Proximate and Elemental Analyses of Tinospora cordifolia Stem
Amit Kumar Verma,
Tinospora cordifolia also known as Giloy or Guduchi,
is an indigenous climber plant indigenous to tropical areas of India, Myanmar
and Sri Lanka. Its stem is used for treatment of fever, jaundice, emaciation,
skin ailments, diabetes, anaemia and various infectious diseases. The study
was undertaken to evaluate the proximate and elemental analysis of the stems
of Tinospora cordifolia. The proximate analyses were carried out using
standard methods, while mineral elements were analyzed using Atomic Absorption
Spectrophotometer, equipped with air acetylene flame. The proximate analysis
of the stems of Tinospora cordifolia showed that it contained moisture
34.39%, ether extract 0.912%, crude protein 7.74%, crude fibre 56.42%, total
ash 7.96%, nitrogen free extract 26.97%, cellulose 23.02% and hemicellulose
3.70%. The mineral analysis of the stems showed that they contain the following
essential minerals: Calcium (102.23 ppm), phosphorous (24.81 ppm), iron (26.058
ppm), copper (3.733 ppm), zinc (7.342 ppm) and manganese (12.242 ppm). The study
revealed that Tinospora cordifolia stems to be a potential source of
nutrition and minerals for man as well as animals.
Received: June 28, 2013;
Accepted: August 29, 2013;
Published: November 27, 2013
Medicinal plants are widely used in various industries like pharmaceuticals,
cosmetic, agricultural and food (Nasreen et al.,
2010; Nair et al., 2012; Mahima
et al., 2013a). Rigveda, which was written between 4500-1600 BC is
the first record of use of herbs or plants as medicine. India has a wide biodiversity
including the rich botanical wealth and considered as goldmine of herbal medicines
and popularly called as medicinal garden of the world (Archana
et al., 2011; Mahima et al., 2012;
Dhama et al., 2013). As an estimate, approximately
25,000 effective herbal preparations are used in traditional medicine by more
than 1.5 million traditional medicinal practitioners for preventive, promotional
and curative applications in India.
Tinospora cordifolia also known as Giloy or Guduchi, is an indigenous
climber shrub commonly found in various Asian countries including India, Sri
Lanka and Myanmar. Its stem has been used by traditional practitioners for various
therapeutic purposes like treating jaundice, emaciation, skin ailments, diabetes,
anaemia, dyspepsia, chronic diarrhoea and dysentery, urinary problems and various
infectious diseases (Sinha et al., 2004; Mahima
et al., 2012). It has excellent immunomodulatory properties thus
widely used for treatment of bacterial and viral infections (Mahima
et al., 2013b). Despite of its use in traditional and folk medicine,
the plant is not very much studied scientifically for its biological assessment.
Recently, there is much focus on herbal products especially in curative as well
as preventive measures. So, this has created interest to explore the biological
properties of Tinospora cordifolia in terms of its nutritional composition
and mineral content in stems of the plant by proximate and elemental analysis.
Despite of its wide therapeutic importance it is worthwhile to obtain its nutritional
composition and mineral content. Thus, the present study was conducted to assess
the various contents and their concentration in Tinospora cordifolia.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Plant materials: Fresh samples of stems from healthy plants (Fig.
1) were collected from Amroha, Moradabad and Mathura districts of Uttar
Pradesh, India and then identified and confirmed by a plant taxonomist.
|| Plant, its active principles and pattern of local use
|| Tinospora cordifolia plant
All the plants were packed in kraft paper and prepared a herbarium. The stems
were washed and air dried in the laboratory for two weeks and then grounded
with mixer grinder and sieved with a mesh of size 0.5 mm and stored in clean
air tight containers at room temperature till further use. The detail of plant
with respect to its common and local names, parts used, active principles and
status are given in Table 1.
Proximate analyses: Moisture, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract,
nitrogen free extract, total ash and acid insoluble ash contents of the stem
of Tinospora cordifolia were determined as per the standard methods described
by the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC,
1996). Fibre fractions viz., Nutrient Detergent Fibre (NDF), Acid Detergent
Fibre (ADF), Acid Detergent Lignin (ADL), hemicellulose and cellulose were determined
by the method given by Van Soest et al. (1991).
Moisture content: For determination of moisture content, hot air oven
method was used. The percentage of dry matter was measured using electronic
balances and moisture content was calculated as:
Ash content: To determine the ash content, oven method was used. Ten
grams of the sample were added to a preweighed crucible and weighed. Then, the
sample were placed in a muffle furnace at 550°C for 4 h, cooled in desiccators
and reweighed. The ash content was determined by using the following Equation:
Acid insoluble ash (AIA): AIA was estimated by dissolving inorganic
portion of total ash mainly represent sand and silica:
Fat content (ether extract): Soxhlet method was used to determine the
fat content. One hundred and fifty milliliters of petroleum ether was poured
over 5 g of plant extracts in an extraction thimble. The thimble was placed
in an extractor covering anti-bumping cotton, fixed the extractor to a preweighed
oil flask and placed in the soxhlet for 8 h after which the oil flask was dried
in an oven, cooled and reweighed. The fat content of each sample was calculated
by using the following Equation:
Protein content (CP): Crude protein content was determined using the
Kjeldahl method. Nitrogen content was calculated using the following Equation:
The crude protein content of sample was calculated by the following Equation:
Protein (%) = Nx6: 25 (protein factor specific to sample)
Crude fibre (CF): Crude fiber was determined using fat-free samples.
Crude fiber content was determined using the following Equation:
Nitrogen free extract (NFE): NFE was calculated by difference between
actual sample weight and sum of weight of moisture , EE, CP, CF and ash:
NFE (%) = 100-(CP+EE+CF+Total ash+Moisture)
Fibre fractions: For the determination of NDF, 1 g air dried sample
taken into a beaker of the refluxing apparatus and refluxed with neutral detergent
solution for 60 min then, filtered in preweighed sintered glass crucibles, dried
For the estimation of ADF, procedure was same as NDF but the solution used
was acid detergent solution. Hemicellulose content was calculated by difference
of NDF and ADF. ADF residue was treated with 72% H2SO4
and ashing of the residue determined the crude lignin (ADL):
Cellulose was calculated by the difference of ADF and ADL.
Mineral content: Mineral analysis was carried out after acid digestion
of 2 g of the grounded sample with 10 mL of a mixture of nitric acid, sulphuric
and perchloric acid (4:1:1 v/v) until a clear solution was obtained. The digest
was allowed to cool and then transferred into a 100 mL volumetric flask and
made up to mark with de-ionized water. The mineral elements like calcium, copper,
iron, zinc and manganese were analysed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer
(Perkin elmer) equipped with air-acetylene flame, while phosphorous was determined
by titremetric method (Chen et al., 1956).
Statistical analysis: The study was repeated three times and data obtained
were presented with their Mean±standard error using Microsoft excel software.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Data on proximate and mineral analyses of Tinospora cordifolia stem
were shown in Table 2 and 3, respectively.
The results revealed that Tinospora cordifolia possess low water content
(34.39%) in its stem. The stem contains high crude fibre which is 56.42%. Other
substances like protein (7.74%), ether extract (0.912%), total ash (7.96%) etc.,
are found to be in low concentration. Calcium is found at the highest level
(102.233 ppm), followed by iron (26.058 ppm) and phosphorous (24.816 ppm). Other
trace elements such as magnese (12.242 ppm), zinc (7.342 ppm) and copper (3.733
ppm) are available at a very low proportion.
|| Proximate analysis of Tinospora cordifolia stem
|All values are expressed on dry matter basis except moisture
|| Mineral analysis of Tinospora cordifolia stem
|Values are expressed as Mean±SE
Hussain et al. (2009) reported that Tinospora
cordifolia contains 13.32% crude protein, 23.30% fibre and 1.99% fat. However,
the iron concentration reported by these researchers is at par with our findings.
In recent years, there is an increasing interest for quality control in research
and production of medicinal plants particularly those of imported or raw materials
procured from traditional herbal producers (Nasreen et
al., 2010). Proximate and elemental analysis helps us in determining
the nutritive value of the medicinal plants. The crude protein composition of
a plant is of great value due to its nutritive values (Ajibade
and Fagbohun, 2010). Hussain et al. (2009)
also reported the high concentration of protein (13.32%) in this plant. The
elemental analysis revealed the presence of calcium, phosphorus, iron, manganese,
zinc and copper in significant quantities. This precludes that the Tinospora
cordifolia could be a rich source of nutrition for body building and boosting
the immune response. Calcium and Phosphorus are good for formation of bones
and teeth. They also help in production of energy by helping in breakdown of
carbohydrate, protein and fat, which is necessary for growth and maintenance
of tissues (Harbinger, 1994). Plant also contain significant
amount of iron, which plays pivotal role in erythropoiesis and oxygen transport.
Deficiency of iron may cause behavioural and biochemical changes in brain (De
Oliveira et al., 2001).
The variations in the proximate parameters in medicinal plants might be due
to the conditions on which the plant species are harvested along with other
environmental conditions parameters (Nordeide et al.,
1996; Kutbay and Ok, 2001). The present study supplements
the available information with respect to carrying out further research and
use of Tinospora cordifolia in ayurvedic system.
Recently, there is an increasing interest in use of herbal or plant products
for treatment and preventive purposes. Earlier medicinal plants were used by
indigenous and marginal communities for treating different diseases. The present
study is an effort to know the biological properties of plants by proximate
and mineral analysis. From this study, we observed that Tinospora cordifolia
contains important nutrients and minerals that are useful for human as well
as animal health. Furthermore, a thorough research would be helpful to further
investigate the anti-nutritive, enzymatic and molecular effect on human as well
as animal health of this plant.
The authors acknowledge their profound gratitude to Dean, College of Veterinary
Sciences and Animal Husbandry and Honble
Vice chancellor, Uttar Pradesh Pandit Deen Dayal Upadhayay Pashu Chikitsa Vigyan
Vishvidhyalaya Evum Go-Anusandhan Sansthan (DUVASU), Mathura, India; for providing
all the necessary support and facilities for conducting this study.
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