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Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products



M.A. Soltan
 
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ABSTRACT

One hundred lactating Holstein dairy cows were cows were assigned to investigate the effect of untreated Soybean Meal (SBM) by different treated SBM products; heat+ soy hulls addition (HS), extrusion treatment (EP), addition of tannin plant extract and essential oil (PA) or addition of tannin plant + pelleting (HPA) on rumen fermentation, milk production and composition of dairy cows from 17th-25th after calving. Basal experimental diet was formulated (containing untreated SBM) and used as control, SBM was replaced by four treated SBM products and fed to the five groups (20 cows per each). Solvent extracted untreated SBM exhibited greater effective degradability of CP and AA when compared with treated SBM products (HS, EP, PA or HPA). This was due to a greater fraction of soluble protein. Moreover, treated SBM products (HS, EP, PA and HPA) contained relatively low concentrations of lysine, arginine, histidine, alanine, praline, serine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in different levels compared with SE product which suggesting binding and cross linking reactions involving these AA as a result of the treatment methods. Treated SBM feeding instead of untreated one had no effect (p>0.05) on dry matter intake while, improved milk production and milk-to-feed ratio across the whole experimental periods by about (2.2, 1.9, 3.2 and 4.4%) and by (2.5, 1.9, 3.8 and 4.4%) respectively. Moreover, treated SBM reduced (p<0.05) the concentrations of ruminal NH3-N by about 8.5, 7.8, 13.2 and 13.2% respectively, while had no effect (p>0.05) on total VFA, acetate, butyrate concentrations and slightly decreased propionate in the rumen when compared with cows fed on untreated SBM containing diet. Regarding blood serum units treated SBM had no effect (p>0.05) on blood serum glucose concentration, however cows fed on diets containing EP, PA and HPA treated SBM instead of untreated SBM showed a reduction (p<0.05) in blood urea N by about 4.9, 6 and 7.7% respectively, on the other hand HS treated SBM leading to non significant (p>0.05) reduction in blood urea N by about 3.8%. Treated SBM products increased milk fat percentage, fat yield and protein yield and had no effect on milk lactose percentage and the present study suggested that HS and EP treatment methods of SBM is less effective and the cow performance lesser respond than PA or HPA methods which depend on tanninferous plant species that protect protein from degradation in the rumen due to presence of small amounts of condensed tannin in the plant species and may be more available and digestible in the intestine more than the previous processing.

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M.A. Soltan , 2009. Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 695-703.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2009.695.703

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2009.695.703

INTRODUCTION

Controlling the rate and extent of degradation of dietary protein to balance the protein supply from microbial synthesis is then of great interest to ruminant nutritionists, because inefficient utilization necessitates over feeding of protein and the most costly ingredient of the ration (Broderick et al., 1991). Improvement of ruminant protein is a matter of practical concern that the amounts of protein and amino acids delivered to the intestine commonly limit productivity of these animals is shown by their responses to post ruminal supplementation (Broderick et al., 1991; Ipharraguerre et al., 2005). Selection of the proper source of supplemental crude protein for feeding offers an excellent opportunity for influencing the supply of amino acids to dairy cows. This is because the crude protein source modulates the intestinal supply of amino acids by affecting the passage of Ruminal Undegredable Protein (RUP) and microbial nitrogen to the lower intestinal tract (Clark et al., 1992). In addition, the contribution of RUP to the ruminal outflow of total protein and its amino acids composition impact the pattern of amino acids available for absorption in the small intestine (Rulquin and Verite, 1993; NRC, 2001).

Although soy proteins are a good source of digestible lysine and histidine (Santos et al., 1998; NRC, 2001), they are low in methionine (1.44-1.47% of crude protein) and can be extensively degraded (= 57.4-69.6%) by ruminal microbes (NRC, 2001), which may compromise their value for contributing quantitatively and/or qualitatively to supply of essential amino acids in metabolizable protein. This limitation motivated the development of several methods for decreasing the ruminal degradability of proteins in soybean meal (SBM). Nowadays, there are several commercial sources of treated SBM are available for use in the diets for dairy cattle. The heat-generating extrusion process which decreased SBM protein degradability in the rumen (Aldrich and Merchen, 1995). The use of heat and soy hulls is yet another industrial method for protecting SBM protein from ruminal degradation (Heitritter et al., 1998). This method also involves non enzymatic browning, but it be more environmentally acceptable than the chemical treatment methods because it uses a natural ingredients (Soy hulls). Plant secondary compounds (herbs extract containing tannin, terpenenoid, volatile essential oils) with some mineral and vitamins supplementation have potential to be used as protein protecting in the rumen (El-Waziry et al., 2005; Tandon et al., 2008), however the published information on the heat treatment and soy hulls or plant secondary compounds methods are lacking and scientific studies are needed to evaluate its efficacy.

According to Waltz and Stern (1989), treatment of SBM can increase the supply of amino acids to the duodenum of ruminants by 40-70% and Bateman et al. (2005) and Ipharraguerre et al. (2005) have concluded that an increase in RUP can increase milk yield. Based on the processing method of SBM, the intestinal availability of amino acids greatly differed, as SBM heat treatment leading to reduction of amino acids intestinal digestibility (Ceresnakova et al., 2002) and while little information about the other procedure and the effect of different processing on ruminal fermentation characteristics (El-Waziry et al., 2007). Therefore, the objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of multiple methods of treating SBM on ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production and composition as well as some blood parameters of dairy cows.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of five types of SBM processing on ruminal fermentation characteristics, milk production and composition as well as some blood parameters of dairy cows.

Cows, Experimental design and Diets: One hundred lactating Holstein dairy cows were allotted into five groups (20 cows per each). The first group (20 cows) was assigned to the control fed for 9 weeks on the basal diet containing normal SBM without treatment and the other four cow groups the SBM replaced by other treated commercial source as outlined in Table 1. The cows averaged 112±15 DIM at the start of the experiment, with an average Body Weight (BW) of 575 kg. They were housed in bedded pack housing system with outside feeding. The housing system provides 0.45 cm head lock for feeding and about 30 m2 yard per cow. The barns have open ridges to facilitate cleaning and manure removing. About 30% of the whole area is sloppy shaded at highet 9 m in the center with fan but no available cooling system in the cow's yard. Waterers were available in suitable size all the day time. Cows were fed ad libitum on a Total Mixed Ration (TMR) to meet the predicted requirements for energy, protein, minerals and vitamins according to NRC (2001). Ingredient and chemical compositions of the used diet are presented in Table 2.

Soy bypass protein sources: Five types of SBM supplements were investigated: solvent-extracted of normal commercial SBM (SE), Extrusion Processing (EP, Super soy; Arasco KSA), heat treated SBM with soy hulls (HS; Aminoplus; Ag Processing Inc., Omaha, NE), Treated SBM with plant secondary compounds (PA, Soy bypass, NF UAE) and heat treated SBM with plant secondary compounds (HPA; ACD100, FEEDCO, KSA with Centraly's Co. "France" supervision). The EP treatment by using SBM are fed into an extruder barrel, where a central revolving shaft forces the meal through the extruder, the SBM are treated by the heat generated through friction (130oC) and steam which is frequently injected during the process. The HS treatment involved mixing SBM with soy hulls (10:1 wt ratio), adding water to achieve 30-50% moisture and then further cooking at 95oC to obtain final moisture of 12-13%. The PA treatment with 1.25% of a commercial product (AM-3-Pro) production by Centraly's Co. "France" containing essential oil and plant extract plus vitamin B6 (600 mg/kg), niacin (20000mg/kg), iron (42000 mg/kg), zinc (180000mg/kg), manganese (31000mg/kg) and cobalt (50 mg/kg). The HPA treatment produced same as PA plus heat treatment (75-80oC) during pelleting process.

Feed intake: Diets were offered in equal amounts twice daily (08:00 and 15:00). Feed consumption was recorded daily by weighing feeds offered to and refused by the cows. Samples of TMR and feed ingredients were collected daily and kept frozen. Samples were composite by period (each 3 weeks), dried at 55oC for 48 h, ground through a 1-mm screen (Wiley mill) and analyzed for DM, total nitrogen, NDF, ADF, EE composition.

Milk production and milk composition: Cows were milked twice daily in the milking pallor (05:00 and 17:00), and milk yield was recorded at each milking. During the last week of each 21-day period, milk samples were taken from each cow at each milking, pooled on a yield basis, and stored at +4oC with a preservative (bronopol-B2) until analyzed for fat, protein and lactose.

Ruminal fermentation characteristics: Ruminal fluids were collected at 0, 4 and 8 h after feeding from 5 cows from each group on 21 of each period of the experiment. Ruminal fluids collected through a speculum were inserted into the cow mouth and a lubricated rubber tube was inserted through the speculum into the rumen via the esophagus.


Table 1:

Outline of the experimental design

Image for - Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products

Table 2:

Ingredient composition (% as fed) and chemical composition (on dry matter basis) of the basal used diet

Image for - Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products
*Super Sp-202, produced by Allgreen Co. (Malaysia) a special form of a hydrogenated triglyceride which has min. 99% fat as palm oil, acid value, 220 max, melting point, 55oC min. **Cattle premix produced by Centraly’s Co. (France) contains the following elements per kg. (10000000 IU vitamin A, 1000000, IU vitamin D3, 10000 mg vitamin E, 100000 mg magnesium, 50000 mg manganese, 45000 mg zinc, 50000 mg iron, 6000 mg copper, 800 mg iodine, 100 mg selenium. ***Calculated according to NRC (2001).

Ruminal contents (250 ml) were removed using an electric pump. Samples were monitored visually to ensure they were not contaminated with saliva. The pH was measured immediately using pH meter (Orion research model 201). The whole contents were squeezed through 4 layers of cheesecloth. The samples were acidified to pH 2 with 50% H2SO4 and frozen at -20oC for later determination of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) and ammonia (NH3-N) concentrations.

Chemical analysis: Analytical DM contents of TMR and feed ingredients were determined by oven-drying at 105oC for 48 h (AOAC, 1990; method 930.15). Ash contents of TMR and feed ingredients were determined by incineration at 550oC overnight. Crude protein in TMR and feed ingredient were determined by using Kjeldahl method according to Randhir and Pradhan (1981) and ether extract was determined according to Bligh and Dyer (1959) technique as modified by Hanson and Olly (1963). NDF and ADF in TMR and feed ingredients were determined according to (AOAC, 1990; method 973.18). Protein, fat and lactose concentrations in milk samples were analyzed (AOAC, 1990) by infrared spectrophotometer (System 6000 MilkoScan; Foss Electric). Concentrations of NH3-N and VFA in ruminal fluid were analyzed by colorimetry (Weatherburn, 1967) and by GLC (Varian 3700; Varian Specialties Ltd, Brockville, Ontario, Canada), respectively. Nitrogen fractions, defined according to the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System, were determined on SBM products using the methods of Licitra et al. (1996). To analyze AA, samples were ground to pass a 0.5- mm screen; SBM products as well as bag residues were acid-hydrolyzed with 6 N phenol-HCl for 24 h at 110oC (AOAC, 2000) and AA concentrations of the hydrolysates were determined by the isotope dilution method (Calder et al., 1999). Briefly, 2 mL of the hydrolysate was diluted with 3 mL of ultrapure water and 1 mL of this solution was then combined with 200 _L of a mixture of labeled AA (13C and 15N AA isotope standards; CDN Isotopes, Pointe-Claire, Quebec; Cambridge Isotope Laboratories Inc., Andover, MA), which served as an internal standard. The solution was eluted through a poly-prep chromatography column (resin 100-200 mesh H; Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA), then derivatized with N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-N-methyltrifluoroacetamide and dimethylformamide 1:1 (394882, 27.0547; Sigma-Aldrich) according to the method of Calder and Smith (1988). Amino acids were quantified using GC-MS (Hewlett-Packard Model GC6890-MS5973; Agilent Technologies, Wilmington, DE) and a mass selective detector (Hewlett-Packard, Palo Alto, CA). The AA Met, Cys, Arg and Pro were analyzed separately by subjecting the samples to performic acid oxidation, followed by HCl hydrolysis (AOAC, 2000); these 4 AA were analyzed with a Biochrom 20 AA analyser (Amersham Pharmacia Biotech, Piscataway, NJ).

Blood sampling: Five cows from each treatment group were randomly selected for blood sampling. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experimental period. Blood samples were obtained by vein puncture during or immediately after evening milking. Blood was collected into a 20 ml tube and allowed to clot at ambient temperature. Blood samples were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 15 min. Only clear non-hemolyzed sera were obtained and kept frozen until further analysis. Samples were analyzed for glucose according to Trinder (1969). Serum samples were analyzed to determine urea nitrogen concentration according to Coulomb and Faverau (1963).

Statistical analysis: The analysis of variance for the obtained data was performed using Statistical Analysis System (SAS, 1996) to assess significant differences.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chemical analysis of the used SBM products: The chemical compositions of SBM used in the present study are presented in Table 3. The crude protein content of the SBM products showed little deviation from 50%. The concentration of soluble protein was numerically lower in the treated SBM products than in SE. The HS, EP and HPA products were all exposed to higher temperatures during the respective processing methods and heat denaturizing feed proteins is known to reduce their solubility (Liu, 1999) on the other hand PA SBM product not exposed to heat which reflected on the higher soluble protein compared with other SBM heat treated products. Compared with the NRC (2001) model, NDF, ADF, Neutral Detergent Insoluble Crude Protein (NDICP) and Acid Detergent Insoluble Crude Protein (ADICP) were higher for HS, EP, PA and HPA SBM products. The increases in NDICP and ADICP for the treated SBM products were also the result of exposure to heat and chemical reactions during the processing (Demjanec et al., 1995; McKinnon et al., 1995; Borucki et al., 2007). An increase in NDICP reflects an increase in the feed protein fraction that is slowly degraded in the rumen (Mustafa et al., 2000), whereas an increase in ADICP by about 180.9, 238.1, 28.6 and 85.7% were observed for HS, EP, PA and HPA products respectively when compared with SE and that values are an indication of heat-damaged protein, which leads to reduced protein digestibility (Faldet et al., 1992; Can and Yilmaz, 2002). The contents of NDF and ADF were also higher in the treated products than in SE, these increases are likely to be artifacts of the increases in NDICP and ADICP (Van Soest and Mason, 1991; Borucki et al., 2007).

Results of the Amino Acids (AA) analysis of the different SBM products (Table 3) revealed that the AA composition of SE was comparable to that reported by Degussa (Degussa Feed Additives, 1996); however, values for HS, EP, PA and HPA were lower than those reported by the NRC (2001). The analytical data indicated that PA and HPA treated products contained slightly higher methionine concentration compared with other treated SBM products and that may be related to the addition of synthetic methionine during processing. Moreover, treated SBM products (HS, EP, PA and HPA) contained relatively low concentrations of lysine, arginine, histidine, alanine, praline, serine, aspartic acid and glutamic acid in different levels compared with SE product which suggesting binding and cross linking reactions involving these AA as a result of the treatment methods (Adrian, 1974; Gerrard, 2002; Borucki et al., 2007). These reactions would reduce the AA release upon acid hydrolysis (Ford and Shorrock, 1971). Only one previous published data (Borucki et al., 2007) indicated the AA composition of some treated SBM products (heat treated with hulls, expeller heat treatment and lignosulfate treated) but no available information has been published on the AA composition of PA and HPA products, the data provided here would quite useful in formulating diets for dairy cattle.

Dry Matter Intake (DMI): Approximately similar DMI was observed by cows fed on treated SBM (HS, EP, PA and HPA) products (Table 4) during the first three weeks of the experiment when compared with cows group fed of SE SBM. However, during the next periods of the experiment DMI slightly decreased (p>0.05) by cows fed on PA treated SBM, while there was an increase in DMI of the other treated SBM (HS, EP and HPA) products across the experimental period by about 0.3, 0.1 and 0.2% respectively when compared with untreated product. The approximately similar DMI was in agreement with that obtained by Mabjeesh et al. (2000) they concluded that DMI was similar for cows fed on roasted whole cotton seed and those fed on the whole cotton seed without treatment.

Milk production performance and milk-to-feed ratio: Improvement (p<0.05) in milk production at the first three weeks of production (Table 5) by cows fed on diets containing HS, PA or HPA teated SBM instead of untreated SBM product by about 1.9, 2.6 and 3.5% respectively while using EP treated product non significantly improved milk production by about 1.0% when compared with those fed on untreated SBM. Moreover, more improvement in milk production of the next experimental periods while, the improvement across the whole experimental periods by different SBM products feeding was observed by about 2.2, 1.9, 3.2 and 4.4% respectively when compared with the control. The highest improvement was observed when SE untreated SBM was replaced by HPA treated SBM followed by PA and followed by HS treated SBM, while the lowest response by cows fed on EP treated SBM when compared with the control. Milk production improvement was in harmony with those obtained by (Socha, 1991) summarized that lactating cows increased milk production when heat treated SBM was used as a protein supplement compared to untreated SBM.


Table 3:

Effect of different rumen protected soybean meal products on milk composition of dairy cows

Image for - Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products
1 = Neutral Detergent Insoluble Crude Protein (NDICP), 2 = Acid Detergent Insoluble Crude Protein (ADICP)

Table 4:

Effect of different rumen protected soybean meal products on dry matter intake (DMI kg/cow/day) of dairy cows

Image for - Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products
Values are means ± standard error. No significant differences (P>0.05). N = No. of observation.

Table 5:

Effect of different rumen protected soybean meal products on milk production performance (kg/cow/day) of dairy cows

Image for - Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products
Values are means ± standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same raw differ significantly at (p<0.05). N = No. of observation.

However, milk response to heat treated SBM have been inconsistent. Hoffiman et al. (1991) reported that substitution of expeller SBM for untreated SBM in diets fed to dairy cows not affected the milk production.


Table 6:

Effect of different rumen protected soybean meal products on milk-to-feed ratio of dairy cows

Image for - Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products
Values are means ± standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same raw differ significantly at (p<0.05). N = No. of observation.

Table 7:

Effect of different rumen protected soybean meal products on rumen fermentation characteristics of dairy cows

Image for - Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products
Values are means ± standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same raw differ significantly at (p<0.05). N = No. of observation.

The milk production response variation between different SBM products of the present study may be caused by decreased microbial synthesis, poor essential AA profiles or low digestibility of the HS or EP treated SBM compared with the other sources used in the present study. These explanations are in agreement with those reviewed by Santos and Huber (1996).

Improvement (p>0.05) in milk-to-feed ratio was observed (Table 6) during the first three week of the experimental period with replacement of untreated SBM by HS, PE or PA treated products by about 0.6, 0.0 and 1.9% respectively while HPA treated product significantly improved milk-to-feed ratio by about 3.2% when compared with the control and more improvement was observed in the next periods. Substitution of untreated SBM by different treated SBM products (HS, PE, PA and HPA) improved (p<0.05) milk-to-feed ratio across the experimental period by 2.5, 1.9, 3.8 and 4.4% respectively. The highest improvement was observed when untreated SBM was replaced by HPA treated product, followed by PA, then HS and the lowest response by cows fed on EP treated product instead of untreated one. The possible explanation for milk-to-feed ratio may be related to the higher milk production without increasing of dry matter intake.

Rumen fermentation characteristics: Ruminal pH reduction (p<0.05) was observed with inclusion of different treated HS, EP, PA or HPA) SBM products instead of SE SBM (Table 7) by about 1.1, 1.3, 1.3 and 1.6% respectively when compared with control. Moreover, the concentrations of NH3-N were significantly (p<0.05) reduced when SBM replaced by treated SBM (HS, EP, PA or HPA) by about 8.5, 7.8, 13.2 and 13.2% respectively. A decrease in rumen NH3-N concentrations was observed by previous studies (Mabjeesh et al., 2000; El-Waziry et al., 2005; El-Waziry et al., 2007), but the present results are in contrast with those obtained by (Stern et al., 1985; Tice et al., 1993) they reported that no decline in ruminal NH3-N of cows fed diets containing heat treated soybeans compared to cows fed whole raw soybeans. A decrease in rumial NH3-N may indicate that treated SBM lowered proteolysis, degradation of peptides and deamination of amino acids in the rumen (Newbold et al., 1990), the mentioned explanations clarify the PA and HPA processing methods are more effective compared with HS or EP methods.

The VFA concentrations (Table 7) were reduced (p>0.05) when treated SBM (HS, EP, PA and HPA) replaced the untreated SBM I dairy cow diets by about 1.7, 0.5, 1 and 1.5% respectively. The molar proportions of individual VFA were slightly differ between groups as treated SBM fed cows showed an increase (p>0.05) of acetate concentration, similar in butyrate while exhibited reduction in propionate concentrations and consequently the acetate to propionate ratio significantly increased by about 7.4, 8.5, 6.6 and 5% respectively compared with cow fed on diet containing untreated SBM. The present data are in agreement with (Mabjeesh et al., 2000) stated that total VFA concentration was similar for roasted and untreated whole cotton seeds containing diets, however, the results are in contrast with (El-Waziry et al., 2007) they observed that the VFA concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) decreased when SBM treated by heat or tannins addition.


Table 8:

Effect of different rumen protected soybean meal products on milk composition of dairy cows

Image for - Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products
Values are means ± standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same raw differ significantly at (p<0.05). N = No. of observation.

Table 9:

Effect of different rumen protected soybean meal products on some blood serum parameters of dairy cows

Image for - Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Lactation Performance in Dairy Cows Fed Different Rumen Protected Soybean Meal Products
Values are means ± standard error. Mean values with different letters at the same raw differ significantly at (p<0.05). N = No. of observation.

Milk composition: Higher (p<0.05) milk fat% and milk fat yield g/cow/day (Table 8) by about (3.2, 2.2, 1.6 and 1.6%) and (5.3, 3.9, 4.5 and 5.6%) when cows fed on diets containing treated SBM (HS, EP, PA or HPA) respectively when compared with cows group fed on untreated SBM. Replacement of untreated SBM by HS or EP treated SBM increased (p>0.05) milk protein % by about 1.6 and 0.3% respectively, while using PA or HPA treated SBM increased (p<0.05) milk protein% by about 2.8 and 3.8% respectively, on the other hand all products of treated SBM increased (p<0.05) milk protein yield by about 3.6, 2.1, 5.8 and 8.1% respectively when compared with cows group fed on untreated SBM. Moreover, treated SBM had no effect (p>0.05) on milk lactose percentage, while increased milk lactose yield compared to cows fed on untreated SBM. The higher milk fat percentages observed in this study with the treated SBM products were results of the additional postruminal digested energy (Mabjeesh et al., 2000). The lack of response in milk protein response in cows fed on HS or EP treated SBM instead of untreated SBM may be explained the moderate increase in rumen undegradable supply by those treated SBM sources or due to heating creates crosslinkages between peptide chains and the presences of carbohydrate, forms complexes between amino free aldehyde groups through Maillard reactions and some of these complexes undigested, while treated SBM by plant extract and essential oils are one of two distinct types of polymers of flavonoid phenols and as chemical additives for decreasing ruminal degradation of feed proteins were used to protect rapidly protein sources such as SBM (Makkar, 2003). The value of that processing method to ruminant protein nutrition lies in the sensitivity of the bonding to pH over normal pH range in the rumen, protein remain bound to the tannin, but at the low pH normally occurring in the abomasums, the protein released and become available for digestion (Broderick et al., 1991).

Blood serum units: The concentration of blood serum glucose and urea N are presented in Table 9. Substitution of SE SBM by HS, EP, PA or HPA treated SBM products had no effect (p>0.05) on blood serum glucose concentration when compared with the control. However cows fed on diets containing EP, PA and HPA treated SBM instead of SE SBM showed a reduction (p<0.05) in blood urea N by about 4.9, 6 and 7.7% respectively when compared with control, while substitution of SE by HS treated SBM exhibited non significant (p>0.05) reduction in blood urea N by about 3.8%. The lower blood urea N concentrations reflect improvement in metabolism of nitrogenous components in the diet (Mabjeesh et al., 2000). The urea N concentrations in various animal groups indicated that the HS treatment of SBM was the lowest response followed by EP treatment, while SBM treatment by plant extract with essential oil without or with heat treatment more effective.

Conclusion: Solvent extracted SBM exhibited greater effective degradability of CP and AA when compared with treated SBM products (HS, EP, PA or HPA). This was due to a greater fraction of soluble protein. The inclusion of treated SBM products in dairy cow diets improved milk production and milk-to-feed ratio while, decreased the concentration of ruminal NH3 and blood urea N and increased CP utilization for milk protein secretion. Moreover, treated SBM products increased milk fat percentage and yield. However, the present study suggested that HS and EP treatment methods of SBM is less effective and the cow performance lesser respond than PA or HPA methods which depend on tanninferous plant species that protect protein from degradation in the rumen due to presence of small amounts of condensed tannin in the plant species and may be more available and digestible in the intestine more than the previous processing.

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