Effect of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on Apparent Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention of Tomato Pomace in Sheep
Twenty mature rams were used to determine the effects
of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on digestibility and nitrogen
retention of tomato pomace. The animals were assigned randomly to one
of the four different treatments (0, 2, 4 and 6 g/head/day yeast) with
five rams per treatment in a completely randomized design. Each diet was
fed for 14-day adaptation following a 7-day collection period whereas
tomato pomace digestibility was measured by difference method using alfalfa
as the basal diet. Yeast supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased
digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP),
NDF and ADF of tomato pomace where the gross digestibility derived from
the supplementation was superior in 4 gram yeast compared to the control
group. In addition, sheep fed yeast had a marked increase in energy digestibility
of tomato pomace at 4 gram level, however, yeast did not affect energy
digestibility at 2 and 6 gram. Also, the nitrogen retention of tomato
pomace was improved by Saccharomyces cerevisiae adding at 2 and
4 gram levels. The observed results were attributed to better digestibility
and nitrogen retention of tomato pomace of 4 gram yeast group, possibly
due to its better supply of rumen fermentation and microorganisms
activity of digestive tract.
The production of juice and other products from tomatoes is a major industry
in some areas of the world. After the juice is extracted, a residue, tomato
pomace, which primarily consists of water, tomato seeds and peels is left.
The high water content (ca. 75%) of this by-product limits its length
of storage. Fresh tomato pomace would spoil in two days if exposed to
the air. Because of storage problems, tomato pomace is often dried. Dried
tomato pomace has been fed to dairy cows and sheep (Belibasakis, 1990;
Fondevila et al., 1994). Although the tomato pomace has a moderate
concentration of CP, it has high concentrations of water, NDF and lignin.
The concentration of ADIN also is high, suggesting that some of the lignin
might have been an artifact (Weiss et al., 1997). Increasing the
digestibility of ruminant diets and thereby improving nutrient efficiency
is an important aspect of ruminant nutrition. This improvement in nutrient
utilization must initially come from an improved rumen digestion and utilization.
Yeast products especially Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been added
to the diets of ruminant animals for many years to improve their efficiency
with a variety of results. Some of the benefits associated with Saccharomyces
cerevisiae include: increased DM and NDF digestion (Carro
et al., 1992), increased some nutrient digestibility (Dawson, 1993;
Weiss et al., 1997; Kim et al., 2006), increased initial
rates of fiber digestion (Williams et al., 1991), increased milk
production in dairy cattle (Harris and Webb, 1990; Kung et
al., 1997), improved ruminal fermentation plus different ruminal bacteria
(Lynch and Martin, 2002; Miller et al., 2002;), increased dry matter
intake and average daily gain (Fadel, 2007; Haddad and Goussous, 2005;
Jahnson and Robs, 2003).
It seems that we can increase digestibility of by-products like tomato
pomace by adding additives such as yeast products. This work therefore,
has the objective of evaluating the supplemental effect of yeast (Saccharomyces
cerevisiae) as an additive on digestibility and nitrogen retention
of tomato pomace in sheep.
Materials and Methods
Animals, housing and diet: Twenty mature rams were used in this
experiment. The animals were housed in individual metabolic pens allowing
collection of feed refusals, feces and urine. They were assigned randomly
to one of four different treatments with five rams per treatment following
the completely randomized design. The animal on the different treatments
received the same basal diet of alfalfa hay (50%) plus tomato pomace (50%)
and supplemented with 0, 2, 4 and 6 g/day yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
respectively. Tomato pomace digestibility was measured by difference method
using alfalfa as the basal diet. Yeast was added to 6g of wheat bran as
an inert material in addition 5ml of molasses as appetizer and fed shortly
after offering the diet. The animals were housed in individual metabolic
pens allowing collection of feed refusals, feces and urine. The ingredient
compositions of the tomato pomace and alfalfa hay are presented in
Table 1. Feed was offered twice a day at 7:30h and 19:30h at 1.56%
(as-fed basis) of live body weight and sheep had ad libitum access
to clean water during the experiment. Each diet was fed for 14-day adaptation
following a 7-day collection period. The body weight of the animals was
recorded at the beginning and the end of the experimental period.
Sample collection: At the time of weighing feeds, the feed samples
were collected into plastic bags, labeled and stored until chemical analysis.
Daily feces and orts from each animal during data collection period were
weighed, mixed, a 20% sample were taken and stored in freezer (-20o
Centigrade). A 20% urine sample (volume/volume) was taken and placed in
freezer (-20o Centigrade) until analysis for N balance measurement.
After urine collection, containing 20ml sulfuric acid (normal) was added
into collection container to prevent any ammonia loose. The added sulfuric
acid volume was detected from sheep urine in the next collection day.
Data collection was done for 7 days starting from 14th adaptation
Chemical analysis: Partial dry matter (DM) of samples was determined
after drying at 105o Centigrade for 24 hours. Dried samples
were ground to pass a 1-mm screen, were analyzed for DM, organic matter
(OM) and nitrogen according to AOAC (1978). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF)
and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were determined according to Robertson
and Van Soest. Gross energy was determined on a parr bomb calorimetric.
Statistical analysis: Data collected from the various parameters
were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using completely randomized
design (CRD). The differences between means were evaluated by LCD. The
analysis was performed using WINKS SDA software.
Results and Discussion
Digestibility: The results of the yeast supplementation indicated
in Table 2 shows that Saccharomyces cerevisiae
yeast supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) tended to increase digestibility
of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and NDF of
tomato pomace at 2 and 4 gram yeast and rams fed 4 gram yeast produced
the best digestibilities. The Table 2 shows that supplementation
at 6 gram brings no profit while supplementation above 2 gram increased
the digestibilities compared to the control. Therefore, digestibility
of these parameters was influenced by adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae
at 2 and 4 gram yeast per head per day but, they were not influenced by
adding Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 6 gram. ADF digestibility was
significantly (P < 0.05) affected by dietary yeast but, there was no
significant difference between levels 2 and 4 whreae, yeast supplementation
did not significantly affect ADF digestibility at 6 gram level. Sheep
fed yeast had a marked increase (P < 0.05) in energy digestibility
of tomato pomace at 4 gram level but, yeast did not affect energy digestibility
at 2 and 6 gram.
These results agreed with other studies ( Fadel, 2007; Kim et al.,
2006; Haddad and Goussous, 2005; Lesmeister et al., 2004; Ando
et al., 2004; Miller et al., 2002; Wiedmeier et al.,
1987; Birick and Yavuz, 2001; Newbold et al., 1990; Newbold and
Wallace, 1992) whereas, others (Mruthunjaya et al., 2003; Enjalbert
et al., 1999; Erasmus et al., 1992; Wohlt et al.,
1991; Chademana and Offer, 1990) have recorded no effect.
The tomato pomace had high concentrations of water, NDF, lignin and fatty
acids and a moderate concentration of CP (Table 1).
Overall, values were similar to reference values (NRC, 1985). Some authors
(Fondevila et al., 1994; Gasa et al., 1989) reported that
the lignin concentration was much higher than published values of 7-11%.
The concentration of ADIN also was high, suggesting that some of the lignin
might have been an artifact (Weiss et al., 1997). The effect of
yeast on fiber digestion were highly variable, with some authors recording
increases on the fiber digestion of low quality forages (Lynch and Martin,
2002), while others (Hadjipanayiotou et al., 1997; Avendano et
al., 1995; Enjalbert et al., 1999) have not recorded any increasing
Studies on ruminal degradation of corn silage as a feed containing high
fiber by yeast culture supplementation (Yeast Culture Laboratory Research,
1998), demonstrated that yeast culture increased ruminal degradation of
dry matter, NDF and hemicellulose. Other researchers (Fadel, 2007; Birick
and Yavuz, 2001; Enjalbert et al., 1999; Erasmus et al.,
1992; Miller et al., 2002) have also confirmed these results using
in vivo and in vitro experiments. Williams et al. (1991)
also indicated that the initial rate of degradation, rather than the potential
degradability of the forage, was affected. Fadel (2007) have also
reported that NDF digestibility and rumen fermentation of forage sorghum
hay in Nubian goats kids affected by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae)
|| The effect of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on tomato pomace
|abcMeans with different superscript in the
same row differ significantly *: P < 0.05. SEM: Standard error
of a mean.
Newbold and Wallace (1992) suggested that, differences between control
and yeast culture groups were not related to the number of viable yeast
cells in the preparations and their ability to stimulate rumen fermentation
may be related to difference in metabolic activity. It is also likely
that the method of growing, harvesting and storing the culture affects
the final activity (Miller et al., 2002).
Fadel (2007) demonstrated that Saccharomyces cerevisiae
improved OM plus NDF digestibility compared with control diet. Some researches
have shown that treatment with some yeast cultures increased the number
of total and cellulolytic bacteria in the rumen and in some cases increased
cellulose degradation (Miller et al., 2002; Dawson, 1990; Newbold,
1990; Newbold et al., 1990). Newbold et al. (1990) suggested
that Aspergillus oryzae fermentation extract and Saccharomyces cerevisiae
culture stimulated fiber digestion by ruminal microorganisms. Therefore,
it is suggested that, in a diet containing tomato pomace, Saccharomyces
cerevisiae probably alter the rumen fermentation which it can accelerate
nutrient digestion in rumen due to increase microorganisms ability.
As mentioned above in the present study, feeding 2 and 4 gram yeast daily
to rams improved measured digestibility parameters but rams fed greater
level of yeast had similar digestibility to control. These results suggest
that yeast increased digestibility parameters at an optimum level and
its effect will reduce exceed of this optimum level that probably refer
to ruiminal fermentation and rumen microorganisms activity.
It seems that the rumen fermentation will alter by adding more yeast
and digestibility will alter too. The initial studies suggested that the
effects of yeast cultures on fiber digestion were modulated via an effect
on PH in rumen. The yeast appeared to increase rumen PH so, it was suggested
that the effects of yeast on fiber digestion in the rumen might be mediated
via an effect on rumen PH. However, Chademana and Offer (1990) found that
yeast stimulated dry matter digestion over a range of forage to concentrate
ratios, with a little effect on rumen PH. Indeed, Koul et al. (1998)
suggested that the increasing in rumen PH, in animal fed yeast was itself
a secondary effect. Yeast culture stimulates the growth of lactic acid
utilizing bacteria (Newbold et al., 1990) while, preventing acid
production from hexose fermenting bacteria (Chaucheyras et al.,
1995). Thus, it appears that the stimulation of fiber degradation in the
rumen caused by yeast can not be explained by a simple increase in rumen
PH, rather the effect is modulated via an increase in the number and activity
of cellulolytic bacteria (Williams et al., 1991). This effect on
fiber digestion appears to differ according to the fiber source. Roa et
al. (1997) showed that quality of the forage affects NDF digestion
respect to yeast culture, with more benefits of good quality forages.
Callaway and Martin (1997) reported that Saccharomyces cerevisiae
culture stimulated growth of the predominal ruminal cellulolytic bacteria
Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus albus on cellubiose
in medium that did not contain yeast extract, Saccharomyces cerevisiae
culture increased the initial rate but not the extent of cellulose digestion
by Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus falvefaciens.
It is assumed that, the yeast supplement may provides factors stimulatory
toward proteolytic bacteria therefore, resulted in increase of CP digestion.
The increase in proteolytic bacteria is more, when high concentrate diets
are fed (Williams et al., 1991). Saccharomyces cerevisiae
supplementation has been associated with an increased flow of microbial
protein leaving the rumen and enhanced supply of amino acids entering
the small intestine (Enjalbert et al., 1992).
Nitrogen retention: As shown in Fig. 1, supplementation
of the tomato pomace with 2 and 4 gram yeast per head daily significantly
(P < 0.05) improved nitrogen retention. In contrast, 6 gram yeast inclusion
did not affect it significantly. This finding is in agreement with Cole
et al. (1992) who reported that nitrogen retention was significantly
affected by yeast in lambs fed it. The increased proteolytic and peptidolytic
activity of the rumen microorganisms might be responsible for the high
nitrogen retention observed in yeast-fed rams. Although, Newbold et
al. (1990) suggested that, Saccharomyces cerevisiae had no
effect on the proteolytic, peptidolytic or deaminative activity of the
rumen microorganisms in vitro. However, several studies have recorded
a decrease in the concentration of the rumen ammonia, when yeast culture
was fed (Enjalbert et al., 1999; Koul et al., 1998; Newbold
et al., 1990). Although, some authors observed a significant increase
in flow of undegraded dietary protein from the rumen of dairy cows fed
yeast culture (Erasmus et al., 1992; Putnam et al., 1997),
Doreau and Jouany (1998) found an increases in the rate of in situ nitrogen
degradation in animals supplemented with yeast culture. In some studies
this has been associated with an increased flow of microbial protein leaving
the rumen, resulting an enhanced supply of amino acids entering the small
intestine (Erasmus et al., 1992). However, others (Jouny et
al., 1991) failed to find any increase in the flow of microbial protein
leaving the rumen. An increase in microbial protein leaving the rumen
any help explain the production benefits observed when yeast is added
to the diet. Erasmus et al. (1992) suggested that an improved microbial
activity was responsible for a greater incorporation of ammonia into microbial
protein. Such an improvement in microbial protein synthesis was sustained
by Mutsvangwa et al. (1992) who showed a tend towards increased
allantoine secretion in sheep supplemented with yeast, but was not confirmed
by Newbold et al. (1990) or El- Hassan et al. (1993).
The more retention of N in sheep fed yeast can explain by reduced ammonia
concentrations in the rumen that appeared to result from increased incorporation
of ammonia into microbial protein that probably were the direct result
of stimulated microbial activity. This increased flow of bacterial protein
helps to explain some of the very positive responses observed with yeast
supplementation in animals (Dawson and Hopkins, 1991). But in the present
study nitrogen retention only increased at 2 and 4 gram levels not at
6 gram that probably refers to altering the rumen fermentation by adding
more yeast. The effect of different doses of yeast culture Saccharomyces
cerevisiae, strain SC-47 (0, 3, 6 and 12g of yeast/day, respectively)
on the lactating performance of Holstein dairy cows was described by Nikkhah
et al. (2004). They drew a conclusion that the yeast culture had
a beneficial effect
on the rumen health. Other available data indicated that in the rumen
fluid of animals receiving supplements of yeast culture, the content of
ammonia decreased (Enjalbert et al., 1999; Kamra et al.,
2002; Nursoy and Baytok, 2003) in addition to, the total numbers of ruminal
bacteria and infusoria significantly increased (Kamra et al., 2002).
Conclusion: The present study concluded that yeast (Saccharomyces
cerevisiae) supplementation to tomato pomace significantly affect
digestion and nitrogen retention of this by-product at 2 and 4 gram per
head per day although, yeast supplementation at a level above 4 gram did
not bring additional profit. These effects may have been due to beneficial
effects on rumen fermentation and microorganisms activity.
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