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Effect of Dietary 1, 25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Concentration on Growth Performance and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quail Fed Diet Deficient in Calcium and Phosphorus



A. Sheikhlar and S. Navid
 
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ABSTRACT

An investigation was carried out to assay the concentration of dietary 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [1, 25(OH)2D3] on growth parameters and bone characteristics includes bone ash, Tibial Dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence and plasma minerals in broiler quails. Diets comprised control diet (diet 1) with sub optimal levels of calcium (0.71%) and total phosphorus (0.37%) and diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 that contained control diet supplemented with 2.5, 4.5, 6.5 or 8.5 μg/Kg 1,25(OH)2D3. Dietary treatments had no effect (p>0.05) on the live weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Bone ash was increased significantly (p<0.05) by 6.5 μg/Kg 1, 25(OH)2D3 at 3 wk of age. Treatments effects were shown (p<0.05) on calcium of bone but there was no influence on bone’s phosphorus. The incidence and severity of TD were reduced pronouncedly (p<0.05) by 6.5 μg/Kg 1, 25(OH)2D3 at 3 wk of age. Plasma calcium improved significantly (p<0.05) however; plasma phosphorus did not show any differences (p>0.05) among experimental treatments. In conclusion, dietary level of 6.5 μg/Kg 1, 25(OH)2D3 showed positive effect on the reduction of TD in broiler quails at 3 wk of age.

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  How to cite this article:

A. Sheikhlar and S. Navid, 2009. Effect of Dietary 1, 25-Dihydroxycholecalciferol Concentration on Growth Performance and Bone Characteristics of Japanese Quail Fed Diet Deficient in Calcium and Phosphorus. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 8: 1517-1520.

DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2009.1517.1520

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2009.1517.1520

INTRODUCTION

Vitamin D metabolism in the bird’s body is a complex process involving many metabolites. Dietary Vitamins D2 and D3 are absorbed through the small intestine and are transported in the blood to the liver where they are converted into 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OHD), the major circulating form of Vitamin D3. 25-OHD is then transported to the kidneys where it is converted into 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) (1,25-OHD), that is the most biologically active, hormonal metabolite of the vitamin (McDonald and Edwards, 1995). Vitamins D3 also interact with calcium level in the feed. At low calcium levels, Vitamins D3 seems to be more effective in reducing TD incidence, than at sufficient calcium levels (Ledwaba and Roberson, 2003).

Several research have also been conducted to show that addition of dietary 1, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol in feed improves phytate P bioavailability and thereby decreases the incidence of rickets and Tibial Dyschondroplasia (TD) (Edwards, 1993; Roberson and Edwards, 1994). Also addition of the metabolite 1,25-OHD within the range 5-10 μg/kg feed has in many research been reported to alleviate the incidence and severity of TD and rickets and increase bone mineralization, both in diets adequate in calcium and cholecalciferol and at suboptimal levels of calcium and phosphorus in chickens (Roberson and Edwards, 1994; Rennie et al., 1995 and Elliot and Edwards, 1997).

Tibial Dyschondroplasia (TD) in birds are defined as a mass of opaque cartilage lesion occurring in tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus region. The cartilage lesion originates below the growth plate (physis), remains unvascularized and is the consequence of a failure of transitional (prehypertrophic) chondrocytes to hypertrophy fully (Hargest et al., 1985). The expression and severity of this abnormality are influenced by many factors such as environment (Veltmann and Jensen, 1980), genetics (Leach and Nesheim, 1965; Sheridan et al., 1978) and mycotoxins (Walser et al., 1980), but the etiology of the disease remains unclear. As mentioned above, studies on the evaluation of the effect of 1, 25(OH)2D3 on TD incidence have much known in chicken, however study in broiler quail is scanty. Therefore this research has conducted to evaluate the influence of 1,25(OH)2D3 on growth and TD prevalence of quails.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Present study was conducted in Poultry Unit of Negine Sabz Company, in Karaj, Iran. A total of 500 day-old unsexed broiler quail were kept in stainless steel starter battery brooders and randomly placed to 20 pens of 25 birds each. Four of the pens were assigned to each of five dietary treatments. The diets were based on corn and soybean meal. The dietary treatments included diet 1 with sub optimal levels of calcium (0.71%) and total phosphorus (0.37%) and diets 2, 3, 4 and 5 contained diet 1 supplemented with 2.5, 4.5, 6.5 or 8.5 μg/Kg 1,25(OH)2D3. All diets and water were provided for ad libitum consumption. The environmental temperature was initially 37oC and gradually reduced by 3oC per week to 28oC in week 3. The experiment was 21 days. The bird management was based on the guidelines of the Consortium Guide (1988).


Table 1:

Composition of experimental diet

1Mineral premix supplied/kg diet: Cu, < 15 mg; Fe, 70 mg; Zn, < 100 mg; Mn, 80 mg; Se, 0.15 mg ; Co, 0.50 mg; Pb, 50 ppm; Cd ,10 ppm; Hg,0.5 ppm; I < 20 mg.
2Vitamin premix supplied /kg diet : vitamin A, 15.00 MIU; vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), 2.50 MIU; vitamin E, 40 mg; vitamin B1 (thiamine), 3 mg , vitamin B2 (riboflavin), 6 mg ; vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), 4 mg; vitamin B12, 0.04 mg; vitamin PP (niacin), 30 mg; pantothenic acid, 16 mg; vitamin H (biotin), 0.12 mg; vitamin M (folic acid), 1 mg

Daily feed intake and weekly body weights were recorded throughout the experiment. Feed efficiency was determined from the body weight gain and feed intake data. At the end of experiment (21 d of age), blood samples were taken from 10 birds randomly selected from each replicate using heart puncture technique to measure Ca and P according to AOAC (1990); The plasma from heparinized blood samples was separated by centrifugation at 3,000 x g for 15 min at 4oC and digested with HNO3. Thereafter, Ca was measured at 422 nm by an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Z-5000 polarized Zeeman, Hitachi Instruments, Inc., USA) and P at 400 nm by a spectrophotometer (U-2001, Hitachi instruments, Inc., USA). At 21 d of age, 10 birds from each replicate were slaughtered to determine the incidence and severity of TD (Edwards and Veltmann, 1983) and tibia ash content (AOAC, 1990). Right tibia of those birds were freed of soft tissue and weighted. Thereafter bone samples dried at 100 C/4h and were defattened by soaking in petroleum ether for 48h. Then tibia ash was measured.

Statistical analysis: The experimental data were subjected to analysis of variance by the GLM procedure of SAS (SAS Institute, 1991) in a completely randomized design. Pen means were used as the experimental unit. Duncan's multiple range test (Duncan, 1995) was used to determine significance of differences among means at p<0.05.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Live weight gain and feed conversion ratio of broiler quails at 1, 2 or 3 wk of age are presented in Table 2. In the study, it has not seen any dietary treatment effects on live body weight and feed conversion ratio of quails over 3 wk of age. Our findings agree with the findings of some workers that reported supplement of 1, 25(OH)2D3 with 3 - 6μg/kg feed showed no negative effect on growth of chickens when diets contained low dietary calcium concentrations (Elliot et al., 1995; Rennie et al., 1995 and Roberson and Edwards, 1996) that mentioned 1, 25(OH)2D3 can reduce TD disease without any influence on performance parameters.

The concentration of plasma calcium, phosphorus and 1, 25(OH)2D3 were not influenced by treatments (Table 3). These results are similar with the reports of Kevin and Edwards (1996) that showed no effect of dietary 1, 25(OH)2D3 on calcium and phosphorus concentration of plasma in broiler chicks at 3 wk of age. Plasma 1, 25(OH)2D3 was unaffected in these studies as well despite the obvious effect dietary 1, 25(OH)2D3 had on the development of TD. The absence of a relationship between TD and plasma 1, 25(OH)2D3 has been shown before by some researchers (Newbery et al., 1988; Elliot and Edwards, 1992 ).


Table 2:

Effects of dietary treatments on live weight gain and feed conversion ratio of broiler quails over 3 wk of age

a,bMeans with different superscripts within the same row are different (p<0.05). S.E.M: pooled standard error of mean. P: possibility

Table 3:

Effects of dietary treatments on plasma 1, 25(OH)2D3, ,phosphorus and calcium in broiler quail at 21d

a,bMeans with different superscripts within the same row are different (p<0.05). S.E.M: pooled standard error of mean. P: possibility


Table 4:

Effects of dietary treatments on tibia ash, calcium, phosphorus and incidence and score of TD in broiler quail at 21d

a,bMeans with different superscripts within the same row are different (p<0.05). S.E.M: pooled standard error of mean. P: possibility

Additional 1, 25(OH)2D3 enhanced pronouncedly (P< 0.05) the bone ash of quails fed diet contained 6.5 μg/Kg 1, 25(OH)2D3. Calcium content of bone also increased (P<0.05) by dietary treatments however, no effect has seen in phosphorus content of bone by supplemental 1, 25(OH)2D3 . 1, 25(OH)2D3 significantly reduced (P<0.05) the incidence of TD and TD severity of birds at 3 wk of age (Table 3). Therefore the effective level of additional 1, 25(OH)2D3 to increase bone ash and reduce incidence and severity of TD at 3 wk of age was 6.5 μg/Kg in broiler quails. Same results were reported by Kevin and Edwards (1996) in broiler chicken that showed 6 μg/Kg could be an effective level of 1, 25(OH)2D3 to improve TD incidence and tibia ash percentage. It could be concluded from above that 6.5 μg/Kg of 1, 25(OH)2D3 in broiler quails reduces the TD prevalence over 3 wk of age.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work was supported by Negine Sabz Company, Company Limited in Karaj, Iran.

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