Chemopreventive Potential of 18β-glycyrrhetinic Acid: An Active Constituent of Liquorice, in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis
Chemoprevention, a useful and attractive approach in experimental oncology, helps to investigate the cancer preventive potential of natural products and synthetic entities. Present study evaluated the chemopreventive potential of glycyrrhetinic acid in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumor was developed in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters by painting with DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. The tumor incidence and the status of phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes were assessed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone and DMBA+glycyrrhetinic acid treated hamsters. One hundred percent tumor formations, which were histopathologically confirmed as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, were observed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Also, the status of detoxification enzymes were markedly altered in the liver and buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of glycyrrhetinic acid at a dose of 45 mg kg-1 body weight to hamsters treated with DMBA completely prevented the tumor formation as well as restored the status of detoxification enzymes. Present study thus demonstrated the chemopreventive potential of glycyrrhetinic acid in DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis.
to cite this article:
R. Kowsalya, P. Vishwanathan and S. Manoharan, 2011. Chemopreventive Potential of 18β-glycyrrhetinic Acid: An Active Constituent of Liquorice, in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinogenesis. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 14: 619-626.
Received: August 03, 2011;
Accepted: October 21, 2011;
Published: November 10, 2011
Oral cancers are the worlds 5th most frequent neoplasm and accounts for
3-4% in Western countries and 40-50% in developing countries including India
(Chatterjee, 2011). Oral cancers are cancers that develop
at the lips, tongue, salivary glands, gingival, floor of the mouth, oropharynx,
buccal surfaces and other intra-oral locations. Squamous cell carcinoma accounts
for 90% of the cancers of oral cavity (Tsantouils et
al., 2007). Tobacco chewing, tobacco smoking, betel quid chewing and
alcohol consumption contribute mainly to the pathogenesis of oral cancer (Wen
et al., 2010). Despite recent efforts to improve the treatment and overall
outcomes of oral cancer, 5 year survival rates have not changed drastically
during the last three to four decades. Late diagnosis and poor response of advanced
cancerous lesions to chemotherapy are responsible for the low 5 year survival
rate of oral cancer patients (Pereira et al., 2007).
Oral carcinogenesis is preceded by premalignant lesions, leukoplakia, erythroplakia
and oral submucous fibrosis and these precancerous lesions succumb to oral cancer
in one third of the patients (Gatoo et al., 2011).
Golden Syrian hamsters are one of the best characterized animal models for
oral carcinogenesis on account of its pocket like anatomical (buccal pouch)
features. DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis mimics the sequential
common events involved in the development of premalignant and malignant human
oral cancers. Also, the histological, morphological, biochemical and molecular
changes observed in hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis closely resembles the
features of human oral tumor (Manoharan et al., 2010).
7,12-dimethylbenz(a) anthracene, a potent procarcinogen, on metabolic activation
in the liver is converted into its active ultimate carcinogenic metabolite dihydrodiol
epoxide, which subsequently form DNA adducts with adenine and guanine residues
(Weimer et al., 2000). Several molecular markers
including p53 and bcl-2 were over expressed in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch
carcinogenesis (Panjamurthy et al., 2009).
Liver phase I (Cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5) and phase
II (glutathione-S-transferase, oxidized glutathione, reduced glutathione, DT-diaphorase)
detoxification agents play a crucial role in the metabolic activation and detoxification
of xenobiotics including DMBA (Pugalendhi and Manoharan,
2010; Renju et al., 2007). Glutathione-S-transferase
and glutathione reductase play vital role in the detoxification of carcinogenic
metabolites. Measurement of these agents in the liver should therefore be helpful
to assess the antitumor initiating and antitumor promoting effects of natural
products and synthetic entities (Senthil et al.,
2007; Suresh et al., 2006).
18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, a pentacyclic triterpenoid derivative and the
active aglycone of Glycyrrzin, is present in the herb liquorice. It is used
in flavoring and has the property to mask the bitter taste of drugs like aloe
and quinine. Diverse pharmacological effects, of glycyrrhetinic acid have been
reported, which include anti-ulcer, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, hepatoprotective
antioxidant and anti-tussive properties (Wang et al.,
2011; Maitraie et al., 2009). Nishino
et al. (1986) reported that 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid significantly
inhibited the growth of skin cancer cells under in vitro conditions.
There were however no scientific studies on the potential of glycyrrhetinic
acid against DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. Agents that possess inhibitory
effect on cell proliferation and modulating effect on phase I and phase II detoxification
enzymes activities are considered as potent chemopreventive agent. The present
study was therefore designed to investigate the chemopreventive potential of
glycyrrhetinic acid by analyzing the tumor incidence as well as by measuring
the status of phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes in DMBA-induced hamster
buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Chemicals: DMBA and Glycyrrhetinic acid were obtained from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore, India. All other chemicals used were of analytical grade, purchased from Hi-media Laboratories, Mumbai, India.
Animals and treatment: Male golden Syrian hamsters, aged 8-10 weeks, weighing 80-120 g, were purchased from the National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad, India and were maintained in the Central Animal House, Rajah Muthaiah Medical College and Hospital, Annamalai University. The animals were housed five in a polypropylene cage and provided with a standard pellet diet (Agro Corporation Pvt, Ltd., Bangalore, India) and water ad libitum. The animals were maintained under controlled conditions of temperature (27±2°C) and humidity (55±5%) with a 12 h light/dark cycle.
The institutional Animal Ethics Committee (Reg. No. 160/1999/CPCSEA). Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, India approved the experimental design (Proposal No. 550: dated 20-03-2008). A total number of 40 hamsters were randomized into four groups and each group contained 10 hamsters. Group I animals served as the control and were treated with liquid paraffin (Vehicle) alone three times a week for 14 weeks on their left buccal pouches. Group II animals were treated with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks on their left buccal pouches. Group II animals received no other treatment. Group III animals were treated with DMBA as in group II, received in addition oral administration of glycyrrhetinic acid (45 mg kg-1 body weight/day), dissolved in 1 mL of water, starting 1 week before exposure to the carcinogen and continued on alternate days to DMBA painting until the animals were sacrificed. Group IV animals received oral administration of glycyrrhetinic acid (45 mg kg-1 body weight/day) alone, as in group III, throughout the experimental period. The experiment was terminated at the end of 16 weeks and all animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Biochemical studies were conducted on the plasma, liver and buccal mucosa tissues. For histopathological examination, buccal mucosa tissues were fixed in 10% formalin and routinely processed and embedded with paraffin, 2-3 μm sections were cut in a rotary microtome and stained with haematoxylin and eosin.
Induction of oral squamous cell carcinogenesis: Tumors were induced in each hamsters buccal pouch with topical application of 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks. The total number of tumors in the hamsters buccal pouch was determined macroscopically at the time of sacrifice of animals.
Sample (Plasma and tissue preparation): Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes. Plasma was separated by centrifugation at 1000x g for 15 min. Tissue sample from the animals were washed with ice cold saline and homogenized using an appropriate buffer (GST: 0.3 M phosphate buffer, pH 6.5; GR: 0.1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4: TBARS: 0.025 M Tris-HCL buffer, pH 7.5; GSH and GPX: 0.4 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0; SOD: 0.025 M sodium pyrophosphate buffer pH 8.3; CAT: 0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.0) in an all-glass homogenizer with a Teflon pestle and used for biochemical estimations.
Biochemical analysis: The activity of glutathione-S-transferase in liver
and buccal mucosa tissue homogenate was assayed using the method employed by
Habig et al. (1974). Glutathione reductase activity
in liver tissue homogenate was assayed using the method employed by Carlberg
and Mannervik, (1985). The levels of cytochrome P450 and b5 in the liver
buccal mucosa were determined according to the method of Omura
and Sato (1964). The activity of DT diaphorase in the liver was estimated
according to the method of Ernster (1967). The reduced
glutathione levels in the buccal mucosa were determined by the method described
by Beutler and Kelley (1963). The oxidised glutathione
level in the buccal mucosa was determined by the method of Tietze
Protein determination: The protein content was determined by the method
of Lowry et al. (1951).
Statistical analysis: The data is expressed as Mean±standard deviation (SD). Statistical comparisons for biochemical parameters were performed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Duncans Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The tumor incidence was, however, statistically analyzed using Chi-Square (χ2) test. The results were considered statistically significant if the p-values were less than 0.05.
Incidence of oral neoplasm: The incidence of oral neoplasm and histopathological
abnormalities in control and experimental animals in each group are shown in
Table 1. The tumor incidence was 100% in hamsters treated
with DMBA alone and tumors were histopathologically confirmed as well-differentiated
squamous cell carcinoma. The total number of oral tumors in the buccal pouches
was counted and the diameter of each tumor was measured with a vernier caliper.
Oral administration of glycyrrhetinic acid (45 mg kg-1 body weight/day),
on alternate days to DMBA painting, to DMBA treated hamsters for 14 weeks completely
prevented the formation of oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Histopathology: The histopathological features observed in the buccal mucosa of the control and experimental animals in each group are shown in Fig. 1. We observed severe hyperkeratosis, hyperplasia, dysplasia and well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma in the buccal pouches of DMBA alone treated hamsters (Fig. 1b).
Although well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma was not seen in the buccal
pouches of DMBA+ glycyrrhetinic acid treated hamsters, mild hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis
and dysplasia were noticed (Fig. 1c). Hamsters administered
with glycyrrhetinic acid alone showed well-defined and intact epithelial layers
similar to that of the control hamsters (Fig. 1a, d).
|Fig. 1 (a-d):
||Histopathological features observed in the buccal mucosa of
control and experimental animals in each group. (a and d) Photomicrographs
showing well-defined buccal pouch epithelium from control and glycyrrhetinic
acid alone treated hamsters, respectively (H and E, 40X). (b) Photomicrograph
showing well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma with keratin pearls
in hamsters treated with DMBA alone (H and E, 40X). (c) Photomicrograph
showing moderate dyplastic epithelium in hamsters treated with DMBA+ glycyrrhetinic
acid (H and E 40X)
|| Incidence of oral neoplasm and histopathological changes
in the buccal pouch of control and treated animals in each group (n = 10)
|Tumor volume was measured using the formula, v= (4/3)π[D1/2]
[D2/2] [D3/2], where D1, D2
and D3 are the three diameter(mm) of the tumor. Tumor burden
was calculated by multiplying tumor volume and the number of tumors/animal.
Tumor multiplicity = average number of tumors per animal. Tumor frequency=
No. of tumors per group. a Significantly different from
group II by Chi-Square (χ2) test. Values that do not share
a common superscript in the same row differ significantly at p<0.05
Status of liver phase I and phase II detoxification agents: The status
of phase I (Cytochromes P450 and b5) and phase II (Reduced glutathione (GSH),
Glutatuine-s-Transferase (GST), Glutathione Reductase (GR) and DT-diaphorase)
detoxification agents in the liver of control and experimental animals in each
group are given in Fig. 2a. The status of phase I detoxification
enzymes was significantly increased whereas phase II detoxification agents were
decreased in the liver of DMBA treated animal (p<0.05) as compared to control
animals. Oral administration of glycyrrhetinic acid to DMBA-treated animals
brought back the status of phase I and phase II detoxification agents to near
normal range in the liver (cp<0.05). Oral administration of glycyrrhetinic
acid alone showed no significant difference as compared to control animals.
Status of buccal mucosa phase I and phase II detoxification agents: Figure
2b shows the status of phase I and phase II detoxification agents in the
buccal mucosa of control and treated hamsters in each group. The status of phase
I (Cytochrome P450 and b5) and phase II detoxification agents Glutatuine-S-Transferase
(GST) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were significantly increased whereas oxidised
glutathione (GSSG) content was decreased in tumor bearing hamsters (p<0.05)
as compared to control hamsters. Oral administration of glycyrrhetinic acid
to DMBA treated hamsters significantly brought back the status of GSH, GSSG
and GST to near normal range (p<0.05). Hamsters treated with glycyrrhetinic
acid alone showed no significant difference in the status of GSH, GSSG and GST
as compared to control hamsters.
Chemoprevention a novel, promising and appealing strategy in experimental oncology,
deals with inhibition, suppress or reversal of cancer, using natural products
and synthetic agents. Profound studies documented the chemopreventive potential
of medicinal plants and their active constituents (Senthil
et al., 2007; Sarwar et al., 2011).
Cancer of the oral cavity is the one among the few human cancers with the vast
potential for prevention.
Aim of the present study was to focus the chemopreventive potential of glycyrrhetinic acid in DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The antitumor efficacy of glycyrrhetinic acid was assessed by monitoring the tumor incidence as well as by estimating the status of phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes in DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis. DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis is preceded by a sequence of precancerous lesions such as hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis and dysplasia, which are quite similar to that of tumors that develop in oral cancer patients. In the present study, we noticed 100% tumor formation in hamsters treated with DMBA alone at the end of experimental period and the tumors were histopathologically confirmed as well-differentiated squamous cell carcinoma also, we noticed severe hyperplasia, hyperkeratosis and dysplasia at 8 to 10th week of DMBA treatment in hamsters treated with DMBA alone.
The pleomorphic hyperchromatic nucleus with epithelial pearl formation was
observed in the tumor cells of tumor bearing hamsters. A well defined and intact
epithelial layer was seen in control hamsters and hamsters treated with glycyrrhetinic
acid alone. In the present study, dose dependent effect of glycyrrhetinic acid
was studied to find out the optimum dose of glycyrrhetinic acid for chemoprevention
studies. Of three doses used (15, 30 and 45 mg kg-1 body weight)
the doses of 45 mg kg-1 body weight completely prevented tumor formation
in hamster treated with DMBA and thus the same dose was fixed for further chemoprevention
||Status of Phase I detoxification agents in the liver and buccal
mucosa, respectively of control and experimental animals in each group.
Values are expressed as Mean±SD for 10 hamsters in each group. Values
that do not share a common superscript in the same column differ significantly
at p<0.05 (DMRT). X-micromoles of cytochrome P450; Y- micromoles
of cytochrome b5. C-micromoles of 2,6-dichlorophenol reduced
per minute. A- micromoles of 1-chloro 2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB)/reduced
glutathione conjugate formed per minute
||Status of Phase II detoxification agents in the liver and
buccal mucosa, respectively of control and experimental animals in each
group. Values are expressed as Mean±SD for 10 hamsters in each group.
Values that do not share a common superscript in the same column differ
significantly at p<0.05 (DMRT). X-micromoles of cytochrome P450;
Y- micromoles of cytochrome b5. C-micromoles of 2,6-dichlorophenol
reduced per minute. A- micromoles of 1-chloro 2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB)/reduced
glutathione conjugate formed per minute
Oral administration of glycyrrhetinic acid at a dose of 45 mg kg-1
body weight to hamster treated with DMBA however resulted in mild hyperplasia
and dysplasia, which may be due to repeated DMBA exposure to the buccal pouch
Present results thus suggest that glycyrrhetinic acid exhibited significant
chemopreventive potential by suppressing abnormal cell proliferation occurring
during DMBA induced oral carcinogenesis. Liver, the primary site for the biotransformation
of xenobiotics, plays significant role in the modulation of carcinogenic processes.
Estimation of xenobiotic biotransformation enzymes such as cytochrome P450,
cytochrome b5, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase and
reduced glutathione in liver and buccal mucosa could provide valuable information
about the chemopreventive potential of the test compound under evaluation (Pugalendhi
and Manoharan, 2010; Aisha et al., 2011).
Our results support these findings. Profound scientific evidences suggest that
substances that stimulated the activities of detoxification enzymes such as
glutathione-S-transferase have promising chemopreventive potential (Coles
and Kadlubar, 2003; Baskaran et al., 2010).
Our results support these findings. Phase II detoxification enzymes excrete
carcinogenic metabolites either by conjugation with reduced glutathione or by
destroying the reactive centres of carcinogens (Manoharan
et al., 2009; Kumar et al., 2011).
Accumulation of carcinogenic metabolite in the liver, due to elevated activities
of phase I enzymes and decreased activities of phase II enzymes were reported
in tumor bearing animals (Kavitha and Manoharan, 2006).
Present results corroborate these findings. Increased activities of phase I
and phase II detoxification enzymes in the buccal mucosa of tumor bearing hamsters
are probably due to repeated DMBA exposure to the buccal mucosa, where these
enzymes are stimulated to metabolically activate and detoxify the carcinogenic
reagents. Altered activities of phase I and phase II detoxification enzymes
were reported in the liver and buccal mucosa of hamsters treated with DMBA (Letchoumy
et al., 2006; Panjamurthy et al., 2008).
Our results support these findings. Oral administrations of glycyrrhetinic acid
at a dose of 45 mg kg-1 body weight reversed the activities of phase
I and phase II detoxification enzymes to near normal level in hamsters treated
with DMBA. Present results suggest that glycyrrhetinic acid might have inhibited
the metabolic activation of DMBA or facilitated the excretion of carcinogenic
metabolites during DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis. Present study thus demonstrated
that chemopreventive potential of glycyrrhetinic acid in DMBA induced hamster
buccal pouch carcinogenesis.
18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, an active constituent of liquorice, significantly suppressed the formation of oral tumors in DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. The chemopreventive potential of glycyrrhetinic acid is probably due to its anti-cell proliferative effect and modulating effect on detoxification enzymes during DMBA induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. In order to provide scientific validity to the chemopreventive potential of glycyrrhetinic acid, further researches are warranted to study the effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the expression of molecular markers that are related to oral carcinogenesis.
The authors gratefully acknowledge Mr. V. Vinoth Kumar and G. Sindhu for their valuable help during experimental studies.
Baskaran, N., S. Manoharan, S. Balakrishnan and P. Pugalendhi, 2010.
Chemopreventive potential of ferulic acid in 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 637: 22-29.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Beutler, E. and B.M. Kelley, 1963.
The effect of sodium nitrite on red cell GSH. Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 19: 96-97.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Chatterjee, A., 2011.
Study on the enraging severity of cancer in West Bengal, India from 2003 to 2010. Asian J. Epidemiol., 4: 23-27.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Coles, B.F. and F.F. Kadlubar, 2003.
Detoxification of electrophilic compounds by glutathione S-transferase catalysis: Determinants of individual response to chemical carcinogens and chemotherapeutic drugs? Biofactors, 17: 115-130.Direct Link |
Ernster, L., 1967.
DT-diaphorase. Methods Enzymol., 10: 309-317.
Gatoo, M.A., M. Siddiqui, A.K. Farhan, M.I. Kozgar and M. Owais, 2011.
Oral cancer and gene polymorphisms: International status with special reference to India. Asian J. Biochem., 6: 113-121.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Habig, W.H., M.J. Pabst and W.B. Jakoby, 1974.
Glutathione S-transferases: The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J. Biol. Chem., 249: 7130-7139.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Kavitha, K. and S. Manoharan, 2006.
Anticarcinogenic and antilipidperoxidative effects of Tephrosia purpurea
(Linn.) Pers. in 7,12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinoma. Indian J. Pharmacol., 38: 185-189.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kumar, S.S., M.R.K. Rao and M.P. Balasubramanian, 2011.
Anticarcinogenic effect of indigofera aspalathoides on 20-methylcholanthrene induced fibrosarcoma in rats. Res. J. Med. Plant, 5: 747-755.CrossRef |
Letchoumy, P.V., K.V.C. Mohan, R. Kumaraguruparan, Y. Hara and S. Nagini, 2006.
Black tea polyphenols protect against 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oncol. Res., 16: 167-178.PubMed | Direct Link |
Lowry, O.H., N.J. Rosebrough, A.L. Farr and R.J. Randall, 1951.
Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem., 193: 265-275.CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Manoharan, S., S. Balakrishnan, V.P. Menon, L.M. Alias and A.R. Reena, 2009.
Chemopreventive efficacy of curcumin and piperine during 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Singapore Med. J. 50: 139-146.Direct Link |
Manoharan, S., M.S.V. Selvan, S. Silvan, N. Baskaran, A.K. Singh and V.V. Kumar, 2010.
Carnosic acid: A potent chemopreventive agent against oral carcinogenesis. Chem. Biol. Interact., 188: 616-622.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Maitraie, D., C.F. Hung, H.Y. Tu, Y.T. Liou and B.L. Wei, 2009.
Synthesis, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of 18beta-glycyrrhetinic acid derivatives as chemical mediators and xanthine oxidase inhibitors. Bioorg. Med. Chem., 17: 2785-2792.PubMed |
Nishino, H., K. Yoshioka, A. Iwashima, H. Takizawa and S. Konishi et al
Glycyrrhetic acid inhibits tumour promoting activity of teleocidin and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate in two stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Jpn. J. Cancer Res., 77: 33-38.PubMed | Direct Link |
Omura, T. and R. Sato, 1964.
The carbon monoxide-binding pigment of liver microsomes. I. Evidence for its hemoprotein nature. J. Biol. Chem., 239: 2370-2378.PubMed | Direct Link |
Panjamurthy, K., S. Manoharan, S. Balakrishnan, K. Suresh, M.R. Nirmal, N. Senthil and L.M. Alias, 2008.
Protective effect of withaferin-A on micronucleus frequency and detoxication agents during experimental oral carcinogenesis. Afr. J. Tradit. Complement Alternative Med., 6: 1-8.Direct Link |
Pugalendhi, P. and S. Manoharan, 2010.
Chemopreventive potential of genistein and daidzein in combination during 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mammary carcinogenesis in sprague-dawley rats. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 13: 279-286.CrossRef |
Panjamurthy, K., S. Manoharan, M.R. Nirmal and L. Vellaichamy, 2009.
Protective role of withferin-A on immunoexpression of p53 and bcl-2 in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced experimental oral carcinogenesis. Invest. New. Drugs, 27: 447-452.PubMed |
Pereira, M.C., D.T. Oliveira, G. Landman and L.P. Kowalski, 2007.
Histologic subtypes of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Prognostic relevance. J. Can. Dent. Assoc., 73: 339-344.PubMed | Direct Link |
Renju, G.L., S. Manoharan, S. Balakrishnan and N. Senthil, 2007.
Chemopreventive and antilipid peroxidative potential of Cleodendron inereme
(L) Gaertn in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene induced skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 1465-1470.PubMed |
Sarwar, M., I.H. Attitalla and M. Abdollahi, 2011.
A review on the recent advances in pharmacological studies on medicinal plants: Animal studies are done but clinical studies needs completing. Asian J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 6: 867-883.CrossRef |
Suresh, K., S. Manoharan, K. Panjamurthy and K. Kavitha, 2006.
Chemopreventive and antilipidperoxidative efficacy of Annona squamosa
bark extracts in experimental oral carcinogenesis. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 9: 2600-2605.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Senthil, N., S. Manoharan, S. Balakrishnan, R. Ramachandran and C.R. Muralinaidu, 2007.
Chemopreventive and antilipidperoxidative efficacy of Piper longum
(Linn) on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. J. Applied Sci., 7: 1036-1042.CrossRef |
Tietze, F., 1969.
Enzymic method for quantitative determination of nanogram amounts of total and oxidized glutathione: Applications to mammalian blood and other tissues. Anal. Biochem., 27: 502-522.PubMed |
Tsantouils, P.K., N.G. Kastrinakis, A.D. Tourvas, G. Laskaris and V.G. Goryoulis, 2007.
Advances in the biology of oral cancer. Oral Oncol., 43: 523-534.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Wang, C.Y., T.C. Kao, W.H. Lo and G.C. Yen, 2011.
Glycyrrhizic acid and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid modulate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory response by suppression of nf-κb through pi3k p110δ and p110γ inhibitions. J. Agric. Food. Chem., 59: 7726-7733.PubMed |
Weimer, T.L., A.P. Reddy, U. Harttig, D. Alexander and S.C. Stamm et al
Influence of beta-naphthoflavone on 7,12-dimethlbenz(a)anthracene metabolism, DNA adduction and tumorgenicity in rainbow trout. Toxicol. Sci., 57: 217-228.PubMed |
Wen, C.P., M.K. Tsai, W.S. Chung, H.L. Hsu and Y.C. Chang et al
Cancer risks from betel quid chewing beyond oral cancer: A multiple-site carcinogen when acting with smoking. Cancer Causes Control, 21: 1427-1435.CrossRef | Direct Link |
Aisha, A.F.A., Z.D. Nassar, M.J. Siddiqui, K.M. Abu-Salah, S.A. Alrokayan, Z. Ismail and A.M.S.A. Majid, 2011.
Evaluation of antiangiogenic, cytotoxic and antioxidant effects of Syzygium aromaticum
L. extracts. Asian J. Biol. Sci., 4: 282-290.CrossRef | Direct Link |