Seaweed Composition from Bintulu Coast of Sarawak, Malaysia
Mohd Hafizbillah Zawawi,
Mohd Hanafi Idris,
Abu Hena Mustafa Kamal
Wong Sing King
Species composition of seaweed and distribution were investigated in the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak. The seaweed samples were collected during low tide between May 2011 and May 2012 from the six different stations. In total 54 species of seaweeds were identified from study areas of Bintulu coastal waters. Among them, 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families and 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families. Seventeen species of seaweeds were recorded from the Tanjung Batu, while 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Seaweeds abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and 23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweeds in this coastal areas. Present study recorded high diversified seaweed species at the rocky shore area compare to reef area.
Received: November 01, 2013;
Accepted: January 23, 2014;
Published: March 29, 2014
Marine macro algae or (seaweeds) are taxonomically can be classified under
main group namely green algae (Chlorophyta), brown algae (Phaeophyta) and red
algae (Rhodophyta). Malaysia has extensively total coastline 4675 km where Sarawak
covered approximately 1035 km length at the Borneo Island east of Malaysia.
As Sarawak coastline surrounded by coral reefs, rocky shores, sandy area, mudflats
and mangroves with high humidity and rich of organic matter tends to seaweeds
growth and inhabits a variety of these substratum along the coastline. Most
seaweeds tend to growth well at the protected area and some are limited distribute
depends on the ability of adaptation in the different marine coastline environment,
high temperature, heavy rainfall, large tidal range and high wave-exposed along
coastlines (FRC, 2000).
As Malaysia, earlier report for seaweed status was in 1991 and been updated
1998. From the earlier report until recent survey on Malaysian marine algae
(1991-2006) recorded the tally of 373 species (Phang, 2006).
Nurridan (2004) recorded 19 species of seaweed from Pulau
Layang Layang, Sabah and a total of 66 taxa of marine algae checklist from Phang
et al. (2008) at Perak Island, Jarak Island and the Sembilan Group
of Island in the Straits of Malacca. Phang et al.
(2005) also reported a total 84 taxa of seaweed from the Langkawi Island.
In recent years, studies on the distribution and biology of seaweed in Sarawak
especially at Bintulu coastal areas have been discovered by few studies (FRC,
2000; Harah et al., 2006, 2007;
Wong et al., 2008) and the recent recorded is
35 species of seaweed. Most of the publications on the seaweed around Bintulu
coastal water come from rocky shore study areas and not included reef areas.
Hence, the present study was conducted from both location of rocky beaches and
reef area for checklist the current update of seaweed species around Bintulu
coastal water and there might be more seaweed species that have not been reported.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sampling areas: Sampling was conducted at rocky shore areas of Pantai Tanjung Batu (N 03°12.705 E 113°02.832), Pantai Telekom (N 03°18.914 E 113°06.934), Kuala Similajau (N 03°32.451 E 113°17.783), Kuala Nyalau (N 03°37.990 E 113°22.298) and Golden Beach, Similajau National Park (N 03°25.075 E 113°11.797) with one fringing reef area of Batu Mandi, Similajau National Park (N 03°21.941 E 113°07.952) which located at Bintulu coastal regions (Fig. 1).
||Map of the sampling sites, TB: Tanjung Batu, PT: Pantai Telekom,
BM: Batu Mandi, Similajau National Park, GB: Golden Beach, Similajau National
Park, KS: Kuala Similajau and KN: Kuala Nyalau
Sampling technique: Samples were collected during low tide between May
2011 and May 2012 and sampling time based on the tide schedule as described
by Rigby et al. (2007a, b).
Transect line with 30 m long was laid on the rocky shore from the low tide to
the high tide area except for Batu Mandi area, which scuba technique has been
used to collect the sample during high tide. The 50x50 cm quadrat has been placed
at each 10 m on the rocky shore contour for further measurement at the field.
Three replicates for transect are chosen randomly along the rocky shore contour.
A total of 15 min have been spending for each quadrat for species coverage assessment
on the rocky shore area and 30 min for underwater assessment.
Morphological identification: All samples were collected, recorded and
kept in zip lock bag for samples identification in the laboratory. All samples
collected entire thallus (fronds, stems and holdfasts) and transport to the
laboratory for further identification based on the physical morphological characteristic
and microscopic structure. The work and identification of seaweed by Ismail
(1995), Coppejans et al. (1997), Trono
(1998), Nurridan (2004) and Tsutsui
et al. (2005) were followed. Samples were label, photos and preserved
with 10% of formalin for further identification and collection of fresh samples.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
A total number of 54 species of seaweed was identified from six different study areas of Bintulu coastal water (Fig. 2); in which 23 species were from Rhodophyta with 11 families, 15 species were from Phaeophyta with 2 families, 16 species were from Chlorophyta with 10 families (Table 1). In this present study, 17 species of seaweed were recorded from Tanjung Batu, 23 species from Pantai Telekom, 14 species from Golden Beach, 26 species from Kuala Similajau, 12 species from Kuala Nyalau and 21 species from Batu Mandi. Rhodophyta division is the largest species can be found compare from Chlorophyta and Phaeophyta.
Previously, FRC (2000) had recorded 31 species (10 Chlorophyta,
5 Phaeophyta and 16 Rhodophyta) of seaweed in Bintulu area, while Harah
et al. (2006) reported 35 species of seaweed in the coral fragment
and rocky shore of Similajau National Park (10 Chlorophyta, 6 Phaeophyta and
19 Rhodophyta). In addition, a total of 35 species (12 Chlorophyta, 8 Phaeophyta
and 15 Rhodophyta) of seaweed was also recorded from the rocky shore of Bintulu,
Sarawak by Harah et al. (2007). Whilst Wong
et al. (2008) recorded 35 species of seaweed (12 Chlorophyta, 5 Phaeophyta
and 18 Rhodophyta) from rocky area of Bintulu. The number of seaweeds recorded
was higher in this present study.
Seaweed abundance was high in rocky substrate and Rhodophyta (11 families and
23 species) was the common and highest group of seaweed in this coastal area.
In contrast, Wong et al. (2008) recorded 9 common
species of seaweed from the coastal area of Bintulu, which are mostly come from
the family Rhodomelaceae (Cladophora prolifera, Ulva intestinalis,
Padina minor, Sargassum sp., Gracilaria salicornia, Hydropuntia
edulis, Acanthophora spicifera, Laurencia papillosa and Laurencia
sp.). The highest diversity of Rhodophyta algae was observed from Langkawi Island
by Phang et al. (2005) recorded 84 species
of seaweed and high abundance from Rhodophyta with 62 species. In addition,
Phang et al. (2008) reported most abundance
of Rhodophyta with 39 taxa from 66 taxa of marine algae recorded at Perak Island,
Jarak Island, Sembilan Group of Island in the the Straits of Malacca where most
of the samples collected from rock surface, coral and artificial substrate.
||Percentage of seaweed abundance from the six sampling sites
around Bintulu coastal waters, (a) Tanjung Batu, (b) Kuala Nyalau, (c) Kuala
Similajau, (d) Pantai Telekom, (e) Golden Beach and (f) Batu Mandi
||Species of seaweed recorded from Bintulu coastal waters
Gan et al. (2011) stated the Rhodophyta were
most diversified species recorded from the Johor coastal waters where rocky
shores resulted the high abundance of marine algae assembles.
||Comparison of seaweed species among the different stations
of the Bintulu coastal waters
|TB: Tanjung Batu, PT: Pantai Telekom, GB: Golden Beach, KS:
Kuala Similajau, KN: Kuala Nyalau and BM: Batu Mandi, -: Absent, +: Present
from Nurridan (2004) on seaweed communities at coral
reef in the lagoon of Pulau Layang Layang, Sabah with 19 species of seaweed
recorded and Chlorophyceae was the most abundance species.
Checklists of seaweed species assemble at six different locations are presented
in the Table 2. Kuala Similajau area recorded the highest
seaweed species compare to other locations and the lowest was recorded at Kuala
||Summary of seaweed species assemble in the tidal zone of rocky
shore area in Bintulu coastal waters
Rhodophyta recorded the higher assemble of seaweed species at Tanjung Batu,
Pantai Telekom, Golden Beach and Kuala Nyalau area. There was no Phaeophyta
recorded from Kuala Nyalau. In contrast, some Phaeophyta species have been recorded
by Wong et al. (2008) at Kuala Nyalau area. Phaeophyta
and Rhodophyta were common at Kuala Nyalau area. But it had shown different
at Batu Mandi area where Phaeophyta species was recorded the highest. Ulva
intestinalis, Padina minor, Gracilaria salicornia and Acanthophora
spicifera showed the most common species can be found at five out of six
locations of coastal areas.
From this study, it was observed that, the dominance seaweed species was recorded
at the intertidal zone with 76% coverage of 29 species, followed by subtidal
zone with 16% which cover six species and high intertidal zone with 8% with
three species (Fig. 3). It was shown that sea water and sun
light plays the important role to the seaweed for photosynthesis and growth
in a good condition. Study also recorded the high number of seaweed species
existing at Bintulu coastal area ecologically due to the nutrient enrichment
and provided suitable hard substrate necessary for seaweed attachment growth.
According to Konar (2007), marine communities such macroalgae
tends to be high assembling for their biodiversity and hard substrate provided
attachment for their growth.
There were different recorded of seaweed species from Bintulu coastal water
when compared to previous study by Harah et al. (2007)
and Wong et al. (2008) since both previous study
focus on rocky shore based area for macroalgae recorded (Table
3). Hence, present study on seaweed recorded includes both rocky shore area
and reef area from Bintulu coastal waters. Seasonality pattern of seaweed assemblages
is generally recognized to be a factor affected the species recorded from similar
area (Guerra-Garcia et al., 2010). Other than
environmental factor, temperature tends to be most influenced the seasonal pattern
of seaweed communities (Branco et al., 2008).
||Comparison of seaweed recorded from present study with previous
recorded in Bintulu coastal waters
|-: Absent, +: Present
According to Prathep (2005), variation and different
diversity of macroalgae were affected from seasonal pattern and sites of study
areas, hence the percentage of macroalgae assemble highly influence by the degree
of wave exposure during wet seasons.
The present study revealed that Bintulu coastal areas highly diversified with macroalgae species there might be need to be conserve and monitoring for reliable potential used in some industries seems these seaweeds known as natural bio-renewable sources. However, further observation or knowledge of seaweed assembles due to environmental factor and seasonal pattern need to be monitoring for more information and understand on seaweed diversity.
The authors would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for critical reading of manuscript and comments, Universiti Putra Malaysia for encouragement and research facilities. This sstudy was funded by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia (MoHE) under programme Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS) 5524038.
1: Branco, C.C.Z., R.A. Krupek and C.K. Peres, 2008. Seasonality of macroalgal communities in a subtropical drainage basin in Parana state, southern Brazil. Braz. J. Biol., 68: 741-749.
CrossRef | PubMed |
2: Coppejans, E., M.D. Richmond, O.D. Clerck and R. Rabesandratana, 1997. Marine Macroalgae: Seaweeds. In: A Guide to the Seashores of eastern Africa and the Western Indian Ocean Islands, Richmond, M.D. (Ed.). SIDA/Department for Research Cooperation, SAREC, USA., pp: 70-95
3: FRC, 2000. Seaweed resource of Sarawak. Sarawak. http://www.fri.gov.my/friswak/eseaweed.htm.
4: Gan, M.H., A. Siti Aishah, A. Nur Wahidah, K. Amyra Suryatie and M.P. Noraien, 2011. Diversity of seaweed in the Vicinity of Johor: With emphasis on the east coast peninsular Malaysia expedition II 2006. Proceedings of the University Malaysia Terengganu International Annual Symposium, July 11-13, 2011, Terengganu, Malaysia, pp: 429-433
5: Guerra-Garcia, J.M., M.P. Cabezas, E. Baeza-Rojano and J.C. Garcia-Gomez, 2010. Spatial patterns and seasonal fluctuations of intertidal macroalgal assemblages from Tarifa Island, southern Spain: Relationship with associated Crustacea. J. Marine Biol. Assoc. United Kingdom, 91: 107-116.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
6: Ismail, A., 1995. Rumpai Laut Malaysia. Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, ISBN: 9836244158, pp: 267-271
7: Konar, B., 2007. Rocky Shore Ecology. In: Sampling Biodiversity in Coastal Communities: NaGISA Protocols for Seagrass and Macroalgal Habitats, Rigby, P.R., K. Iken and Y. Shirayama (Eds.). NUS Press, Singapore, pp: 13-16
8: Harah, Z.M., B.J. Sidik, A. Raesah, S.A. Awing and O. Hisao, 2006. Marine macrophytes: Macroalgae species and life forms from Golden Beach, Similajau National Park, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia. Coastal Mar. Sci., 30: 243-246.
Direct Link |
9: Harah, Z.M., S.C. Wong, B.J. Sidik, A. Arshad and H. Ogawa, 2007. Macroalgae diversity and life forms of inter-tidal rocky shores. Mar. Res. Indonesia, 32: 163-168.
10: Nurridan, A.H., 2004. Seaweed and Seagrass Communities of Pulau Layang Layang, Malaysia. In: Marine Biodiversity of Pulau Layang Layang Malaysia, Pauzi, M. (Ed.). MARSAL, USA., pp: 1-14
11: Phang, S.M., 2006. Seaweed resources in Malaysia: Current status and future prospects. Aquat. Ecosyst. Health Manag., 9: 185-202.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
12: Phang, S.M., P.E. Lim, J.L.S. Ooi, H.Y. Yeong, W.S. Ng and F.C. Kupper, 2008. Marine algae of Perak Island, Jarak island and the Sembilan group of islands in the straits of Malacca. Malaysian J. Sci., 27: 47-60.
Direct Link |
13: Phang, S.M., C.L. Wong, P.E. Lim, H.Y. Yeong and C.X. Chan, 2005. Seaweed diversity of the Langkawi Island with emphasis on the northeastern region. Malaysian J. Sci., 24: 77-94.
Direct Link |
14: Prathep, A., 2005. Spatial and temporal variations in diversity and percentage cover of macroalgae at Sirinart marine national park, Phuket province. Thailand Sci. Asia, 31: 225-233.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
15: Rigby, P.R., K. Iken and Y. Shirayama, 2007. Sampling Biodiversity in Coastal Communities: NaGISA Protocols for Seagrass and Macroalgal Habitats. NUS Press, Japan, Pages: 145
16: Rigby, P.R., T. Kato and R. Riosmena-Rodriguez, 2007. NaGISa Rocky Shore Protocol. In: A NaGISA Handbook, Sampling Biodiversity in Coastal Communities: NaGISA Protocols for Seagrass and Macroalgal Habitats, Rigby, P.R., K. Iken and Y. Shirayama (Eds.). Kyoto University Press, Japan
17: Trono, G.C., 1998. Seaweeds. In: FAO Species Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes: The Living Marine Resources of The western Central Pasific, Carpenter, K.E. and V.H. Hiem (Eds.). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, USA., pp: 20-99
18: Tsutsui, I., Q.N. Huynh, H.D. Nguyen, S. Arai and T. Yoshida, 2005. The Common Marine Plants of Southern Vietnam. Japan Seaweed Association, Kohchi, pp: 16-234
19: Wong, S.C., Z. Muta Harah, B. Japar Sidik, A. Arshad and H. Ogawa, 2008. Macroalgal communities of intertidal rocky shores around Bintulu, Sarawak. Proceeding of the International Biodiversity and Biotechnology Symposium, November 19-21, 2008, Sarawak, Malaysia, pp: 102-108