Lentinus sp. RJ-2 Mushroom is Important Source of Natural Antioxidative Polysaccharides
Idress Hamad Attitalla
Received: August 23, 2011;
Accepted: October 24, 2011;
Published: December 02, 2011
Reactive oxygen species of free radicals are the metabolic products of human
body which play their role in signaling, but their overproduction results in
damage to various cellular molecules like lipids, proteins and DNA (Valko
et al., 2006). This oxidative stress causes a redox imbalance and
mutation in normal signaling pathways of cell, which results in the onset of
disease. Although oxidative products facilitate cell division and defense against
pathogens, their overproduction create more deleterious effects by damaging
the membranes and causing a number of diseases (Valko et
al., 2007). The diseases they assist include cancer, diabetes, hypertension,
oxidative pathogenesis, ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases etc. Thus, oxidative
imbalance have a huge burden on human health. Use of antioxidants is the only
way to deal with it; several synthetic and natural antioxidants are used to
reduce oxidation problems in food and human health (Kayode
et al., 2009; Shahidi and Zhong, 2010; Karim
et al., 2011). But synthetic antioxidants have some adverse effects
on human health which create doubts in their reliability; on the other hand
natural antioxidants are safer. Moreover, these naturally occurring antioxidants
have the potency to provide more protection from oxidative stress, as their
antioxidant capacity is significantly higher than synthetic antioxidants (Hossain
et al., 2008). Rosmarinic acid (a natural polyphenol) showed a high
antioxidant potential from strongest synthetic antioxidant; propyl gallate.
Polysaccharides are one of the major antioxidant metabolic products in fungi;
they can act as antitumor, antimutagenic, anti-infection and antigenotoxic agents
(Kogan et al., 2008). Because polysaccharides
inhibit the lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, enhance the excretion of tumor
necrosis factor alpha from macrophages and thus help in inhibiting tumor formation.
Polysaccharides are also an important component of mushrooms body, they are
well known for antitumor activities but less is known about their chemical structure
(Zhang et al., 2007). Hence, mushrooms polysaccharides
can build a significant base for natural antioxidants; their use can be facilitated
through investigating their structures and active ingredients.
Lentinus is a genus of edible and medicinal mushrooms; its members are
rich source of carbohydrates, its moisture, carbohydrate and protein contents
are higher than some other edible mushrooms (Adejumo and
Awosanya, 2005; Yu et al., 2009). Its polysaccharides
can increase the antioxidant enzymes activity with decrease in interleukin-2
and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels. Thus, study of its polysaccharides will
be helpful in medicinal field. Thetsrimuang et al.
(2011) studied the polysaccharides of Lentinus sp. strain RJ-2 Fresh
(FB) and dried fruiting bodies (DB) to interpret their antioxidant potential
and composition of polysaccharides. According to their results both fruiting
bodies (FB and DB) contained huge amount of polysaccharides (47.7 and 42.5%,
respectively), which were higher in FB. These polysaccharides were constituted
by reducing sugars, proteins, carbohydrates and phenols. All these contents
except proteins were slightly lower in DB than FB, which might be due to the
effect of drying technique (dried at room temperature). Where, the protein contents
in DB extracts were significantly higher than FB and many of their proteins
showed a similar smear in Tris-tricine SDS-PAGE. Some of which were lower weight
proteins (20.1 kDa), while some showed the weight higher than 66 kDa. Likewise
their polysaccharides also showed similarities in their structure and both fruiting
bodies extracts strongly absorbed radiations within the range of 1200-1000 cm-1
in infrared spectroscopy. This indicated existence of a pyranose ring and thin
layer chromatography results identified the presence of mannose as the major
component both extracts. But these spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques
did not provide detailed investigation of polysaccharides structures. Furthermore,
the result of their antioxidant assays revealed that these polysaccharides acted
differently in quenching the free radicals. As the FB extracts showed higher
antioxidant activities in 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic
acid) and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl radical essays. While, DB showed higher
antioxidant capability in ferric reducing antioxidant power essay, these differences
might be due to their different concentration of phenols. Thus the polysaccharides
of both DB and FB were active in reducing the oxidative products but their results
were lower than the standard antioxidant trolox (analog of vitamin E). This
might also be due to differences in phenolic composition and their pathway of
action. Moreover, Lentinus sp. RJ-2 polysaccharides were higher in concentration
than derived from other mushrooms, as these were lower than 2% in Russula
virescens fruiting bodies (Sun et al., 2010).
Hence, Lentinus sp. RJ-2 was rich source of polysaccharides and drying
did not cause a significant change in their concentration in FB and DB. But
there is more need of research on polysaccharide structure and their relative
Reactive oxygen species are the biologically important part of body but their
overproduction can cause a state of oxidative stress. This stress damages the
cellular contents and is responsible for many metabolic disorders, which include
cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration etc. The application of antioxidant can
reduce the risks of these diseases through enhancing the activity of antioxidant
enzymes, which protects the lipids, proteins, DNA and cellular membranes. Polysaccharides
are important antioxidant of mushrooms and can reduce the risk of many diseases.
Thetsrimuang et al. (2011) studied their concentration
in fresh and dried fruiting bodies of Lentinus sp. RJ-2. They concluded
that Lentinus sp. RJ-2 like other mushrooms was a rich source of polysaccharides,
which contained proteins, phenols and carbohydrates. Its polysaccharides were
majorly constituted by mannose and were able to reduce various oxidants. In
addition, their concentration and composition in both fresh and dry fruiting
bodies were very much similar, while dry body contained more proteins; hence
these can also be used in dried from. In conclusion, more research on Lentinus
sp. RJ-2 polysaccharides structure and composition will help their use as both
dried and fresh forms.
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