Poultry sector has great potential to bridge up the gap between existing energy level and minimum energy level required for human diet in the country. The poultry and poultry products in Pakistan during the year, 2006-07 increased considerably over previous year, 2005-06. The production of day-old chicks increased from 386.5-401.0 million, farming layers 23.2-23.8 million, farming broilers 303.9-315.8 million, farming breeding and stock 6.9- 7.1 million, poultry meat 463,000-480,000 tonnes and farm eggs 5107-5222 million. The rural poultry estimates showed that there has been an increase in day-old chicks from 36.5-38.0 million, cocks and cockribs 12.1-13.1 million and layers 36.5-37.8 million (Anonymous, 2007).
In the last decade, the Pakistan poultry industry developed manifolds. With the tremendous development of poultry sector, the marketing of the poultry products was simultaneously increased. In, 1983, Pakistan produced 3,150 million eggs and 97,710 metric tons of poultry meat of which 1,450 million or 46 percent eggs, and 53,345mt or 54.6 percent of meat came from the rural areas which kept on increasing. In, 2004, egg production increased to 8,247 million and poultry meat to 402000 tons (Khan, 2005). After commencement of three foreign fast food companies, their chain of outlets faced problems of obtaining 30,000-60,000 chicks per consignment per day due to the provision of 20-30 per cent substandard chicks which suffer from infection. They took permission to import commercial broilers or processed chickens. Due to increasing population, the poultry production has great potential. The industry now is developing on scientific lines and providing the masses low-priced protein food.
Poultry meat is the part of staple diet of humans and economic source of protein (Qureshi, 1990). Poultry meat is an economical, quick, easy to use and has a number of desirable nutritional and organoliptic properties. (Saeed, 2006). The consumption behavior of poultry products is the deciding factor for the development of livestock sector in general and a specific enterprise in particular. In general, consumer's behavior indicates the process, activities that people engage in when searching for, selecting, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services, so as to satisfy their needs and decisions. The consumer behavior theory postulates that consumers look at completeness, monotonicity, reflexivity and transitivity, continuity and convexity, which influences their behavior. The study of consumer helps firms and organizations improve their marketing strategies by understanding the issues such as a) how consumers think, feel, reason and select between different alternatives and b) how consumer is influenced by his environment. Various external factors such as culture, sub culture, social class, reference groups, family decisions and certain situational determinants also influence the consumer's purchase decisions. The consumption patterns fall within these lines and vary with the societal setup in which the consumers are operating. The culture, traditions, customs, taboos are influencing the consumption of poultry products including meat and eggs, both in the rural and urban societies (USDA, 2002; Khan, 2005). Very limited information is available on the consumption patterns of poultry products of Pakistan urban and rural families. The specific consumption pattern for chicken meat and eggs will be of much use in planning the location specific and species based poultry farming. With this background, the present study was formulated with the objective to identify the consumption patterns of chicken meat in Hyderabad, Sindh province and this study will be beneficial policy makers also.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The data on consumption and cooking patterns of chicken meat in Hyderabad district were gathered during, 2006-07. In selecting the respondents, the techniques of purposive selection were adopted. The data were collected through pre-tested questionnaire. 200 respondents were selected for the interview. The following questions about demographic status of respondents, consumption patterns and cooking methods of chicken meat were asked from the respondents.
b.Consumption and cooking patterns:-
1.Which type of birds do you like for consumption?
2.When do you consume chicken meat?
3.How much quantity do you purchase?
4.Do you know the nutritive value of chicken meat?
5.Who cook/prepare chicken meat at your home?
6.Which cooking method you adopt at your home?
7.Which part of chicken do you like?
8.Do you consume chicken meat in disease out break (especially in bird flu disease)?
9.In which season, do you increase consumption of chicken meat?
10.Do you consume chicken meat in summer season?
11.Do you consume chicken meat in increased prices?
12.Which food item do you prefer first to eat on the dinning table?
Thus the collected data was analyzed statistically according to the formula of MS-Excel by the methods of Snedcor and Cochran (1980).
Demographic status of the chicken meat consumers:
In the present study, a survey was carried out from 200 respondents of district
Hyderabad. In all the 180 male and 20 female were interviewed. Although, this
male: female ratio in the study showed no equilibrium, but feeling the significance
of stratum this representation was found enough. The results on age, education,
occupation and monthly income are presented in Table 1.
Table 1 depicts that 6% respondents were between the ages of 18-25 years, 26% were 26-31 years, 23% were 32-37 years and 45% were 38-55 years respectively. Out of total respondents interviewed, 24% completed only primary level, 18% studied up to matriculation, 21% accomplished intermediate, 34% completed their graduation in various disciplines and only 3% respondents were illiterate. The respondents were also studied in relation to their occupation and it was noted that majority of them (60%) were engaged in private sector, 40% respondents were government employees and none of them were found engaged with any non-governmental organization (NGO) or jobless. The respondents were also arranged into four income groups, i.e. income from Rs. 1000-10000, Rs. 11000-20000, Rs. 21-000-30000 and above Rs.30000. Most of the respondents (68%) had monthly income of Rs. 1000-10000, 23% respondents had Rs. 11000-20000, 2% respondents had Rs. 21000-30000 and 7% respondents had more than Rs. 30000, respectively.
Consumption and cooking patterns of chicken meat: The result on the
consumption and cooking patterns are presented in Table 2-12.
The respondents were subjected to enquire for their preference / liking in type of birds, the responses to this effect are presented in Table 2. It was noted that 85% respondents liked to purchase broiler, while only 15% respondents showed their liking desi hen (indigenous poultry breed). The enquiry regarding the frequency of
||Demographic information of the Consumers
||Type of bird liked by consumers
||Routine consumption of chicken meat
routine consumption of chicken meat (Table 3) illustrated
that 38% respondents consumed once a week, 36% consumed monthly, 24% respondents
consumed rarely and only 2% respondents consumed meat daily. The quantity of
meat may vary with a number of reasons; however, the respondents were asked
to inform the quantity they purchased at a time. The response (Table
4) indicated that 73% respondents purchased up to 1 kilogram, 15% purchased
1-1.5kg and 10% respondents purchased 1.6-2.Kg and only 2% purchase more than
2kg. Table 5 indicated that 68% respondents were having current
knowledge about nutritive value and 32% respondents did not showed their knowledge
over the nutritive value of commercial poultry meat. The above situation indicated
that mostly people are partially aware of the nutritive value. The respondents
were also instigated to inform who cook/prepare meat for consumption and the
responses are presented in Table 6. It was noted that 74%
told that their wives are responsible for cooking, 11% their daughters and 8%
their mother/sister. Moreover, 7% (female respondents) informed that they personally
involve in cooking at their homes. The respondents were asked to show their
preference on type of dish they used to prepare chicken meat, 47% liked to cook
and consumed fried chicken, while 33.00% preferred to cook chicken curry, 20%
liked to prepare broast (Table 7).
||Quantity of chicken meat purchased
The chicken has different quality of meat in its various body parts and the
respondents were asked to express their liking for various body parts. It was
noted that 72% respondents like whole chicken, 18% showed their liking for breast
meat and only 10% respondents expressed their liking towards legs meat (Table
8). While enquiring the respondents whether they consume meat during out
break of diseases especially in bird flu disease, 58% respondents responded
positively (Table 9) and told that they feel no hesitation
in consuming meat during outbreak of diseases, while 36% respondents showed
negative response and perceived that they do not use meat. However, only 6%
respondents expressed that they use chicken during bird flu outbreak rarely.
Table 10 shows that 72 respondents enhanced their consumption
in winter remaining 36% consumers told with the comments that they did not enhance
their consumption in winter season. The liking in consumption in summer season
was questioned from the respondents and 86% respondents responded optimistically
and perceived that the meat is consumed normally at their homes in summer season.
However, 14% respondents told with the comments that the meat is not consumed
in summer season (Table 11). The respondents were asked to
express consumption of meat in case of increased prices due to certain reasons
and 61% respondents had positive response (Table 12) and
37% showed negative response to this aspect.
||Cooking of chicken meat by family members
||Cooking method of chicken meat
||Liking in meat parts
||Consumption of chicken meat during bird flu outbreak
||Enhancement in consumption of chicken meat
||Consumption of chicken meat during summer season
||Consumption of chicken meat during increased price
||Preference in consumption of meat as first item on the table
However, 2% respondents with hold consumption. A number of cooked food items
are available on the table on various occasions at their home and the respondents
were enquired for their categorical choice on food items. It was noted that
70% respondents preferred first to eat chicken meat, 15% had choice of fish
and 10% showed preference for beef/mutton, while only 5% expressed their preference
for vegetables (Table 13).
To know the consumption and cooking pattern of chicken meat in Hyderabad District,
a study through survey was carried out from 200 respondents. 180 male and 20
female were interviewed. The Data on age, sex, education, occupation and monthly
income of the respondents were gathered as demographic status of the respondents.
The age of respondents in range of 18-45 years was observed; 97% were having
education from primary level up to graduation whereas only 3% respondents were
illiterate; all the respondents were in salaried jobs in public or private sectors
and high frequency in lower monthly income was observed in the study area. This
demographic study showed that mostly respondents were mature, educated and having
low salaries jobs. The majority of the respondents of Hyderabad liked to purchase
broiler meat up to 1kg weekly than other varieties of meat due to low purchasing
power. In a similar study, Stock (2004), who reported that the consumers preferred
and wants 2lbs or less chicken meat Majority of respondents having knowledge
about nutritive value of broiler meat and showed their liking in meat of desi
hen (indigenous poultry breed) because of old myth that desi chicken is in good
taste. In a similar study in Nigeria, Adejoro (2001) argued that the decline
in consumption was occurred due to a decrease in the income and purchasing power
of consumers. The above results are confirmed by findings of Raju and Suryanarayana
(2005) reported that only 27.5% respondents preferred meat on all days. Above
results are in some agreement with the findings of Queshi (1990) who reported
that consumers eat chicken meat occasionally due to the dearth of sources and
low income and he also further reported that 86% consumers preferred broiler
meat. Above findings are in agreement with the findings of Yildrim and Ceylan
(2008) they reported that the income was effective on both the consumption level
and behavior of households. The urban households attached more attention to
habit and nutrition value variables, while the cheapness was the major factor
affecting the rural households' preference of chicken meat. Mostly wives of
the respondents were responsible for cooking and they adopted frequently fried
and curry method and rarely used broast method at their home. The chicken has
different quality of meat in its various body parts and the majority of the
respondents of Hyderabad liked whole chicken and remaining showed their liking
for breast meat and legs meat. Similarly, Tolu et al. (2005) reported
that most often buy chicken meat (86%), and the rest of them prefer turkey meat
(14%). Almost all respondents prefer to buy poultry meat in its main parts,
mostly because of reasonable prices. Even 92% of them decide to buy the most
valuable carcass parts (breasts, drumsticks and thighs). In another investigation,
Miriam et al. (2002) experienced the factors changing consumption patterns
of poultry meat, particularly in the case of total poultry consumption as in
the case of specific parts of the carcass. Though the disinformation can play
a key negative role in consumption of food items but in Hyderabad, no any considerable
decreasing consumption was noted in the area. The majority of the consumers
responded positively and told that they feel no unwillingness in consuming meat.
Every food item has an own identity in season, e.g. ice cream and juices are
consumed more in summer season and dry fruits in winter. In case of chicken
meat, during study period the respondents showed positive response and viewed
that they enhance their consumption in winter season due to satisfaction that
chicken meat gives warmth and energy in form of calories in the body. On the
other hand, the respondents cooked chicken meat normally in summer season. Price
is the major factor in purchasing any product and reflects in consumption, the
respondents of Hyderabad consumed meat in case of increased prices due to certain
reasons. A number of cooked food items are available on the table on various
occasions/at their home and the respondents were enquired for their categorical
choice on food items. It was noted that most of respondents prefer first to
eat chicken meat even fish, beef and vegetable available on the table. The results
of the present study are also in concurrence to those of Marsha (2003), who
stated that the consumption of poultry meat is considerably higher than either
beef or pork. Similarly, Tolu et al. (2005) reported that most often
buy chicken meat (86%) and the rest of them prefer turkey meat.
Conclusion: It was concluded from the present investigation that consumption and cooking patterns of chicken meat showed positive trend and mostly respondents preferred and consumed whole broiler meat as a curry and fried item up to 1kg weekly alike over beef and vegetable at their home after cooked by their wives, but the low purchase power resulted weaker purchasing frequency. The consumers increases their consumption in winter season and no considerable effect of disease outbreak, summer season and in increased prices was found on the consumption of chicken meat in Hyderabad.
Recommendations and suggestions
|Consumers education through festivals, seminars and
workshops may be conducted at union councils level.
||Prices of poultry products should be reduced.
||Marketing system of poultry products be improved.
||Importance of poultry products may be included in the syllabus of lower
classes (from Primary to intermediate level).
||Government organizations should take serious efforts for enhance the production,
disease control, meat hygiene at poultry meat shops, marketing legislation
and farmers perception.