the International Association of the Cereal Chemistry Symposium, (IACCS`84), Akademia, Kiado, Budapest, pp: 205-208.

33:  FAO. and WHO., 1990. Protein Quality Evaluation: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultation. Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, pp: 23.

34:  FAO, WHO and UNU, 1985. Energy and Protein Requirements. World Health Organization, Geneva.

35:  Spackman, D.H., W.H. Stein and S. Moore, 1958. Automatic recording apparatus for use in chromatography of amino acids. Anal. Chem., 30: 1190-1206.
CrossRef  |  Direct Link  |  

©  2020 Science Alert. All Rights Reserved