Influence of Post Harvest Calcium Chloride Application, Ethylene Absorbent and Modified Atmosphere on Quality Characteristics and Shelf Life of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit During Storage
Habib Ahmed Rathore,
The effect of different concentrations of CaCl2 (1, 2 and 3%) with the combination of oxidizing agent like Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on storage life of apricot fruit packaged in sealed Polyethylene bags was investigated at ambient temperature (Relative humidity 60-63% and temperature 28-30oC) during storage. The quality characteristics such as weight loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid and sensory parameters like color, texture, taste, flavour and overall acceptability were studied at an interval of 2 days (0, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th and 10th day) for a total period of 10 days during storage. All of the 9 treatments had shown a highly significant effect (p<0.05) on storage life and quality parameters of fruits. However, the treatment T4 (KMnO4 + 3% CaCl2 + Polyethylene bags) was most effective in the retention of higher contents of vitamin C (11.47 mg/100 g), total soluble solids (12.58%), titratable acidity (0.72%) and sensory parameters like colour (4.97), texture (6.23), taste (6.52), flavour (6.38) and the higher overall acceptability score (6.72) with minimum weight loss (3.66%) in T4. Compared to control fruit showed maximum weight loss (9.5%), lower vitamin C (9.55 mg/100 g), titratable acidity (0.67%), total soluble solids (10.58%) and lower quality score like colour (3.92), texture (4.83), taste (4.79), flavour (4.43) and the lower score (4.6) of overall acceptability during storage whereas the Treatment T3 (3% CaCl2+Polyethylene bags) was found better to all other treatments during storage. The treated apricot fruit have increased storage life up to 10 days as compared to control which was un acceptable after 6th day of the storage.
to cite this article:
Saira Ishaq, Habib Ahmed Rathore, Tariq Masud and Sartaj Ali, 2009. Influence of Post Harvest Calcium Chloride Application, Ethylene Absorbent and Modified Atmosphere on Quality Characteristics and Shelf Life of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) Fruit During Storage. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 861-865.
Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) is very important fruit not only as nutritional point of view (Parmer and Kaushal, 1982) but also play a role in maintenance of human health, because fruit contain carotene and lycopene that protect the heart and eyes, as well as disease fighting effects of fiber that prevent digestive condition called diverculosis and having antipyretic, antiseptic, emetic, and ophthalmic properties (Haydar et al., 2007; Parmer and Kaushal, 1982). Apricot is perishable fruit having storage life (3-5 days) at ambient conditions, 2-4 weeks at cold storage, depending on variety. The short storage life of this fruit is due to short time period from commercial ripening to the degradation process characteristic like senescence (Egea et al., 2007; Agar and Polate, 1995). Calcium (such as Calcium Chloride) conserved the qualities of fruits, prevented physiological disorders, reduced the rate of respiration, lessens the solubilization of pectic substance, maintaining the firmness and slows down the ripening process (Burns and Pressey, 1987; Salunkhe and Desai, 1984; Magee et al., 2002). Polyethylene bags maintained the high humidity, reduced the loss of weight and consequently slow down the drying process (De-Souza et al., 1999). It maintained the organoleptic properties of fruit (Kolev, 1977). Potassium permanganate was found to extend the shelf life of Climacteric fruit (Nwufo et al., 1994). Due to increase in apricot production and export during last two decades, practical method of packaging and coating are necessary to improve the post harvest quality of apricots (Agar and Polate, 1995). Due to the mishandling, inadequate storage or lack of post harvest technical knowledge producers and traders have to face about 20-30% or even up to 40% losses of fruits in Pakistan that is estimated to a value of more than 3 billion rupees loss in the country (Rathore et al., 2007). The apricot produced in Rawalakot is of high quality and nutritious fruit. It is necessary to reduce the loss of these nutrients during a longer period of storage. For this purpose simple and cheap techniques should be adopted to make sure the availability of the fruit to non producing area. Unfortunately at present there was no research work on the post harvest techniques to maintain the quality characteristics and post harvest life of apricot produced in Rawalakot, or even in AJ and K is available. Therefore, this research has been carried out to study the influence of post harvest calcium chloride application, ethylene absorbent and modified atmosphere on quality characteristics and shelf life of apricot fruit during storage at ambient temperature.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Collection of sample and preparatory operations: Yellowish-green and
firm ripe apricot fruit was directly harvested from farmers field of Rawalakot
Azad Kashmir. After collection, the fruit was immediately transferred to laboratory.
The fruits were washed in running tap water, cleaned and dried with a piece
of muslin cloth. After drying sorted fruit was divided into equal lots and lot
was coated with different concentration of calcium chloride and sealed in polyethylene
bags containing sponge cubes soaked in saturated potassium permanganate solution.
Total 10 treatments such as Control (T1), 3%CaCl2 +Cardboard
Box (T2), 3% CaCl2 + Polyethylene (T3), 3%
CaCl2 + Polyethylene + KMnO4 (T4), 2% CaCl2
+ Cardboard box (T5), 2% CaCl2 + Polyethylene (T6),
2% CaCl2 + Polyethylene + KMnO4 (T7), 1% CaCl2
+ Cardboard box (T8), 1% CaCl2 + Polyethylene (T9),
1% CaCl2 + Polyethylene + KMnO4 (T10) were
studied during storage at ambient conditions (Relative humidity 60-63% and temperature
Physical and chemical analysis: The quality characteristics such as weight loss, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, ascorbic acid were determined by using standard procedures according to AOAC (1990) and sensory parameters like color, texture, taste, flavour and overall acceptability of apricot fruit were evaluated by a panel of five judges selected from the Department and nine point hedonic scale was used for sensory evaluation as described by Larmond (1977). The data obtained was statistically analyzed using two-factor factorial in complete randomized design as described by Steel and Torrie (1980).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Weight loss: DMR test indicated that all of the treatments and their
interactions had highly significant effect (p<0.05) on weight loss percentage
except T8 and T5 (7.09-7.35%) or T6, T7
and T10 (5.53-5.55%) showed insignificant effect, however these treatments
were significantly different to each other during storage at ambient temperature
(Table 1). The minimum 3.6 percent weight loss was observed
in those apricot fruits treated with 3% CaCl2, packaged in Polyethylene
bag having KmnO4 (T4), followed by 3% CaCl2
with Polyethylene bags without KMnO4 (T3) having 4.20
percent loss as compared to control (T1) had maximum weight loss
9.5% during storage. The reduction in weight loss percentage might be due to
the barrier of moisture such as polyethylene bags and using of calcium chloride
and potassium permanganate retard ripening, ethylene production and respiration
during storage and therefore less weight loss occur in these treated fruit during
storage. These results can be correlated with findings of Agar and Polate (1995)
and Antunes et al. (2003) who had observed that less percent loss occur
in apricot packaged in polyethylene bags also depending on varieties of apricot
during storage. These results are also in line with the finding of Ibrahim (2005)
who had used CaCl2, polyethylene bags with KMnO4 showed
a significant decreasing of weight loss in apricots fruit. Due to the rapid
weight loss the control sample was become unacceptable at 6th day
of storage (Table 1).
Total soluble solids (tss): It is obvious from Table 1
that all treatments and their interactions had highly significant effect on
total soluble solids contents from each other except T2, T5,
T7 and T9 with insignificant difference having similar
TSS (10.12%) contents during storage. DMR test shows that the maximum TSS contents
were noted in T3 (12.88%) followed by T4 (12.58%), T6
(12.48%), T10 (12.42%), T8 (10.33%) as compared to control
having lower concentration of TSS (10.05%) during storage. The higher retention
of TSS contents in these treated fruits with combination of 3% CaCl2
+ KMnO4 packaged in polyethylene bags was might be due to delay in
the ripening process in modified atmosphere having lower ethylene level and
decrease in respiration or other metabolic processes during storage (Table
1). These results are in line with (Arthey and Philip, 2005) who had described
that the higher retention of TSS is due to the slower alteration in cell wall
structure and breakdown into simple sugars. These results are also an agreement
with Agar and Polate (1995) Antunes et al. (2003) Su-Jinle et al.
(2004) and Ibrahim (2005) who had used oxidizing agents like KMnO4,
CaCl2 and polyethylene packaging obtained the similar results.
Titratable acidity: The results revealed that all treatments and their
interactions had highly significant difference on percent titratable acidity
of apricot from each other except T10 and T4 (0.72%-0.73%),
T9 and T6 (0.68%). It is clear from DMR test that the
maximum titratable acidity was observed in T10 (0.73%) followed by
T4 (0.72%), T3 (0.71%), T2 (0.70%) as compared
T9 and T6 (0.68%) or control T1 (0.67%) had
lower concentration of titratable acidity during storage. Our studies show that
higher retention of titratable acidity in apricot packaged in polyethylene bags
with the combination of higher concentrations of CaCl2 and KMnO4.
Whereas, as the lower concentration of CaCl2 alone did not show much
effective to retain the acidity (Table 1). The retention of
acidity in higher concentrations of CaCl2 and KMnO4 might
be due to reduction in metabolic changes of organic acid into carbon dioxide
and water. These results are in agreement with those of Ibrahim (2005) who have
used the CaCl2, KMnO4 and showed higher retention of acidity
in apricot during storage.
||Influence of post harvest calcium chloride application, ethylene
absorbent and modified atmosphere on quality characteristics and shelf life
of Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) fruit during storage
||Means followed by the same alphabets are not significantly different from
one another based on alpha 0.05
Whereas, the same results were observed by Mohammad and Campbell (1993) in banana
fruit stored in low density polyethylene bags with ethylene absorbent showed higher
retention of acidity. Agar and Polate (1995) also observed that the titratable
acidity was higher in apricot stored in plastic bags.
Ascorbic acid: The amount of ascorbic acid (mg/100 g) was significantly
affected by the treatments and their interactions except the T6,
T4 and T10 (11.43-11.81 mg/100 g) and similar behavior
was also observed in T2 and T5 (10.22-10.27 mg/100 g as
compared to T9, T8 and T7 (9.35-9.61 mg/100
g) or control (9.55 mg/100 g) which have lower concentration of ascorbic acid
during storage at room temperature (Table 1). DMR test shows
that the highest retention of ascorbic acid was observed in T6 (11.81mg/100
g) followed by T4 (11.47 mg/100 g), T10 (11.43 mg/100
g) and T3 (11.17 mg/100 g). This retention of ascorbic acid might
be due to the lowering of respiration of fruit or oxidation of ascorbic acid
content of the treated fruits 3% CaCl2 which had reduced the loss
of ascorbic acid content which is an agreement with those of Mapson (1970).
It was also observed that the combination of CaCl2 with ethylene
absorbent like KMnO4 and fruit packaging in polyethylene bags have
reduced the loss of ascorbic acid for a prolonged life might be due to the creation
of modified atmospheric storage in sealed polyethylene bags in which the production
of higher concentration of carbon dioxide and low oxygen, conjunction with KMnO4
had destroyed ethylene and reduce the ripening process by maintaining ethylene
at lower level and ascorbic acid content was maintained. These results are in
line with Wills et al. (1989) and Su-Jinle et al. (2004) who had
used the same materials (CaCl2, KMnO4 and polyethylene
packaging). The decline in ascorbic acid in all treatments was observed in this
study that is also in line with Egea et al. (2006), Yagi (1980) and Rana
et al. (1992).
Colour: Table 1 reveals that all treatments and their interactions were significantly different in their colour score from each other during storage. However, DMR test showed a non significant difference of colour score in between T4 and T3, T1 and T7 or T9 and T8. The highest colour score was indicated in T4 and T3 (4.89-4.95) followed by T6 (4.80), T10 (4.43), T2 and T5 (4.00) as compared to control T1 (3.92) having minimum colour retention during storage. The higher colour retention in these treatments might be due to the slower change of chlorophyll into carotenoids in the presence of oxidizing agents like KMnO4 and firming agent as CaCl2 in a modified atmospheric storage in the sealed polyethylene bags. The results of this study are closely relate with those reported earlier by Mohammad and Campbell (1993) Antunes et al. (2003); Agar and Polate (1995) and Batu and Thompson (1998).
Texture: The treatments and their interactions had highly significant effect on texture score and DMR test revealed that the effect of treatments on texture scores differs from each other except T7, T5, T1 and T2 having (4.78-4.86) the similar score, or T6 and T10 are also showing similar results (5.81-5.84). Whereas the maximum retention in texture score was observed in T4 (6.23) followed by T3 (6.05), T6 and T10 (5.81-5.84), T5 and T7 (4.86) as compared to control having lower texture score (4.83) during storage. The maximum retention of texture score might be due to the presence of modified atmosphere with oxidizing agent like KMnO4 and firming agent as CaCl2 who have delay in changes occur in structural polysaccharide like pectic substance and maintained the firmness of the fruit for a long period during storage. These results coincide with the finding of Agar and Polate (1995) Antunes et al. (2003) and Ibrahim (2005). This may be attributed to pectin substance to soluble forms by a series of physico-chemical changes that caused by the action of pectin enzyme such as esterase and polygalacturonicdase (Weichmann, 1987).
Taste: All treatments and their interactions showed significant effect on taste score of apricot and DMR test showed that the treatments differ in taste score from each other except T2, T5 and T7 (Table 1). Maximum taste scores was noted in T4 (6.52) followed by T3 (6.35), T10 (5.50), T6 (5.12), T8 (5.00) whereas the minimum but similar taste score (4.7-4.82) was observed in T1, T2, T5 and T7 respectively during storage and some treated fruits were unable to use due to bitter taste. T4 have sweet taste during storage interval and T3 also have a good taste might be due to the slow changes occur in modified atmosphere created by oxidizing agent, firming agent and packaging in polyethylene (3% CaCl2 + Polyethylene bags + KMnO4). The results of this study are in close agreement with those reported earlier by Zora-Singh et al. (2000) Akbudak and Eris (2004), Hayat et al. (2005) and Szczerbanik et al. (2005).
Flavour: The flavour score was significantly affected by treatments and their interactions during storage and DMR test in Table 1 indicates that all treatments are significantly different from each other except T3 and T6 (6.18-6.2), T2, T5 and T7 (4.66-4.75) and T8 and T9 (4.83-4.87). The maximum flavour score was noted in T4 (6.38) followed by T3 (6.27) and T10 (6.04) as compared to control T1 (4.44) or other treatments T9, T8, T7, T5 and T2 having minimum flavor score (4.66-4.87) during storage. The highest scores of flavour observed in T4, T3 and T6 might be due to the slower chemical reactions and higher retention of volatile compounds and other soluble sweeteners that maintained the flavour for a long time in a modified environment created in sealed polyethylene bags having (3% CaCl2 + Polyethylene bags + KMnO4). These results are in line with Robson et al. (1989) Zora-Singh et al. (2000) and Moghadam and Eslani (2005).
Overall acceptability: The Overall Acceptability score in Table 1 indicates a significant difference in treatments and their interactions except T10, T6, T7 and T2. DMR test revealed that the highest scores of overall acceptability value observed in T4 (6.72), followed by T3 (6.52), T6 and T10 (6.10-6.17), as compared to T5, T8 and T9 (4.93-5.18) or control (4.6) having minimum overall acceptability score at the end of storage (Table 1). The highest score of the overall acceptability in above mentioned treatments respectively is might be due to the use of oxidizing agent, firming agent and packaging in polyethylene (3% CaCl2 + Polyethylene bags + KMnO4) have created modified atmospheres and as a result the speed of changes were slow down during storage. These treatments helped in retention of overall acceptability and maintained the quality for a long period of apricot up to the end of storage. These results are in line with those of previous studies Moghadam and Eslani (2005) Robson et al. (1989) and Zora-Singh et al. (2000). Whereas, these treatments have increased storage life of apricot fruit up to 10 days as compared to control which was un acceptable after 6th day of the storage. This is very encouraging news for those farmers producing apricot and may be recommended as coating material to increase the storage life of perishable fruits.
1: Agar, T. and A. Polate 1995. Effect of different packing materials on the storage quality of some apricot varieties. Acta Hort., 384: 625-631.
Direct Link |
2: Akbudak, B. and A. Eris, 2004. Physical and chemical changes in peaches and nectarines during the modified atmosphere storage. Food Cont., 15: 307-313.
3: Antunes, M.D.C., M.P. Correia, M.G. Miguel, M.A. Martins and M.A. Neves, 2003. The effect of calcium chloride post harvest application on fruit storage ability and quality of Beliane and Lindo apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivar. Acta Hort., 604: 721-726.
4: AOAC, 1990. Official Method of Analysis, Association of Analytical Chemists. 16th Edn., Arlington Virginia, USA.
5: Arthey, D. and R.A. Philip, 2005. Fruit Processing Nutrition, Product and Quality Management. 2nd Edn., Brijbasi Art Press Ltd., India, pp: 45.
6: Batu, A. and A.K. Thompson, 1998. Effects of modified atmosphere packaging on post harvest qualities of pink tomatoes. Turk. J. Agric. For., 22: 365-372.
Direct Link |
7: Burns, J.K. and R. Pressey, 1987. Ca2+ in the cell wall of ripening tomato and peach. J. Am. Soc. Hort. Sci., 112: 783-787.
8: Carlos, H. and K.A. Adel, 1999. Apricot Post Harvest Quality Maintenance Guidelines. California Department of Pom Pomology, University of California, Davis, CA., pp: 1-5.
9: De-Souza, B.L.A., S.D.P.Q. Scalon, M.I.F. Chitarra and A.B. Chitarra, 1999. Post harvest application of CaCl2 in strawberry fruits (Fragaria ananassa Dutch cv. Sequoia): Evaluation of fruit quality and Post-harvest-life. Cienc Agrotec Lavras, 23: 841-848.
Direct Link |
10: Egea, M.I., M.C. Martinez-Madrid, P. Sanchez-Bel and F. Romojaro, 2006. Influence of different storage treatments on antioxidant systems of apricot var. `Bulide`. Acta Horti., 717: 337-342.
Direct Link |
11: Egea, M.I., M.C. Martinez-Madrid, P. Sanchez-Bel, M.A. Muricia and F. Romojaro, 2007. The influence of electron-beam ionization on ethylene metabolism and quality parameter in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. cv Builda). Swiss Soc. Food Sci. Technol., 40: 1027-1035.
12: Hayat, I., T. Masud and H.A. Rathore, 2005. Effect of coating and wrapping material on the shelf life of apple (Malus domestica cv. Borkh). Int. J. Food Safety, 5: 24-34.
Direct Link |
13: Haciseferogullari, H., I. Gezer, M.M. Ozcan and B.M. Asma, 2007. Post harvest chemical and physical-mechanical properties of some apricot varieties cultivated in Turkey. J. Food Engin., 79: 364-373.
Direct Link |
14: Haydar, H., G. Ibrahim, O.M. Mehmet and M. Bayram, 2007. Post harvest chemical and physical-mechanical properties of some apricot varieties cultivated in Turkey. Ann. Agric. Sci. Moshtohors, 43: 849-867.
15: Kolev, D., 1977. Storage of pears in the modified atmosphere. Food Sci. Technol. Abst., 9: 98-99.
16: Larmond, E., 1977. Laboratory Methods for Sensory Evaluation of Foods. 1st Edn., Department of Agriculture Publication, Otawa, Canada, ISBN-13: 978-0662012719, Pages: 73.
17: Magee, R.L., F. Caporaso and A. Prakash, 2002. Inhibiting irradiation induced softening in diced tomatoes using a calcium treatment. Session 30 G, Fruit and Vegetable Product: Processed Fruits and Vegetables. Annual meeting and Food Expo-Anaheim, California. http://ift.confex.com/ift/2002/techprogram/paper_14367.htm
18: Mapson, C.W., 1970. Vitamin in Fruits. In: Biochemistry of Fruits and their Products, Hulme, A.C. (Ed.). Vol. 1. Academic Press, New York.
19: Moghadam, E.G. and Z.S. Eslani, 2005. Effect of harvesting, time and packaging on apricot quality for shelf life improvement. Proceedings of the Internatioal Conference on postharvest technology and Quality Management in Arid Tropics, Jan. 24-26, Sultanate of Oman, pp: 21-24.
20: Mohammad, M. and R.J. Campbell, 1993. Quality change in lactan Gross Michel banana in sealed polyethylene bags with an ethylene absorbent. Proc. Int. Soc. Trop. Horti., 37: 67-72.
21: Nwufo, M.L., M.L. Okonkwo and J.C. Obiefune, 1994. Effect of post harvest treatments on the storage life of avocado pear (Persea Americana, mill). Trop. Sci., 34: 364-370.
22: Pramer, C. and M.K. Kaushal, 1982. Wild Fruits of Sub-Himayalyan Region. Kalyani Publishers, New Delhi, India.
23: Rana, G., S. Kartar and K. Singh, 1992. Studies on extending post harvest life of sweet orange fruits. Crop Res., 5: 150-153.
24: Rathore, H.A., T. Masud, S. Shehla and A.H. Soomro, 2007. Effect of storage on physico-chemical composition and sensory properties of Mango (Mangnifera indica L.) variety Dosehari. Pak. J. Nutr., 6: 143-148.
25: Robson, M.G., J.A. Hopfinger and P. Eck, 1989. Post harvest sensory evaluation of calcium treated peach fruit. Acta Hort., 254: 173-177.
26: Salunkhe, D.K. and B.B. Desai, 1984. Post harvest Biotechnology of Vegetables. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton Florida, US., pp: 55-82.
27: Steel, R.G.D. and J.H. Torrie, 1980. Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 1st Edn., McGraw-Hill, New York.
28: Jinle, S., W. Ning, L. Jing and W. Lanju, 2004. Effect of calcium chloride trearment and different packing method on fruit quality of Yutian peach. J. Henan Agric. Univ., 38: 417-422.
29: Szczerbanik, M.J., K.J. Scott, J.E. Paton and D.J. Best, 2005. Effects of polyethylene bags, ethylene absorbent and 1-methylcyclopropene on the storage of Japanese pears. J. Hort. Sci. Biotechnol., 80: 162-166.
Direct Link |
30: Weichmann, J., 1987. Post Harvest Physiology and Vegetables. Marcel Bekkar, New York, USA., pp: 145.
31: Wills, R.B.H., W.B. Mcglasson., D. Graham., T.H. Lee and E.G. Hall, 1989. An Introduction to the Physiology and Handling of Fruit and Vegetables. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, London, Edinburgh, Boston, Melbourne.
32: Yagi, M.L., 1980. Storage behavior of Baladi mandarin. Suda Hort. Sci., 15: 300-301.
33: Yildiz, F., 1994. New technology in apricot processing. J. Standard Apricot Special Issue Ankara, Turkey, pp: 67-69.
34: Singh, Z., J. Janes and S.C. Tan, 2000. Effects of different surfactants on calcium uptake and its effects on fruit ripening, quality and post harvest storage of mango under modified atmosphere packaging. Acta Hort., 509: 413-417.