Physical Characteristic and Palatability of Biscuit Bio-supplement for Dairy Goat
Idat Galih Permana
Lia Christin Purba
The objective of this study was to apply the physical characteristic
and palatability of biscuit bio-supplement for dairy goat. This research was
conducted at Laboratory of Feed Industry, Faculty of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural
University, Indonesia and the palatability test was conducted on the dairy goat
farm at Leuwiliang, Bogor, Indonesia on March-July 2012. Twenty heads of dairy
goat were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments (four heads of goat/treatment).
Experimental design used Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The treatments
were biscuit bio-supplement composition i.e., R1 = biscuit bio-supplement of
Indigofera sp., R2 = biscuit bio-supplement of Sauropus androgynus
L. Merr leaf, R3 = biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L. leaf,
R4 = biscuit bio-supplement of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf and
Indigofera sp., R5 = biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L.
leaf and Indigofera sp. The variables measured were moisture, water activity,
water absorption, density and palatability of dairy goat. The results of this
research indicated that the treatments of biscuit bio-supplement gave significant
effect (p<0.05) on water content, water absorption, density and palatability,
but had not significant effect on water activity. Palatability of R1 was 76.38±7.92,
R2 was 23.81±6.08, R3 was 40.25±3.54, R4 was 29.56±4.77
and R5 was 95.63±7.36 g/head. Biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya
L. leaf and Indigofera sp., (R5) had the best value of palatability
for dairy goat and had the best crude protein (36.65%), also had lowest water
activity, highest density than the other biscuits.
Received: May 23, 2013;
Accepted: June 11, 2013;
Published: November 27, 2013
Dairy goat farming in Indonesia is an activity that has potential to be developed.
The goat milk has better quality than cow milk and fetches a higher price. The
problem often encountered in the dairy goat farm is low production. Usually,
milk production less than 2 L/head/day. The use of forage for goats requires
particular strategies in order to increase productivity (Ibrahim,
The major constraints of ruminant feed are as follows: low quality of forage;
the level of palatability and digestibility is low. Therefore, it is necessary
to develop suitable technologies to produce ruminant feed which is more durable,
easier to handle, more convenient to distribute and available in all seasons.
Biscuit is a dry product that is relatively long-lasting under normal storage
conditions and easy to handle (Whiteley, 1971). Technology
has an important role in feeding livestock. Biscuit is a dry product that has
a relatively high power durable so it can be stored for a long time and easy
to carry while traveling because of the volume and weight of the drying process.
Biscuits bio-supplement feed is made of fiber, especially fresh green forage
as a replacement for ruminants in order to utilize the fiber when the quality
and quantity of forage decreased.
This study aimed to compare the quality of the physical properties of feed
bio-supplement biscuits, level of digestibility and palatability of the feed
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The research was conducted at Laboratory of Feed Industry, Faculty of Animal
Science, Bogor Agricultural University and the palatability test conducted on
the dairy goat farm at Leuwiliang, Bogor, Indonesia, on March-July 2012. Twenty
heads of thin tail dairy goats were used in this experiment. This research used
female dairy goats 2 years old with the average body weight round were 36±2.30
|| Diagram process of biscuit bio-supplement production
|| Nutrient composition of biscuit bio-supplement (% dry matter)
|R1: Biscuit feed biosupplement Indigofera sp.,
R2: Biscuit feed biosupplement Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf R3:
Biscuit feed biosupplement Carica papaya L. leaf; R4: Biscuit
feed biosupplement Sauropus androgynus L. leaf and Indigofera
sp., R5: Biscuit feed biosupplement Carica papaya L. leaf and Indigofera
The animals were randomly assigned to five dietary treatments (four heads of
goat/treatment). Dry matter and crude protein content of feed can be seen in
Diagram process of biscuit production: Figure 1 showed
that a diagram process of biscuit bio-supplement production from raw material
i.e., Indigofera sp., Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf and Carica
papaya L. leaf processed by grinding, mixing, pressing and heating with
temperature 100°C for 5 min to form biscuit feed bio-supplement and than
cooling in room temperature.
Experimental design: The experimental design used in this research was
Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with five treatments and four replications.
The treatments were biscuit composition, i.e:
||R1 = Biscuit bio-supplement of Indigofera sp.,
||R2 = Biscuit bio-supplement of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr
||R3 = Biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L.
||R4 = Biscuit bio-supplement of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr and
||R5 = Biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L. and Indigofera
Biscuits bio-supplement variables measured were water content (AOAC,
2005), water activity (AW meters instruction), water absorption (Trisyulianti
et al., 2003) and palatability test (Kaitho et
Palatability test was done by modification of the Kaithos method (Kaitho
et al., 1997). Adaptions periods was done for 5 days and palatability
of test for 2 days. Feeding of biscuit bio-supplement was done at 6 a.m. 12
p.m. The Palatability level was detectable by counting the difference between
total feed that has been given with the rest of the feed that consumed by dairy
Mathematical model: Mathematical model of this design is:
Yij = μ+αi+ε1j
||Observations treatment to-i and replications to-j
|| The average value of the observations
|| Effect treatment to-i
|| Effect error treatment to-i and replications to-j
|| Treatment given (1,2,3,4,5,6)
|| Replications of each treatment (1,2,3)
The data was analysed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The differences among
treatments were examined with Duncan test (Steel and Torrie,
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Biscuit bio-supplement generally had brownish green colour with fragrant aroma
so that is liked by dairy goat and had coarse of particle size (4.16-4.80 mm).
The general condition of biscuit bio-supplement can be seen of Table
2. The brown color due to browning reactions in non enzimatis reaction between
the reducing sugars or maillard reaction occurs (Adawyah,
2007; Winarno, 1992).
Physical characteristics of biscuit biosupplement
Water content: Wafer content of is one important factor in determining the
quality of the material. The results of analysis of variance showed that on
water content was significant differences (p<0.05). Physical characteristic
of water content values derived in this study range between 7.83-11.55% (Table
3). The results is in accordance with Syarief and Halid
(1993) the activity of microorganisms and enzymes can be suppressed at 12-14%
of water content, so the material is not easy to mold and rot. Water content
of biscuit bio-supplement was lower than water content of vegetable waste wafer.
Water content of vegetable waste wafer around 9.42-13.39% (Retnani
et al., 2010).
Water activity: The measurement of water activity is needed to determine
the minimum limits of microorganisms that can grow to be supported by water
content. The value of water activity is known by reading the amount of free
water contained in the biscuit of field grass and corn crop waste in the Aw-meter
instrument. The results of analysis of variance showed that the water activity
was not significant differences (p>0.05). Physical characteristic of water
activity values derived in this study range between 0.78-0.90 (Table
3). It means that microbes can grow in biscuit of field grass and corn crop
waste during this study. According to Syarief and Halid (1993),
microbes can only grow in the range of water activity of 0.70 is considered
good enough and hold it for storage. Water activity determines the safety of
products consumed since Aw is an intrinsic factor or factors originating from
within its own biscuit products thereby affecting the growth of microbes (Herawati,
Density: Density is a measure of compactness of particles in sheets.
Density highly dependent on the density of the raw materials used and the amount
of pressure given during process.
|| General condition of biscuit bio-supplement
|R1: Biscuit feed biosupplement Indigofera sp., R2:
Biscuit feed biosupplement Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf, R3:
Biscuit feed biosupplement Carica papaya L. leaf, R4: Biscuit feed
biosupplement Sauropus androgynus L. leaf and Indigofera sp.,
R5: Biscuit feed biosupplement Carica papaya L. leaf and Indigofera
|| Physical characteristics of biscuit bio-supplement
|Values with different letters are significantly different
at p<0.05 using Duncan test
The results of analysis of variance showed that density was significant differences
(p<0.05). Physical characteristic of density values derived in this study
range between 0.64-0.78% (Table 3). Biscuit bio-supplement
of Carica papaya L. leaf and Indigofera sp. (R5) had high density
compared with the other biscuits, so performance of R5 biscuit more hard texture
and thicker. Biscuit bio-supplement had low density thinner, softer texture
and more cavities. Density was affected by raw material and pressure given during
the process. This makes them easier to handle during transportation and more
durable in storage (Trisyulianti et al., 2003).
Water absorption: Water absorption is the ability of materials to absorb
water from the air to bond with materials particle (Jayusmar
et al., 2002). The water absorption is a variable that indicates
the amount of water surrounding the ability of attractive feed to bind to the
material particles or pores between particles suspended in the material (Trisyulianti
et al., 2001). The results of analysis of variance showed that water
absorption was significant differences (p<0.05). Physical characteristic
of water absorption values derived in this study range between 60.45-68.93%
(Table 3). The highest water absorption was found in biscuit
bio-supplement of Carica papaya L. leaf (R3). The lowest water absorption
was found in bio-supplement of Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf and
Indigofera sp. (R4). It means that biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya
L. leaf can absorb water more than the other biscuits. Hopefully, this biscuit
can be digested in rumen easily.
Palatability: Palatability describe feed characteristics by organoleptic
such as appearance, smell, taste (sour, salty, sweet, bitter), texture and temperature,
giving rise to stimuli and the attractiveness of animal to consume (Yusmadi
and Ridla, 2008).
|| Palatability of biscuit bio-supplement
|Values with different letters are significantly different
at p<0.05 using Duncan test
Goat has a nature to select feed than other animal, i.e., cow and sheep. Biscuit
biosupplement of Carica papaya L. leaf and indigofera sp. (R5)
more palatable to dairy goat. Carica papaya L. leaf has bitter taste,
so it can increase desire eat and indigofera sp., has good smell, so
dairy goat like to eat. Sauropus androgynus L. Merr leaf has texture
more coarse than other biscuits (Table 2).
The results of this research indicated that the treatments of biscuit bio-supplement
made gave significant effect (p<0.05) on palatability. Palatability of R1
was 76.38±7.92, R2 was 23.81±6.08, R3 was 40.25±3.54, R4
was 29.56±4.77 and R5 was 95.63±7.36 g/head/day. Biscuit bio-supplement
of Carica papaya L. leaf and Indigofera sp., had the best value
of palatability for dairy goat (Table 4). Palatability of
Carica papaya L. leaf and Indigofera sp., was higher compared
with palatability of field grass biscuit in the other research was 74,68 g/head/day
(Retnani et al., 2009). Feed has the important
role in production and reproduction of dairy goat (Walkden-Brown
et al., 1994). This means that the higher palatability will be able
to produce high milk production. Qualitative test showed that Sauropus androgynus
L. Merr, Carica papaya L. leaf and Indigofera sp., content
saponin, alkaloids, tannin, phenolic, flavonoids, triterfenoid, steroid and
glycosides. Widjastuti (2009) said that leaf of Carica
papaya L. is medicinal plant because contain alkaloid compounds and proteolytic
enzymes, i.e., papain, khimopapain and lysozyme, which are useful in the process
of digestion, especially digestion of gut. According to Kiha
et al. (2012), kimopapain enzyme, papain and lipase can help break
down the bond complex, thereby increasing digestibility and nutrient utilization
efficiency ration. According to Tietze (2002), a proteolytic
enzyme papain has the ability to break down protein and convert its portion
into arginine, because arginine in its original form can influence the production
of human growth hormone produced in the pituitary gland.
It was concluded that biscuit bio-supplement of Carica papaya L. leaf
and indigofera sp., had content highest amount of crude protein and also
has the lowest water activity, contains the highest level of palatability for
dairy goats, among other biscuits.
I would like to thanks to Department of Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty
of Animal Science, Bogor Agricultural University and Directorate General of
Higher Education (DGHE), Ministry of Education Republic of Indonesia for funding
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