Salvia verticillata Effects on Diabetes and Diabetes Complications
Idress Hamad Attitalla
Diabetes is an abnormal rise in blood glucose level, which is caused by defects
in insulin production and its metabolism. It might have occured due to changes
in gut microbiota, which increased the membranes permeability, glucose resistance,
oxidative stress and reduced expression of macrophages (Cani
et al., 2008). These microbiota changes are associated with use of
antibiotics; moreover the use of high fat diet may also responsible for this
metabolic imbalance and diabetes. Thus antibiotics and diet plan should be properly
managed to avoid non-healthy changes in metabolism. Diabetes can also result
from decrease in β-cell (insulin producing cells) volume and/or their numbers
(Butler et al., 2003). As in diabetic patients
these cells have 41% decrease in volume than normal cells and have a low rate
of replication associated with increased apoptosis. This increases the risk
factor of other diseases like, cardiovascular, renal damage, cancer, blindness,
respiratory and other lethal infection (Riaz, 2009;
Woodward et al., 2003). Thus diabetes is a dangerous
disease as it increases the possibility of deaths; in United States its prevalence
is high among females (Narayan et al., 2003).
This decreased their survival rate and when it occurs at the age of 40, men
loses 11.6 while female loses 14.3 years of their life. In developing countries
peoples have double diabetic risk and in 2020 it will be one of the non-communicable
diseases (Boutayeb, 2006). Since diabetes with other
non-communicable diseases (cancer and cardiovascular) in 2020 will be responsible
of every 7 out of 10 deaths. In addition between 2010 and 2030 there will be
69% increase in diabetic adults in developing while 20% in developed countries,
which will results in almost 439 million diabetic adults (Shaw
et al., 2010). Hence there are chances of increased diabetic problems
in future, which will put a large burden on human population. It demands for
more attention of practitioners to fulfill the increasing needs of reliable
antidiabetic agents. Diabetes can be treated through the use of plant products
(Karim et al., 2011), which have the ability
to lower the glucose levels and other metabolic abnormalities (increased demands
of water and food) in diabetic rats (Irshaid et al.,
2010). Furthermore their use in diabetic rats along with anti-diabetic property
showed hepatoprotective, renal protective and hypolipidemic effects (Ahmed
and Urooj, 2009; Gupta et al., 2011). Therefore
the use of plants in case of diabetes can be promoted as it may help in reducing
the increased glucose levels and associated damages to organs.
Salvia verticillata is common growing perennial herb; its leaves are
rich source of curative antioxidant rosmarinic acid (Tepe
et al., 2007). Eidi et al. (2011)
in their research on S. verticillata found its hypoglycemic activity,
associated with protection to other organs form streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
They inoculated the Wistar rats with 70 mg kg-1 of streptozotocin
and observed its effect in rats; streptozotocin caused diabetes mellitus symptoms
in rats. Its application resulted in significant decrease of body weight and
insulin, while it increased the amount of serum glucose, urea, uric acid, creatinine,
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Thus with
inducing diabetes it poorly affected the kidney (urea, uric acid and creatinine)
and liver (AST and ALT) parameters, besides this it also increased the triglycerides
and cholesterol levels. But the application of S. verticillata ethanolic
extracts considerably maintained these abnormal levels. Its application for
14 days protected the rat from lethal decrease in weight, in concentration dependant
manner. Weight loss was significantly resumed in rats treated with its 0.2 g
kg-1 b.wt. concentration and this effect was comparable to standard
anti-diabetic drug; glibenclamide. While its 0.05 g kg-1 b.wt. concentration
did not cause any significant difference in weight when compared to diabetic
control, thus S. verticillata caused a concentration dependant response.
Its other hypoglycemic properties were reduction in serum glucose and increase
in serum insulin levels, which were positively accelerated with an increase
in concentration. Hence S. verticillata was a great subject for anti-diabetic
activity and these extracts were further examined for their healthy effects
on some parameters of liver and kidney. In which these extracts showed the concentration
dependant hepatoprotective and renal protective effects. Their maximum concentration
0.2 g kg-1 was most effective against streptozotocin-induced renal
and hepatic damages. These damages were recognized by increased levels of various
serum parameters and 0.2 g kg-1 was extremely active in reducing
the elevated levels of serum urea, uric acid, creatinine, AST and ALT. Furthermore,
it also lowered the raised concentration of triglycerides and cholesterol, hence
protected the rats body form hyperlipidemia. The S. verticillata
extracts did not cause any harmful effect on rats metabolism as after
its application in non-diabetic rats all studied parameters were within the
normal ranges. Consequently this can be said that S. verticillata ethanolic
extracts showed many health protective effects in diabetic rats and its use
may prevent the abnormal regulation of various serum concentrations.
Diabetes is an important non-communicable disease of today and even in future
its prevalence is predicted to be high. It is diagnosed as increased glucose
and decreased insulin levels and promoted by various biological agents. It can
damage organs e.g., liver, kidney, eyes, heart etc. and can increase the risk
of cancer, which strongly demands for its proper treatment. Plants provide an
easy way to treat the diabetes and its associative health problems because of
their multiple constructive effects. Recently Eidi et
al. (2011) examined the anti-diabetic property of S. verticillata
ethanolic extracts. According to them these extracts were competent source of
curative activities, which could not only reduce the glucose levels but can
also lessen triglycerides and cholesterol elevations induced by streptozotocin.
Moreover, some hopeful hepatic and renal protective effects were also obtained
from these extracts. Due to which they considered S. verticillata application
as promising treatment for diabetes. Further investigation on its ethanolic
extracts will facilitate its appropriate utilization.
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