Existence of Vimentin and GFAP Protein Expressions as a result of 2-Methoxyethanol
Administration in Cerebral Cortex Tissue of Swiss Webster Mice (Mus musculus): An Immunohistochemical Analysis
One of the plastic-based materials widely used in the plastics
industry in various countries is ester phthalate. This compound will be oxidized
in the body into 2-methoxyethanol (2-ME). The effect of 2-ME on human health
and environment depends on the number, duration and the frequency of exposure.
Recently, the incidence of brain damage tends to increase. In the last decade,
it has been widely reported the negative effects of chemical pollutants to the
environment. The aim of this study were to know the existence of the expression
of Vimentin and GFAP proteins caused by 2-ME on the histological structure of
the cerebral cortex of mice fetal during the prenatal period on gestation day
14 (GD 14) and day 18 (GD 18). The 2-ME compound was injected intraperitoneally
with a dose of 7.5 mmol kg-1 of body weight at GD-10. The result
showed that there is a change in existence Vimentin protein in the cerebral
cortex fetal of treated mice at GD 14, which is very conspicuous. Meanwhile,
a change in existence of GFAP protein in cerebral cortex fetal of treated mice
at GD 14, have relatively no difference from controls and no impact on histological
structure changes of the cerebral corteks at GD 14. The change in existence
of Vimentin protein in the cerebral cortex fetal of treated mice at GD 14 have
an impact on histological structure of the cerebral cortex of mice treated at
GD 18. It is believed that the impact is due to the effects of 2-methoxyethanol.
to cite this article:
Yulia Irnidayanti , 2014. Existence of Vimentin and GFAP Protein Expressions as a result of 2-Methoxyethanol
Administration in Cerebral Cortex Tissue of Swiss Webster Mice (Mus musculus): An Immunohistochemical Analysis. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 17: 876-883.
Received: July 07, 2013;
Accepted: January 17, 2014;
Published: February 12, 2014
The compounds of 2-Methoxyethanol (2-ME) can be obtained from the oxidation
of phthalate esters, which is widely used as the basic material of plastic and
known as ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) (CICADS,
2002). This plastic compound is generally used for a variety of daily living
activities, such as household appliances, packing materials, bottles, food containers,
toys, water pipes and even used for health purpose as blood storage for transfusion.
People use plastics in their life every day, these chemicals are potentially
dangerous to their health. Although these chemicals may compromise peoples
health, they have been used in the largest industrial ranks (ATSDR,
In the body, phthalate esters can undergo oxidation. The oxidation result of
these compounds can be detected in the urine, particularly found in female urine
(Koch et al., 2004; Silva
et al., 2004). Because of that, therefore, the possibility of poisoning
and exposure to phthalate esters, most often found in women. Pregnant women,
fetus and newborn babies, are considered as the very sensitive groups to the
exposure of these compounds. Direct exposure of these compounds to a pregnant
woman will affect the embryonic microenvironment since the substance can be
passed through the placental barrier (Mose et al.,
Globally, approximately more than 18 million pounds of phthalate esters has
been used every year and the exposure of these compounds toxicity can
occur every day (Adibi et al., 2008), through
the respiratory air and skin (Dugard et al., 1984).
Phthalate ester is metabolized in the body and synthesized by the enzyme of
alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). One of the metabolites
of phthalate esters is methoxyethanol (2-ME), which will be metabolized to methoxyacetic
acid (MAA) are toxic and teratogenic compounds in rats and can cause physical
abnormalities, reproductive disorders and skeletal and hematopoietic disorders
(Brown et al., 1984; Miller
et al., 1982). The developmental disorder caused by the MAA is apparently
because of the content of fatty acid chains attached to the MAA. It is suspected
that this fatty acid chain causes a covalent bond modification on cell chromatin
proteins (Wade et al., 2008), which in turn
can inhibit histone deacetylase activity that cause changes in gene expression
(Henley et al., 2009).
Previous research has reported that the compounds of 2-ME are not only toxic
in rat but also in several mammalian species (Feuston et
al., 1990). People have been poisoned with 2-ME through penetration
into the skin and respiration tube (Dugard et al.,
1984). Exposure via medical equipments occurs only in a minority of the
population. Approximately 100,000 people were poisoned by 2-ME per year. Predictably,
they are women who are still fertile or able to produce offspring (Scott
et al., 1989).
The compound of 2-ME has been known of its potential to cause abnormalities,
such as exencephaly in mice fetus (Darmanto, 1998).
Dam of mice that had been given at a dose of 2-ME 12.5 mmol kg-1
b.wt. on gestation days 11, have an impact on fetal development disorder on
gestation days 18. Some disorders are anencephaly, thinning of the cerebral
cortex, cerebellar abnormalities in foliation pattern and also reduce levels
of total protein in the brains of fetal brain (Prihiyantoro
et al., 2004). The toxic effects of 2-ME is not just the result of
the secondary metabolites, MAA (Methoxyacetic acid), but the compound also has
a direct target on the bases of purine and pyrimidine. It can cause moieties
on the carbon of the purine and pyrimidine bases (Mebus
and Welsch, 1989). As a result, availability for purine and pyrimidine bases,
that required for the synthesis of protein, DNA and RNA, also decreased. Inhibition
on RNA or protein synthesis in certain cells can give impact on the increase
of the cell death (Ellis et al., 1991; Umansky,
1996). This condition affects the proliferation and differentiation of embryonic
cells which can cause structural abnormalities (Ruyani
et al., 2001). Since proteins have significant role in cellular development,
disorder of protein expression in early embryonic development can result in
developmental disorders. These disorders occur primarily due to the imbalance
between cell proliferation and cell death.
A study by Hildebrand and Soriano (1999) have shown
that the treatment with 2-ME can increase cell death in neuroepithelium. The
cell death occurs due to an imbalance in cell proliferation, that required for
neural tube closure. It certainly can inhibit neural tube closure. Therefore,
the 2-ME compound has the potential cause of the developmental abnormalities
in the brain. Brain is an essential organ for all body system coordination.
Therefore, the failure of brain development will result in disruption of almost
every function of the body.
The formation of the brain occurs in the early stage of development, although
the process may complete in the late stage of development or after the birth.
The development of brain involves many processes such as cell proliferation,
migration, interaction, adhesion, differentiation and morphogenesis (Gilbert,
2000). All the mechanisms are also involved in the formation of extracellular
matrix proteins. In the Central Nervous System (CNS), the extracellular protein
substance composed of proteins that secreted primarily by astroglial cells,
which is embedded in the substance of extracellular matrix (ECM). Vimentin and
Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein (GFAP), are extracellular proteins secreted
by the astroglial cells, that has a role as a substrate for the cells to migrate
and signaling in the brain development (Bruce et al.,
2008). The pattern of the protein expression are temporary and depends on
the tissue differentiation. The disruption of extracellular proteins in the
brain can cause an impaired mechanism of cell interaction by which disruption
of brain development process occurs. Additionally, the interference of protein
synthesis in astroglial cells can inhibit the process of neuroblast migration
and proliferation which, ultimately, also cause the abnormalities in brain development.
It has been reported that migration disorders, particularly Purkinje cell migration
can cause abnormal cerebral foliation patterns in mice (Darmanto,
1998, 2002). The abnormalities in migration are
resulted from a decreased expression of an extracellular protein called Reelin.
It is a type of extracellular proteins secreted by Cajal-Retzius cells located
in the marginal zone of the cerebral cortex of the brain (Dutta
et al., 2005). This protein is thought to function as a regulator
of cell positioning and to direct the migration of nerve cells in the brain
(Gotz et al., 1996). Apparently, Reelin is not
the only protein that plays a role in the process of brain development. It has
been recognized that brain development involves multiple processes and dynamic
changes, therefore, a various proteins are required. Several proteins have been
recognized to be involved in brain development including Fibronectin, Tenascin,
Vimentin, Ncam and Neurofilament (Duprey and Paulin, 1995;
Liu et al., 2004; Kolkova,
2008; Helfand et al., 2011).
Previously, researchs have reported that the mRNA levels of gene expression
of extracellular Fibronectin, Tenascin, Vimentin, Neurofilament and neural cell
adhesion molecules (Ncam) have been found on gestation days 10 (GD 10). Vimentin
is expressed very high compared to the others (Irnidayanti
et al., 2011). These data are supported by the result of previous
studies. The brains of embryonic mice treatment on gestation days 12 (GD 12)
have also showed a very high expression of mRNA level of Vimentin gene, but
lower expression of Vimentin protein (Irnidayanti et
al., 2010). After the recovery process, the cells undergo dedifferentiation
or start proliferating again. Following the process, Vimentin protein has been
expressed again in the cells undergoing the proliferation. It is believed that
2-ME inhibits the translation of Vimentin protein on gestation days 12 (GD 12)
as a cellular response to toxic materials. These responds are characterized
by higher levels of GFAP protein in the treatment group on gestation days 12
(GD 12) than in the control group and increased levels of absorption of Vimentin
protein on gestation days 12 (GD 12). It means that the interference occurred
at the stage of protein translation since the proteins have not been fully translated.
This is evidenced by the low absorption level of Vimentin expression in the
treatment fetal brain on gestation days 12 (GD 12), while the absorption level
of GFAP expression in the fetal brain on GD 12 is very high. After this period,
the expression of GFAP became lower again and Vimentin protein expression levels
in the treatment group increase on gestation days 17 (GD 17) and on gestation
days 18 (GD 18) (Irnidayanti et al., 2013).
Therefore, it is believed that extracellular proteins such as Vimentin plays
an important role in brain development, particularly in the process of neurongenesis.
In the early developmental stage of central nervous system, the extracellular
matrix of immature astrocytes is mainly composed of Vimentin. This protein can
be detected as early as GD 11 in radial fibers of the neural tube located in
the ventricular zone (Oudega and Marani, 1991). Then,
around birth, a switch from Vimentin to GFAP takes place. Vimentin is expressed
as an extracellular protein in the early development and is used as a marker
of glial cell differentiation. Vimentin plays a role in maintaining the integrity
of cell structure as well as cell shape and stability. Vimentin also plays a
role in replication, recombination and repair of DNA (Oudega
and Marani, 1991). Vimentin disappears and progressively replaced by GFAP
in differentiated astroglial cells that transiently co-express the two proteins.
GFAP functions in the formation of the structural framework of the cell and
the cell shape and organizes the organelles in the cytoplasm. A structural role
of the protein is as the cytoskeleton, which is responsible not only for the
movement inside the cell but also for the internal transport and cytoplasmic
organelles. Both GFAP and Vimentin are components of intermediate filaments
of astrocytes cells. Astrocytes are glial cells appear in the early development
of the brain and acts to guide the growth of nerve cells.
Based on the above background, the research aimed to know the existence of
expression of GFAP and Vimentin protein on the cortex cerebral layers caused
by methoxyethanol on gestation day 14 (GD 14) and GD 18 by Immunohistochemistry
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Experimental animals, material and sample collection: Female mice Mus
musculus (Swiss Webster) used in the experiment came from Animal House and
Toxicology Laboratories, University of Indonesia. Rearing the animals was done
in a room of temperature at 23-27°C with 83% humidity. Food and water were
given ad libitum. Ten to twelve weeks old female mice were mated with
a male (1:1) overnight. A vaginal plug detected in the next morning was defined
as day zero of gestation day (Rugh, 1968).
A liquid form of 2-ME (Product No.: 135-07762) produced by Wako Pure Chemical
Industries, Ltd., Japan, was diluted with sterilized distilled water. A single
dose of 7.5 mmol 2-ME kg-1 of body weight was administered by peritoneal
injection to the mice dams on GD 10. The control dams were injected only with
sterile distilled water with the same volume.
The mice dam on GD 14 and GD 18 were anaesthetized by chloroform and perfuse
with 1% saline solution dan 4% Paraformaldehyde (PFA). Embryo from each dams
was removed and put into a falcon tube containing buffer solution. Fetal brain
was isolated and fixated in 4% PFA solution overnight.
Paraffin method: Uterus was opened, embryo was removed and the fetal
brain was isolated under stereo microscope. Fetal brains were fixated in 4%
PFA solution for 4 days. Further dehydration in alcohol gradually increased
the concentration. Purification was done in a solution of alcohol-xilol and
xilol-pure. Paraffin infiltration was done in an oven at a temperature of 57-60°C.
Embedding the specimen was conducted in rectangular-metal containers containing
paraffin. Brain specimen were sliced by a rotary microtome, at 5 μm thickness
and then taped on the glass objects that have been poured by Mayer's albumen
and water. The slides were stretched and dried in an oven at temperature of
42°C. In order to remove the paraffin, the slides were immersed in a xilol
solution, hydrated in alcohol which concentration decreased gradually and then
washed by distilled water. Finally, the slides were stained by a solution of
Hematoxylin-Eosin (Conn et al., 1960).
Immunohistochemistry technique (manufactured protocols): All Sample
Slides are dropped 3% solution of peroxide and absolute methanol for 10 min,
drained and then washed with 0.01% Phosphate-buffered Saline (PBS) solution
of pH 7.2 for 2 min. Blocking was done by dropping with blocking solution 2
drops for 10 min. Blocking solution was used for blocking non-specific antigens
or proteins followed by dropping 2 drops of a monoclonal antibody, Vimentin
and GFAP (Clone ZCG29, Lot No. 750727A). Let stand for 60 min. After that, the
slide was soaked in a solution of 1 X PBS for 2 min and then drops 2 drops of
secondary antibodies and let stand for 10-15 min. Drain and soak the slides
in 1X PBS solution for 2 min and 2 drops of Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP)-Streptavidin
for 2 min. Prepare a mixture of H2O2 solution, 3,3'-diaminobenzidine
(DAB) and Buffer, are mixed each 1 drop into 1 mL aquadest, in a dark tube.
Drop mixed solution on the object slide and leave it on for 3-5 min. Wash with
sterile distilled water and stained with haematoxylin-Eosin. To obtain a blue
color, slide immersed in 1X PBS solution after it was washed by sterile distilled
water, dehydrated in increasing concentrations of alcohol. Slide was soaked
in a solution of xilol, then mounting and covered. When the colors were brown,
positive antigen and antibody reaction occured, that means, there are a protein
Vimentin and GFAP.
Normally, the histology structure of mice fetal brain, particularly the cerebral
cortex consists of VZ (ventricular zone), IZ (intermediate zone) and MZ (marginal
zone). The gestation days 14 (GD 14) is not different from the structure of
the cerebral cortex of mice fetal control on GD14. However, Immunohistochemistry
(IHC) assay results showed a difference between control and treated of the cerebral
cortex of mice fetal on GD 14. Result of Immunohistochemistry on the cerebral
cortex of mice fetal control at GD 14 was dark brown colored (Fig.
1a). The dark brown color indicates that the existence of the protein Vimentin
is relatively very much. In Fig. 1b, appears that the cerebral
cortex of mice fetal treated on GD 14 was colored light brown. The light brown
color indicates that the existence of the protein Vimentin is relatively fewer
in number. Result of Immunohistochemistry on the cerebral cortex of mice fetal
control on GD 18 was light of brown colored (Fig. 1c) and
similar to the cerebral cortex of mice fetal treated on GD 18 (Fig.
1d). However structure of the cerebral cortex of mice fetal treated on GD
18 (Fig. 1d) was different from structure of the cerebral
cortex of mice fetal treated on structure of the cerebral cortex of mice fetal
control on GD 18.
||(a) Immunohistochemistry of vimentin protein in the cerebral
cortex of mice fetal control at gestation days 14 (10x20), (b) In cerebral
cortex of mice fetal treated at gestation days 14, (c) In cerebral cortex
of mice fetal control at gestation days 18, (d) In cerebral cortex of mice
fetal treated at gestation days 18 (Dark brown color indicated vimentin
protein is showed a lot of protein vimentin and light brown color indicated
is slight vimentin protein
||(a) Immunohistochemistry of glial fibrillary acidic protein
(GFAP) in cerebral cortex of mice fetal control at gestation days 14 (10x20),
(b) In cerebral cortex of mice fetal treated at gestation days 14, (c) In
cerebral cortex of mice fetal control at gestation days 18, (d) In cerebral
cortex of mice fetal treated at gestation days 18 (Dark brown color indicated
vimentin protein is showed a lot of protein vimentin and light brown color
indicated is slight vimentin protein
It is believed that 2-methoxyethanol cause changes in the existence protein
Vimentin and thus will give an impact on the changes in the histological structure
of the cerebral cortex of mice fetal treated on GD 18.
The data is supported by the result of densitometry in previous studies (data
not shown). Total absorption level of the Vimentin protein on brain of mice
fetal control on gestation days 14 (GD 14) is 151.55. The existence of Vimentin
protein on brain of mice fetal on gestation days 14 (GD 14) have change after
administration of 2-ME, which is characterized by the decrease of light brown
colour on the cortex cerebral. The total absorption level of the Vimentin protein
on brain of mice fetal treated on gestation days 14 (GD-14) is 122.81 (Irnidayanti
et al., 2013).
Along with the process of brain development and increasing age, the existence
of Vimentin protein in the cerebral cortex of fetal mice is also changing. Previous
studies show that total absorption level of the Vimentin protein of mice fetal
treated on GD 18 was increasing from 133.00 become 163.83 (Irnidayanti
et al., 2013). On the advanced development of the brain, the protein
vimentin should be decreased, but after administration of 2-ME levels led to
an increase in the total absorption level of the Vimentin protein. Then, around
birth a switch from Vimentin to GFAP takes place.
Vimentin is expressed as extracellular protein in early development. The existence
of GFAP protein has associated with the existence of protein Vimentin. In Fig.
2b shows that result of Immunohistochemistry on GFAP protein of the cerebral
cortex of mice fetal treated at gestation days GD 14 (GD 14) has light of brown
colored than result of Immunohistochemistry on GFAP protein in the cerebral
cortex of mice fetal control on gestation days 14 (Fig. 2a).
It mean that the existence of GFAP protein on cerebral cortex tends to decrease
after administration 2-ME. However, the densitometry results showed an increase
total absorption level of the GFAP protein on brain of mice fetal control at
GD 14 from 133.50 become 163.58 on brain of mice fetal treated at GD 14. It
is possible that the increased GFAP protein is not only derived from the cerebral
Result of immunohistochemistry on GFAP protein of cerebral cortex of mice fetal
treated at gestation days 18 (Fig. 2d) was showed relatively
no difference to controls (Fig. 2c). This data is supported
by previous research that results of densitometry of GFAP protein total on mice
brains fetal treated at GD-18 and GD-18 are 95.14 become 91.80 (Irnidayanti
et al., 2013).
Histological structure of cerebral cortex on fetal of control mice at gestation
days 14 (GD-14) and cerebral cortex on fetal of treated mice at gestation days
14 (GD-14) did not indicate a difference. However, the histological structure
of the cerebral cortex on fetal of treated mice at gestation 18 (GD-18) shows
the difference compared with controls. It is estimated that changes in the histological
structure of cerebral cortex on fetal of treated mice at 18 days of gestation
due to 2-ME compound. This compound causes the interference of Vimentin gene
expression on levels of mRNA and Vimentin protein expression (Irnidayanti
et al., 2010), which of course leads to the disorder of corticogenesis
in the cerebral cortex and the existence of protein Vimentin in the cerebral
One stage in brain development is corticogenesis. During corticogenesis, the
proliferation of neuroephitelium cells occur in the ventricular zone of the
cerebral cortex and take on gestation days 11 to 17 (Takahashi
et al., 1995). Therefore, administration of 2-ME on pregnant mice
on gestation day 10 (GD 10), can disrupt the proliferation process of cells
neuroepitelium in the cerebral cortex. The proliferation disorders may be caused
by interference on expression of Vimentin protein, which is needed for the proliferation
of neuroepithelium. The compound 2-ME in the body is metabolized to MAA. MAA
as intermediate products can disrupt proteins of histon 1. The role proteins
of histon 1 as histones compact Stabilize (HSC). Proteins of histon 1 are a
protein associated with the higher chromatin structure, regulate gene expression
and are involved in chromatin-based processes such as DNA replication and repair
(Happel and Doenecke, 2009). Disorder on proteins of
histone 1 that caused by MAA administration led to chromatin architecture becomes
unstable and genetic disorders. The condition is a cellular response to toxic
materials, thus causing changes in the existence of protein expression.
These data are supported by previous studies that 2-ME inhibits translation
of Vimentin protein on gestation days 12 (Irnidayanti
et al., 2013). Gestation days 12 (GD 12) is the starting point of recovery
process. This is based on the assumption that astroglial cells are responsive
to the toxic substance 2-ME, which causes tissue damage. As a response, astroglial
cells are progressively transformed into reactive astrocytes. Changes in reactive
astrocytes may alter gene expression and cause cellular changes (Brahmachari
et al., 2006), which ultimately alter the protein translation process.
Based on the research before, the Vimentin expressed very high, but the function
of this protein can be occurred maximally, if its presence together with protein
GFAP, the timetable and its amount should be appropriate (Irnidayanti
et al., 2013). If the recovery process at the level of cells and
tissues have been occurred, but the situation can not improve the positioning
of cells that have occurred in the brain tissue, this situation certainly may
cause interference in all these mechanisms, thus disturbing formation of the
layers of the cerebral cortex. The process of cell positioning on the cortex
layers is affected by the existence and amount of GFAP and Vimentin protein
in a certain degree. Nevertheless, the amount of protein expression and the
existence of protein vimentin is very high, it is not enough to repair neuroephitellium
cells of the cerebral cortex through the process of proliferation mechanism.
A switch of the expression of Vimentin protein by protein GFAP occur around
birth, but in this study the existence of GFAP protein was detected gestation
days 14 (GD 14). In this study, the existence of expressed GFAP is not enough
to recover the process corticogenesis. Accuration of timetable of GFAP is extremely
needed for the recovery process. After this period, the expression of GFAP became
lower again and associated with the expression of Vimentin. After the recovery
process, all the cells undergo redifferentiation and start proliferating again.
The results of this study conclude that 2-methoxyethanol causes the changes
in the existence of Vimentin protein in the cerebral cortex of the fetal of
treated mice at GD 14. 2-methoxyethanol inhibits the translation of Vimentin
protein and give an impact on histological structure of the cerebral cortex
of treated mice at GD 18. The reduced existence of GFAP protein in the cerebral
cortex of treated mice on gestation day 14 (GD 14), believed to be a cellular
response to 2-methoxyethanol.
1: Adibi, J.J., R.M. Whyatt, P.L. Williams, A.M. Calafat and D. Camann et al., 2008. Characterization of phthalate exposure among pregnant women assessed by repeat air and urine samples. Environ. Health Perspect, 116: 467-473.
Direct Link |
2: ATSDR, 2001. Toxicological profile-Di-n-butyl phthalate. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Atlanta, GA., USA. http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/tp.asp?id=859&tid=167.
3: Brahmachari, S., Y.K. Fung and K. Pahan, 2006. Induction of glial fibrillary acidic protein expression in astrocytes by nitric oxide. J. Neurosci., 26: 4930-4939.
4: Brown, N.A., D. Holt and M. Webb, 1984. The teratogenicity of methoxyacetic acid in the rat. Toxicol. Lett., 22: 93-100.
5: Bruce, A., A. Johnson, J. Lewis, M. Raff, K. Robert and P. Walter, 2008. Molecular Biology of The Cell. 4th Edn., Garland Science, New York, USA.
6: Conn, H.J., M.A. Darrow and V.M. Emmel, 1960. Staining Procedure. The Williams and Walkins Company, Baltimore, USA., pp: 16-40.
7: CICADS, 2002. Diethylene glycol dimethyl ether: Concise international chemical assessment document 41. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.
8: Darmanto, W., 1998. Effect of 2-methoxyethanol to somite formation and axial bone abnormalities in mice. Proceedings of the 7th Scientific Meeting, (SM'98), Hiroshima, Japan, pp: 19-22.
9: Darmanto, W., 2002. Granulosa cell apoptosis in rat cerebellum caused by X-ray radiation: Detection of apoptosis with methods of TACS insitu apoptosis detection kit. J. Math. Sci., 7: 133-140.
10: Dugard, P.H., M. Walker, S.J. Mawdsley and R.C. Scott, 1984. Absorption of some glycol ethers through human skin in vitro. Environ. Health Perspect., 57: 193-197.
Direct Link |
11: Duprey, P. and D. Paulin, 1995. What can be learned from intermediate filament gene regulation in the mouse embryo. Int. J. Dev. Biol, 39: 443-457.
12: Dutta, S., S. Ghosh, P.K. Gangopadhyay and R. Usha, 2005. Role of reelin in the development of cerebral cortex. J. Cell Tissue Res., 2: 497-505.
13: Ellis, R.E., J. Yuan and H.R. Horvitz, 1991. Mechanisms and functions of cell death. Annul. Rev. Cell Biol., 7: 663-698.
14: Feuston, M.H., S.L. Kerstetter and P.D. Wilson, 1990. Teratogenicity of 2-methoxyethanol applied as a single dermal dose to rats. Toxicol. Sci., 15: 448-456.
15: Gilbert, S.F., 2000. Development Biology. 6th Edn., Sinauer Associates, Inc., Sunderland, MA., USA.
16: Gotz, B., A. Scholze, A. Clement, A. Joester and K. Schutte et al., 1996. Tenascin-C contains distinct adhesive, anti-adhesive and neurite outgrowth promoting sites for neurons. J. Cell Biol., 132: 681-699.
17: Happel, N. and D. Doenecke, 2009. Histone H1 and its isoforms: Contribution to chromatin structure and function. Gene, 431: 1-12.
18: Helfand, B.T., M.G. Mendez, S.N.P. Murthy, D.K. Shumaker and B. Grin et al., 2011. Vimentin organization modulates the formation of lamellipodia. Mol. Biol. Cell, 22: 1274-1289.
19: Henley, D.V., S. Mueller and K.S. Korach, 2009. The short-chain fatty acid methoxyacetic acid disrupts endogenous estrogen receptor-alpha-mediated signaling. Environ. Health Perspect., 117: 1702-1706.
20: Hildebrand, J.D. and P. Soriano, 1999. Shroom, a PDZ domain-containing actin-binding protein, is required for neural tube morphogenesis in mice. Cell, 99: 485-497.
21: Irnidayanti, Y., W. Darmanto and A. Abadi, 2011. Expression of gen extracellular matrix and cell adhesion molecule of brain embrio mice at GD-10 By real time RT-PCR. World Acad. Sci. Eng. Technol., 58: 705-708.
22: Irnidayanti, Y., W. Darmanto and A. Abadi, 2010. Ekspresi level gen mRNA protein ekstraseluler otak embrio mencit black-6 UK-12 akibat induksi 2-methoxyethanol: Analisis secara real time RT-PCR [Expression of level gen mRNA of extracellular protein embrio brain mice black-6 at GD-12 caused by induced 2-methoxy-ethanol: Analysis by real time RT-PCR]. Berkala Penelitian Hayati UNAIR, 15: 171-179, (In Indonesian).
Direct Link |
23: Irnidayanti, Y., W. Darmanto, A. Abadi, Y. Hattori and Y. Yamashiro, 2013. Differential expression of vimentin and GFAP protein during brain development of mouse fetuses after treated with 2-Methoxyethanol. ITB J. Sci., 44: 346-357.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
24: Koch, H.M., H.M. Bolt and J. Angerer, 2004. Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) metabolites in human urine and serum after a single oral dose of deuterium-labelled DEHP. Arch. Toxicol., 78: 123-130.
25: Kolkova, K., 2008. Biosynthesis of NCAM. Neurochem Res., 10.1007/s11064-008-9773-y
26: Liu, Q., F. Xie, S.L. Siedlak, A. Nunomura and K. Honda et al., 2004. Neurofilament proteins in neurodegenerative diseases. Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 61: 3057-3075.
27: Mebus, C.A. and F. Welsch, 1989. The possible role of one-carbon moieties in 2-methoxyethanol and 2-methoxyacetic acid-induced developmental toxicity. Toxicol. Applied Pharmacol., 99: 98-109.
PubMed | Direct Link |
28: Miller, R.R., R.E. Carreon, J.T. Young and M.J. McKenna, 1982. Toxicity of methoxyacetic acid in rats. Fundam Applied Toxicol., 2: 158-260.
PubMed | Direct Link |
29: Mose, T., G.K. Mortensen, M. Hedegaard and L.E. Knudsen, 2007. Phthalate monoesters in perfusate from a dual placenta perfusion system, the placenta tissue and umbilical cord blood. Reprod. Toxicol., 23: 83-91.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
30: Ruyani, A., S. Sudarwati, L.A. Sutasurya and S.H. Sumarsono, 2001. Changes in protein profiles fore limb bud of mice (Mus musculus) swiss webster due to to acid treatment methoxyacetic acid (MAA). Medika, 27: 363-367.
31: Oudega, M. and E. Marani, 1991. Expression of vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the developing rat spinal cord: An immunocytochemical study of the spinal cord glial system. J. Anatomy, 179: 97-114.
32: Prihiyantoro, E., W. Darmanto, I.B. Pidada and H. Soepriandono, 2004. Migration and development of nerve cells in mice cerebrum and cerebellum, Induction 2-methoxyethanol a result of, as a model of mechanism for brain disorders. Competitive Grant Research Report X/3.
33: Silva, M.J., J.A. Reidy, A.R. Herbert, J.L. Preau Jr, L.L. Needham and A.M. Calafat, 2004. Detection of phthalate metabolites in human amniotic fluid. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 72: 1226-1231.
34: Scott, W.J., R. Fradkin, W. Wittfoht and H. Nau, 1989. Teratologic potential of 2-methoxyethanol and transplacental distribution of its metabolite, 2-methoxyacetic acid, in non-human primates. Teratology, 39: 363-373.
35: Takahashi, T., R.S. Nowakowski and V.S. Caviness Jr., 1995. The cell cycle of the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium of the embryonic murine cerebral wall. J. Neurosci., 15: 6046-6057.
Direct Link |
36: Rugh, R., 1968. The Mouse, its Reproduction and Development. Burgess Publishing Co., Minneapolis, MN., pp: 45.
37: Umansky, S.R., 1996. Apoptosis: Molecular and cellular mechanisms: A review. Mol. Biol., 30: 285-295.
38: Wade, M.G., A. Kawata, A. Williams and C. Yauk, 2008. Methoxyacetic acid-induced spermatocyte death is associated with histone hyperacetylation in rats. Biol. Reprod., 78: 822-831.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |