Yield Loss Assessment Due to Alternaria Blight and its Management in Linseed
Field experiments were conducted during 2010-11 and 2011-12 to assess the yield losses due to Alternaria blight disease caused by Alternaria lini and A. linicola in recently released cultivars and their management with the integration of Trichoderma viride, fungicides and plant extract. Disease severity on leaves varied from 41.07 % (Parvati) to 65.01% (Chambal) while bud damage per cent ranged between 23.56% (Shekhar) to 46.12% (T-397), respectively in different cultivars. Maximum yield loss of 58.44% was recorded in cultivar Neelum followed by Parvati (55.56%), Meera (55.56%) and Chambal (51.72%), respectively while minimum loss was recorded in Kiran (19.99%) and Jeevan (22.22%). Minimum mean disease severity (19.47%) with maximum disease control (69.74%) was recorded with the treatment: seed treatment (ST) with vitavax power (2 g kg-1 seed) + 2 foliar sprays (FS) of Saaf (a mixture of carbendazim+mancozeb) 0.2% followed by ST with Trichoderma viride (4g kg-1 seed) + 2 FS of Saaf (0.2%). Minimum bud damage (13.75%) with maximum control (60.94%) was recorded with treatment of ST with vitavax power+2 FS of propiconazole (0.2%). Maximum mean seed yield (1440 kg ha-1) with maximum net return (Rs. 15352/ha) and benefit cost ratio (1:11.04) was obtained with treatment ST with vitavax power + 2 FS of Neem leaf extract followed by treatment ST with vitavax power+2 FS of Saaf (1378 kg ha-1).
Received: March 08, 2013;
Accepted: March 19, 2013;
Published: November 26, 2013
Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L.) is a multipurpose crop and is grown
in India mainly for oil, whereas in western countries, it is grown especially
for fibre. There are different varieties of linseed meant for both purposes.
This crop has many industrial and medicinal values in addition to its direct
food value. It is one of the most important oilseed crops of temperate and subtropical
region of the world. India ranks second in area (437 lac hectares) and fourth
in production (1.68 lac tonnes) after Canada, China and U.S.A. with average
productivity of 449 kg ha-1 (Srivastava, 2010)
which was found less than average productivity of Asia (575 kg ha-1)
and world (867 kg ha-1) (Anonymous, 2010).
Besides, deferent causes of low productivity in this crop, diseases play a vital
role in lowering in yield. Alternaria blight caused by Alternaria lini
Dey and A. linicola Grooves and Skolko, is a major biotic stress limiting
crop yield in hot and humid environment (Singh and Singh
2004a, 2005). Only few resistance genotypes
are available at national lable against this diseases. (Singh
et al., 2006, Singh et al., 2009).
Extensive studies on different aspect of this disease have been taken time to
time by earlier workers (Singh and Singh 2004a, 2005,
2007; Singh et al., 2009).
Since the disease attacks both the assimilative and reproductive parts of the
plants, therefore, resulting in high yield loss (Chauhan
and Srivastava, 1975; Singh et al., 2003a).
Yield losses due to this disease in recently released cultivars are not known
and no effort has been made to integrate the plant product, biocontrol agents
with fungicides for the effective management of this disease. Hence, the present
study was undertaken to assess the yield losses due to blight in linseed cultivars
caused by Alternaria lini and A. linicola and its management by
integrated application of bioagent, plant product and fungicides.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Field experiments were conducted at University Experiment Station at Kumarganj
(26°47N, 82°12E, 113 m above sea level), Faizabad, Uttar
Pradesh following recommended practices during 2010-11 and 2011-12 crop season.
Experiment for yield loss assessment was conducted under split-plot design in
three replications by using 16 cultivars (varieties) namely, Type-397 (T-397),
Neela, Jeevan, Parvati, Garima, Meera, Chambal, Sweta, Nagarkot, Shekhar, Surabhi,
Sheela, Rashmi, Padmini, Kiran and Neelum. The plot size was 3x2 m and seeds
were sown in first week of November during testing years under protected and
unprotected conditions. Half of the seeds of each cultivar were treated with
Topsin M at 2 g kg-1 seed separately before sowing. The treated seeds
were sown only in protected plots. In unprotected plots untreated seeds of each
cultivar were sown. The required amount of spray fungicide (mancozeb 0.25%)
was dissolved in small amount of water, the volume was made up to desired level
and sprayed in protected plots using high volume Knap-Sack sprayer of 10 L capacity.
Three sprays were given in protected plots starting from first appearance of
disease and subsequently at 15 days intervals. The unprotected plots were sprayed
with water only. The disease severity on leaves of protected and unprotected
plots were recorded after last spray by using 0-5 scale (Conn
et al., 1990) and per cent disease severity (PDI) was calculated
using formula, PDI = [Sum of numerical rating/total number of observations taken
x maximum disease score] x 100. Per cent bud damage and seed yield (kg ha-1)
were also recorded. Avoidable yield loss (AYL) due to disease using 1000 seed
weight (Test weight) and yield data was calculated as: AYL = [(Yp-Yu)/Yp]x100,
where Yp = Yield under protected and Yu = Yield under unprotected condition.
Another experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of Tricoderma
viride (4g kg-1 seed) and Vitavax power (2 g kg-1
seed) as seed dresser alone and in combination with two foliar sprays of Neem
leaf extract (NLE) (5% w/v), mancozeb (0.25%), propiconazole (0.2%) and Saaf
(mixture of carbendazim + mancozeb) (0.2%) for the management of Alternaria
blight of linseed and compare these with recommended practice (seed treatment
with thiram 3 g kg-1 seed + 2 foliar sprays of mamcozeb 0.25% for
comparative economics. Tricoderma viride ND strain (4 g kg-1
seed) was mixed with seed and soaked with small amount of water, so that biocontrol
agent gets adhered to the surface of seed. The Tricoderma coated seeds
was incubated for 24 h at 25°C to facilitate the germination of spores.
The incubated seeds were dried under shade for 2 to 3 h before sowing. Vitavax
power (2 g kg-1 seed) was also mixed with seed before sowing. Aqueous
Neem leaf extract (5% w/v) was prepared by mixing 50 g leaves with one
liter sterile water in warring blender. Extracts was filtered through double
layered muslin cloth. Two foliar sprays were given, first after 30 days of sowing
as prophylactic and second at disease initiation. Trial was planted in randomized
block design having twelve treatments with three replications. The experimental
field was fertilized with 60 kg N, 40 kg P and 20 kg K per hectare and sowing
was done in first week of November during both the years. The crop was irrigated
twice first at 35 days after sowing and second at capsule formation. Disease
severity as per cent disease intensity on leaves, per cent bud damage, 1000
seed weight (g) and seed yield (kg ha-1) in each treatment were recorded.
Per cent disease control (PDC) was recorded as per formula: PDC = (DC-DT/DC)x100,
where DC = Disease in control (untreated) plot, DT= Disease in treated plot.
Market price of linseed was considered for calculation of economics based on
average of two years (2010-11 and 2011-12). For spraying one hectare area 3
man days were considered for fungicide spray, 6 man days for Neem leaf
extract and half man days for seed treatment. Charges of labour, sprayer and
seed dressing drum were taken into account to compute incremental net benefit-cost
ratio. Additional net return and benefit cost ratio were calculated using seed
yield for individual treatments following formula given below:
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Yield loss assessment: A perusal of the Table 1 indicate
that disease severity (PDI) on leaves varied from 41.07 (Parvati) to 65.01%
(Chambal), while bud damage (%) ranged from 23.56% (Shekhar) to 46.12% (T-397),
respectively in different cultivars under unprotected (natural) condition. Maximum
disease severity on leaves was noted in cultivar Chambal followed by Neela and
T-397 while maximum bud damage was recorded in cultivar T-397 followed by Neela
and Chambal, respectively but these were at par. Other cultivars showed more
or less similar reactions to the disease on leaves while minimum bud damage
was recorded in Padmini (19.45%) followed by Shekhar (23.56%), Nagarkot (23.67%)
and Sheela (24.71%), respectively. Later were also found at par among themselves.
Significantly less disease severity on leaves and buds were recorded in protected
plots in comparison to unprotected condition irrespective of cultivars. Per
cent disease control on leaves and buds varied from 22.90 to 57.39% and 32.17
to 65.24%, respectively. Per cent disease control indicates the susceptibility
of the cultivars. Maximum disease control was recorded in susceptible cultivars
(T-397, Neela, Chambal) while in tolerant cultivars (Sheela, Shekhar, Jeevan,
Padmini and Kiran) disease control was less.
Losses in the test weight (1000 seed weight) were avoided from 0.98 to 7.15%
in different cultivars due to protection. Maximum avoidable loss in test weight
was recorded in Chambal (7.15%) followed by Kiran (5.19%) and Neela (4.88%)
while minimum in Shekhar (0.98%) followed by T-397 (1.01%) and Surabhi (2.02%),
||Alternaria blight severity on leaves and capsules under protected
and unprotected conditions in different varieties (Pooled data of 2010-11
||Test weight, seed yield under protected and unprotected condition
and available yield loss in different cultivars of linseed due to Alternaria
blight (Pooled data of 2010-11 and 2011-12)
|AYL: Avoidable yield loss
Protection significantly increased seed yield (kg ha-1) as compared
to unprotected condition in each cultivar. Maximum seed yield (1771.43 kg ha-1)
was recorded in Shekhar under protected condition and minimum (609.52 kg ha-1)
in Parvati, Garima, Meera, Surabhi and Neelum under unprotected condition. Yield
losses in different cultivars ranged between 19.99% to 58.44%. Maximum yield
loss was recorded in Neelum (58.44%) followed by Parvati (55.56%), Meera (55.56%)
and Chambal (51.72%) while minimum loss was recorded in cultivar Kiran (19.99%)
followed by Jeevan (22.22%), Padmini (22.67%) and Sheela (32.47%), respectively
(Table 2). Chauhan and Srivastava (1975)
recorded 16.10 to 58.47% blight intensity with 16.10 to 58.47% yield loss in
cultivar Heera and reported losses in yield were approximately equal
to percentage of incidence of disease. The present findings support this view.
Singh et al. (2003b) assessed the losses in
yield due to disease in 6 genotypes of linseed including cultivars Neelum, Garima
and Chambal and recorded 18.2 to 35.80% losses. Several workers have also reported
losses in yield due to Alternaria species in different crops (Kolte,
1982; Suhag et al., 1983). Cultivars Kiran,
Jeevan, Padmini, Sheela and Shekhar showed tolerant reaction to the disease
with less loss in yield, hence can be recommended for successful cultivation
in blight prone areas.
Integrated management: The effort has been made to integrate plant product
and bioagent as ecofriendly component along with fungicides for effective management
of this disease in linseed. Perusal of the Table 3 indicates
all the treatments significantly reduced the severity of disease on leaves as
compared to untreated check. Minimum mean disease severity (19.47%) with maximum
disease control (69.74%) was recorded with treatment T8 i.e. seed
treatment (ST) with vitavax power (2g kg-1 seed) + 2 foliar sprays
(FS) of Saaf (a mixture of carbendazim + mancozeb) (0.2%) followed by
treatment T6 (ST with Trichoderma viride 4 g kg-1
seed + 2 FS of Saaf 0.2%) and T9 (ST with Vitavax power 2
g kg-1 seed + 2FS of Propiconazole 0.2%), respectively. The former
was significantly superior to other treatments during first year but was at
par during second year while latter were at par among themselves and were also
at par with treatments T4, T7, T10 and T11.
All the treatments also significantly reduced the bud damage as compared to
untreated check except T1 and T2 (ST only either with
vitavax power or T. viride). Minimum bud damage (13.75%) with maximum
control (60.94%) was recorded with treatment T9 (ST with vitavax
power+2 FS of propiconazole), T8 (ST with vitavax power+2FS of Saaf)
T6 (ST with T. viride+2FS of Saaf), respectively but
all these treatments were at par. Maximum average disease severity of 64.34%
and bud damage of 35.20% was recorded, respectively in control (untreated) plots.
Percent yield increase on mean basis ranged between 7.97% to 49.74%. Maximum
mean seed yield of 1440 kg ha-1 was recorded with treatment T7
(ST with vitavax power+2 FS of NLE) followed by T8 (ST with vitavax
power+2 FS of Saaf) and T9 (ST with vitavax power + 2 FS of
propiconazole) but all were at par. Most of the treatments were found at par
among themselves in respect of enhanced yield during both the years of testing
(Table 4). As regard the test weight no significant difference
was recorded among different treatments, while treatment T1 (ST with
T. viride) and T11 (recommended practices) had significantly
higher test weight than check during 2010-11. During 2011-12 all the treatments
significantly increase the test weight over check. Maximum net return of Rs.
15352/ha with benefit cost ratio of 11.04 was recorded with treatment T7
(ST with vitavax power+2 FS of NLE 5% w/v) followed by T3 (ST with
T. viride +2 FS of NLE) and T8 (ST with vitavax power+2 FS
of Saff) (Table 5).
Among seed dressers vitavax power (2 g kg-1 seed) was found significantly
superior over T. viride (4 g kg-1 seed) in reducing disease
severity on leaves. Effectiveness of vitavax was also recorded in seed born
diseases of wheat earlier (Srivastava et al., 1997;
Srivastava and Yadav, 2006; Sharma
et al., 2007a, b). Foliar sprays of Saaf
(mixture of carbendazim + mancozeb) were found most effective in combination
with vitavax power as seed dresser followed by propiconazole and recommended
practice (ST with thrim 3g kg-1 seed + 2 FS of mancozeb 0.25%). Thus,
the study has been able to identify Saaf, a combination fungicide, for
the management of Alternaria blight of linseed more effectively and cheaply
than mancozeb, the best option available for the purpose so far (Singh
and Singh 2004a, b) Carbendazim the
other constituent of Saaf is also known to manage the Alternaria blight
of linseed to some extent (Singh et al., 2001;
Khan et al., 2004). Combination of carbendazim
and mancozeb appears to have synergistic effect in managing the disease as noted
in case of leaf spot of groundnut (Singh et al.,
|| Effect of treatments on blight severity and bud damage in
|| Effect of treatments on test weight (1000 seed weight) and
seed yield of linseed
|T1: Seed treatment (ST) with Trichoderma viride
(Tv) (4g kg-1 seed), T2: ST with Vitavax power (Vp)
(2g kg-1 seed), T3: ST Tv + Foliar sprays (FS) of
Neem leaf extract (NLE) (5% W/V), T4: ST Tv + FS of propiconazole
(0.20%), T5: ST Tv + FS of mancozeb (0.25%), T6: ST
Tv + FS of Saaf (0.20%), T7: ST Vp + FS of NLE (5% W/V),
T8: ST Vp + FS of Saaf (0.20% ), T9: ST Vp
+ FS of propiconazole (0.20%), T10 = ST Vp + FS of mancozeb (0.25%),
T11: Recommended practice (ST with thiram 3g kg-1
seed) + FS of mancozeb (0.25%), T12: Untreated (check)
|| Economics of treatments for the management of Alternaria
blight of linseed (Pooled data of 2010 and 2011-12)
|ST: Seed treatment; FS: Foliar spray; NLE: Neem leaf extracts,
cost of protection: Efficacy of sprayer, 1 ha/day, rent for sprayer, Rs.
30/day; rent for seed dressing drum, Rs. 5/ha; labour charges, Rs. 100/day;
cost of fungicides, mancozeb, Rs. 370/kg; propiconazole, Rs. 1210/kg; Saaf,
Rs. 550/kg; vitavax power, Rs. 1410/kg; thriam, Rs. 195/kg; Trichoderma
viride, Rs. 200/kg; Sale price of linseed, Rs. 3500/tonne
Concurrent with present findings (Singh et al.,
2009) have also reported fungicide Companion (a mixture of carbendazim
and mancozeb) as most effective and economical for management of this disease
in linseed in comparison to mancozeb alone. Propiconazole too, manage this disease
efficaciously but less economically. This fungicide is new for linseed, have
been reported effective in managing leaf blight disease elsewhere (Biswas
and Singh, 2005; Kumar et al., 2009).
Neem leaf extracts (NLE) (5% w/v) sprays were also found significantly
effective in controlling the disease severity and enhancing the seed yield with
maximum net return. Effectiveness of NLE and other Neem products were
reported against Alternaria species causing leaf blight in different
crops in vitro condition (Babu et al., 2001;
Pandey et al., 2002; Singh
et al., 2003a). In present findings seed treatment with vitvax power
followed by 2 foliar sprays of Neem leaf extracts provided highest yield
than other treatments. This may be due to synergic effect of fungicides and
botanicals and can be recommended for the economic and eco-friendly management
of Alternaria blight in linseed.
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