Some Physiological Measurements on Growth, Pod Yields and Polyamines in Leaves of Chili Plants (Capsicum annuum cv. Hua Reua) in Relation to Applied Organic Manures and Chemical Fertilisers
The experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani University during November 2006 to July 2007. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four replications was used. Six treatments were allocated into two experimental fields, i.e., field A, animal manures added soil. Field B, chemical fertilizers added soil and both fields have been used for chili cultivation for more than 5 years and they belong to Warin soil series (Oxic Paleustults). The results showed that mean values of soil pH and organic matter% of field A were much higher than field B but mean values of nitrogen% and phosphorus were much higher for field B than field A. Exchangeable potassium were inadequately available in all treatments. All treatments of field B gave excessive amounts of available phosphorus at a toxic level. T3 of field A gave higher plant height, total dry weight plant-1, pod fresh and dry weights plant-1 than T5 of field B. Of overall results in terms of growth and yields of chili plants, field A gave much better advantages over field B. The CO2 uptake and CO2 in leaves were higher for field A than field B. Polyamines of putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) of T2 were affected by stress conditions due to previous applied chemical fertilisers. Available phosphorus mean values in most treatments were excessively available. Amounts of polyamines in chili leaves due to the added organic manure and chemical fertilizers (T3 up to T6) were not cleared.
to cite this article:
J. Rapatsa and S. Terapongtanakorn, 2010. Some Physiological Measurements on Growth, Pod Yields and Polyamines in Leaves of Chili Plants (Capsicum annuum cv. Hua Reua) in Relation to Applied Organic Manures and Chemical Fertilisers. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13: 263-270.
Chili crop (Capsicum annuum cv. Hua Reua) is one of many important vegetable
crops being cultivated in most Asian countries such as the Philippines, Myanmar,
India, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Thailand and many others. Chili is not a native
of tropical countries but being introduced to this tropical region from Americas
by the Portuguese and Spanish (Suksri et al., 1999). The common varieties
being cultivated in Asia are the finger-length chilies (Capsicum annuum cv.
Group longum) and the fiery little birds eye chilies (Capsicum
frutescens) and some of them have possessed mild, fat long, yellow or creamy
white; small rounded, arrow shaped, pale orange chilies and many others. The
hottest portion of chili is found with seeds in each pod, whilst the flesh gives
pungent flavour (Hutton and Mealin, 1997). The hot taste
of chili seeds in each pod depended most on the ratio between nitrogen and potassium
in soil being applied for crop cultivation, i.e. the higher the amount of nitrogen
(N) in soil than potassium (K) the hotter the taste in matured pods, yet a reverse
taste could be found if K in soil is much higher than N (Suksri, 1999).
For the Thai people, pods of chili plants both fresh and dry are commonly used
in many cooking recipes as to achieve a tasty daily food with high in both palatability
and nutritious values. Apart from these, chili pods could be used in many industrial
products, e.g., animal rations, insecticides, irritated gas to be used against
riot movement of crowd, mixed in insulated materials to protect electrical wires
from damages made by rats and others (Siriborirak, 1996).
Thus chili crop could be recognized as an import economic crop for many countries
in the tropics. In a period from the 1998 to 2007, Thailand used an area of
approximately 95,545 ha for chili cultivation with an average annual fresh weight
of chili pods for both domestic and overseas markets up to 311,231 metric tons
(Leelawanitchai, 2007). In the 2001, Thailand exported
fresh chilies mainly to Malaysia followed by The Netherlands, Sweden, Singapore
and Taiwan up to 12,283 metric tons (Senadee, 2006).
However, at the same time Thailand also imported dry chilies from overseas with
an amount of up to two folds greater than the exported amount (Anonymous,
2002). The imported amount indicated that chili production in Thailand could
not be able to cope up domestic consumption, particularly dry chilies. Therefore,
it is of an urgent need for the Thai growers to produce some large amounts of
chili pods annually in order to meet the high demand of the consumers both domestic
and overseas. Nevertheless, there have been some problems in exporting both
fresh and dry pods of chili overseas due to health regulations, e.g., the presence
of some minute amounts of toxic chemical contained in pods (insecticides, herbicides
and etc.) is not allowed in some countries such as Japan and many others (Ammaramon,
2006). Thus organic chili products should be of important value, i.e., chili
plants must be grown without harmful chemicals where organic compost, animal
manure may be used in place of chemical substances and organic insecticides
must be used. At present situation, growers of vegetable crops in Thailand have
paid more attention to organic agriculture than inorganic agriculture when their
produced products gained more interest from consumers and at the same time growers
pay less for their investments and their produced products are widely accepted
by consumers although its annual production could be relatively low (Anonymous,
2002). In Thailand nowadays, organic vegetables are normally produced with
the use of organic composts where some useful microorganisms are applied along
with the use of some herbal insecticide solutions being extracted from some
specific plants (Panyakul, 2004). Therefore, it is of
a tangible value to carry out an experiment with the use of chili plants in
order to determine some physiological activities on CO2 uptake, transpiration,
aperture of stomata, dry weights, pod yields and polyamines (Putrescine, Spermidine
and Spermine) contents in leaves of chili plants in relation to environmental
conditions and previous application of organic manures and chemical fertilizers.
Polyamines chemical compounds obviously use as an indicator on the changes in
growth environment, particularly the stresses in growth cause by the changes
in environmental conditions, e.g., drought conditions and etc. (Terapongtanakorn,
2000). Thus this field experiment and laboratory works were carried out.
The main objective of this work was to prove current practices in growing chili
crop plants of the villagers in Northeast Thailand if what they have been practiced
are of any significant value to be recommended for further uses and to compare
the important effect of organic manures against chemical fertilizers upon growth
and pod yields of the chili plants.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Agriculture, Ubon Ratchathani
University, Ubon Ratchathani 34190, Northeast Thailand during November 2006
to July 2007 to investigate effect of organic manures and chemical fertilizers
on plant height, total dry weight, pod fresh and dry weights, polyamines contents
in leaves, CO2 uptake and CO2 in leaves of chili plants
when two different historical backgrounds of land areas were used but of the
same soil series (Warin soil series, Oxic Paleustults). The first one is a land
area where organic manures alone (cattle manure) have been continuously applied
to the soil for chili cultivation for more than 5 years (field A) and the second
one is a piece of land where chemical fertilizers have been continuously applied
for more than five years for chili cultivation (field B). The two pieces of
land areas were ploughed twice followed by harrowing once. Soil samples in each
treatment were taken twice to the depth of approximately 30 cm, i.e., soil samples
were taken before transplanting and at the end of the experimental period. They
were used for the determination of soil pH, organic matter, nitrogen (N,%),
phosphorous (available P) and exchangeable potassium (K, ppm). The dimension
of each plot being used for each replication was a 2x10 m in width and length,
respectively with a path of 1.5 m in width between the plots. The transplanting
distances used for chili seedlings were 80x80 cm between rows and within rows,
respectively, i.e., a rate of 15,625 chili plants ha-1 was used.
To encourage a rapid growth of seedlings, before the transplanting of seedlings
was carried out, a seedbed for germination of chili seeds was prepared, i.e.,
the seedbed with a dimension of a 2x15 m in width and length, respectively was
thoroughly added with (1) raw rice husk at a rate of 125 kg ha-1,
(2) burned rice husk at a rate of 625 kg ha-1 and (3) fermented cattle
manure (approximately 30% moisture content) at a rate of 625 kg ha-1,
respectively. All these materials were thoroughly mixed into the soil before
sowing of seeds. Chili seeds of approximately 400 g were wrapped with a piece
of cotton clothing material and then placed into a jar of warm water at approximately
50°C for 30 min and then evenly sown all seeds into seedbed. The seedbed
was covered with a thin layer of rice straws and then a daily watering was carried
out for 30 days. At 30 days after sowing, seedlings were pulled out and transplanted
into the experimental plots. Each experimental plot had a dimension of a 2x10
m in width and length, respectively. All of the experimental plots were ridged
up approximately 10 cm above ground level to provide adequate drainage of some
excess amount of water when watering. The transplanting distances within rows
and between rows of 80x120 cm were used, i.e., approximately 208 plants in each
plot. Each plot was divided into five subplots for different sampling periods.
A Completely Randomised Design (CRD) with four replications was used. Transplanting
of seedlings in each plot was carried out at an age of 30 days after sowing.
Ten plant samples from each replication in each treatment were randomly chosen
from subplot of each replication in each sampling period. The plant samples
were used for the determination of plant height, dry weights plant-1,
fresh and dry pod yields ha-1 and also photosynthetic activities
(photosynthetic rate, leaf water transpiration, available CO2 in
leaf and leaf temperature). The experiment consisted of six treatments, i.e.,
field A: Control treatment (T1), field B: Control treatment (T2).
Treatment 3 (T3) was carried out in field A where, the plot was evenly
added with fermented crop residues at a rate of 3,125 kg ha-1 plus
fermented poultry manure at a rate of 3,125 kg ha-1. The chili plants
were sprayed with Neem seeds extracted solution (Scirtothrips dorsalis)
once a month (50 g of ground Neem seeds plus 1 L of tap water and allowed to
ferment for one week then added with 20 L of tap water filtered with the use
of clothing material then evenly sprayed to the chili plants. This amount of
solution was used for each spraying period). The spraying of Neem seeds extracted
solution was used by spraying to plants to prevent insect damages to chili plants.
During the growth period, chili plants were sprayed once a week with fermented
juices derived from green leaves of vegetable crops (mostly cabbages, 20 kg
fresh weight : 20 L tap water and allowed to ferment for five weeks) as to provide
foliage nutrient supplement. Fermented crop residues of the mixture of fruits
of pine apple, papaya and other wastes of orchard fruits were mixed up with
tap water and then sprayed to chili plants once a month (1:2 by volume). This
treatment was a repeat of the practices carried out by villagers in Northeast
With treatment 4 (T4) in Field B, each replication was added with fermented cattle manure at a rate of 1,562.5 kg ha-1 plus chemical fertilizer 15-15-15 (NPK) at a rate of 93.75 kg ha-1. At 30 days after transplanting, urea (46-0-0: NPK) was added at a rate of 62.50 kg ha-1 and later at 60 days after transplanting, chemical fertilizer 16-16-16 (NPK) was applied at a rate of 125 kg ha-1 and two weeks later, chemical fertilizer 12-24-12 (NPK) was added again at a rate of 93.50 kg ha-1. The spraying of Carbofuran insecticide was carried out at 10-day intervals to control the spread out of Scirtothrips dorsalis, whilst Mancozeb and Carbendazin fungicides were applied once a month to control the spread out of Colletotrichum zbethinum Sacc.
For treatment 5 (T5), field B, each replication was added with fermented
crop residues at a rate of 3,125 kg ha-1 plus 3,125 kg ha-1
of fermented poultry manure. The chili plants were sprayed with Neem seeds extracted
solution as that of Treatment 3. The chili plants were also applied once a month
with bacteria BT i.e., Bacillus thuringiensis where, 1 g of BT was mixed
with 100 mL coconut juices and allowed to ferment for 2 days then added up with
20 L of tap water then sprayed to chili plants to control the spread out of
sooty mold (Capnodium sp.). The spraying was carried out once a month.
With treatment 6 (T6), field A, at 30 days after transplanted, each plot was added with cattle manure at a rate of 1,562.50 kg ha-1 plus 93.75 kg ha-1 of chemical fertilizer 16-16-16 (NPK). When the chili plants reached an age of 62 days after transplanting, chemical fertiliser 16-16-16 (NPK) was applied again at a rate of 125.00 kg ha-1 plus 125 kg ha-1 of chemical fertiliser 12-24-12 (NPK). The control of insect pests was carried out as that of treatment 4.
The following growth parameters were measured, i.e., plant height, total dry
weight plant-1 (Sestak et al., 1971;
Suksri, 1999), pod fresh weight, pod dry weight, leaf photosynthetic
rate of CO2 uptake with the use of a portable photosynthetic meter
Model LCA4 ADC. The measurements were carried out before noon (10 -12 a.m.),
CO2 content in leaves, leaf temperature, polyamines of putrescine,
spermidine and spermine contents in leaves with the methods described by Flores
and Galston (1982), Smith and Davies (1985) and
Terapongtanakorn (2000). Polyamines were determined with the use of a pair
of third leaves (counted from top) with an amount of 30 g fresh weight from
each replication. These measurements were carried out four times at days 62,
90, 121 and 151 after transplanting but measurement on total dry weight plant-1
was carried out only once at day 151 after transplanting. Due to a similar trend
in all attained parameters, hence only the data taken at days 62 and 151 after
transplanting are included in this publication. The obtained data were statistically
analyzed with the use of a computer programme (SAS, 1989).
Soil analysis data: With initial soil analysis data, the results showed
that mean soil pH values ranged from 3.97 to 6.39 for T5 and T3,
respectively (Table 1). Organic matter values ranged from
0.73 to 1.48% for T5 and T3, respectively. Nitrogen values
ranged from 0.029 to 0.058% for T1 and T4, respectively.
Available phosphorus values ranged from 30.90 to 61.29 ppm for T3
and T2, respectively. Exchangeable potassium values ranged from 46.38
to 65.44 ppm for T6 and T1, respectively. The results
on soil analysis at the end of the experimental period showed that soil pH values
ranged from 4.32 to 7.92% for T5 and T3, respectively
(Table 1). Organic matter values ranged from 0.734 to 1.438%
for T5 and T3, respectively. Soil nitrogen values ranged
from 0.032 to 0.063% for T1 and T4, respectively.
Mean values of initial and final soil analysis data of
the Warin soil series (Oxic Paleustults) of the Experimental plots (fields
A and B) being used for growth and pod yields of chili plants cv. Hua
Reua, grown in Northeast Thailand
values of plant height, total dry weight, pod fresh weight and pod dry
weight at 62 and 151 days after transplanting of seedlings of chili plants
cv. Hua Reua, grown on Warin soil series (Oxic Paleustults) in Northeast
in each column indicated least significant differences of Duncans
multiple range test at probability (**p) = 0.01
Available phosphorus values ranged from 45.89 to 78.45 ppm for T3
and T5, respectively. Soil exchangeable potassium values ranged from
52.67 to 79.25 ppm for T6 and T4, respectively.
Plant height, total dry weight, pod fresh weight and pod dry weight plant-1: Plant height values at 62 days after transplanting were highest with T3 followed by T6, T4, T5, T1 and least for T2 with values of 38.66, 30.36, 28.18, 25.21, 21.80 and 12.21 cm plant-1, respectively (Table 2). The differences were large and highly significant. At 151 days after transplanting, plant height was highest with T3 followed by T6, T4, T5, T1 and T2 with values of 86.75, 61.14, 57.12, 50.85, 50.20 and 38.11 cm plant-1, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant. For total dry weight (g plant-1) at 151 days after transplanting, total dry weights ranged from 74 to 179 g plant-1 for T1 and T3, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant. With pod fresh weights at 62 days after transplanting, the results revealed that pod fresh weight was highest with T3 followed by T6, T4, T1, T5 and T2 with values of 92.73, 88.15, 79.12, 70.44, 65.72 and 59.07 g plant-1, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant. At 151 days after transplanting, pod fresh weight was highest with T4 followed by T3, T6, T5, T1 and T2 with values of 860.34, 812.22, 775.18, 659.31, 580.22 and 436.31 g plant-1, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant. The results on pod dry weights at 62 days after transplanting, it showed that pod dry weight was highest with T3 followed by T4, T1, T6, T5 and T2 with values of 31.12, 25.74, 22.65, 19.31, 15.34 and 10.63 g plant-1, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant. At 151 days after transplanting, pod dry weights ranged from 112.60 to 280.29 g plant-1, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant.
CO2 uptake, CO2 in leaves and leaf temperature:
At 62 days after transplanting, the amount of CO2 uptake by leaves
of chili plants was highest with T4 followed by T6, T3,
T5, T2 and T1 with values of 6.72, 6.53, 5.59,
3.91, 2.44 and 2.34 μmol/m/2sec, respectively. The differences
were large and highly significant (Table 3). At 151 days after
transplanting, CO2 uptake values ranged from 4.95 to 8.44 μmol/m/2/sec
for T2 and T4, respectively. The differences were large
and highly significant. With CO2 in leaves of chili plants at 62
days after transplanting, their values ranged from 190.94 to 372.74 million-1
for T1 and T6, respectively. The differences were large
and highly significant. At 151 days after transplanting, values of CO2
in leaves ranged from 359.10 to 521.33 million-1 for T2
and T1, respectively.
values of CO2 uptake (μmol m-2 s-1)
by leaves, CO2 available in leaves (volume/million) and leaf
temperature (°C) of chili plants at 31 and 91 days after transplanting,
grown on Warin soil series (Oxic Paleustults) in Northeast Thailand
in each column indicated least significant differences of Duncans
multiple range test at probability (**p) = 0.01
values of chemical contents of putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd), spermine
(Spm) of chili plants cv. Hua Reua, grown on Warin soil series (Oxic Paleustults)
in Northeast Thailand
Putrescine, Spd: Spermidine, Spm: Spermine. Letter(s) in each column indicated
least significant differences of Duncans Multiple Range test at
probability (**p) = 0.01
The differences were large and highly significant. With leaf temperature at
62 days after transplanting, leaf temperature values ranged from 30.70 to 34.29°C
for T1 and T5, respectively. The differences were large
and highly significant.
Polyamines of putrescine, spermidine and spermine contents in leaves of chili: For chemical contents of Putrescine (Put) at 62 days after transplanting, the results showed that Put content mean values ranged from 433 to 684 nanomolar g-1FW for T6 and T2, respectively (Table 4). The differences were large and highly significant. At 151 days after transplanting, Put mean values ranged from 359 to 587 nanomolar g-1FW for T6 and T4, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant. With Spermidine (Spd) chemical contents at 62 days after transplanting, the results showed that Spd mean values ranged from 194 to 639 nanomolar g-1FW for T6 and T3, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant. At 151 days after transplanting, Spd mean values ranged from 297 to 496 nanomolar g-1FW for T6 and T2, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant. The results on chemical contents of Spermidine (Spm) at 62 days after transplanting revealed that Spm mean values ranged from 345 to 662 nmol g-1FW for T6 and T2, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant. At 151 days after transplanting, the Spm values ranged from 298 to 509 nanomolar g-1FW for T6 and T2, respectively. The differences were large and highly significant.
With the results on mean values of initial soil analysis of field A (organic
manure added soil) of T1, T3 and T6 treatments,
it indicated that mean values of soil pH and organic matter (%) were much higher
than field B of T2, T4 and T5 treatments (chemical
fertilizers added soil). The results indicated that after some years of organic
manures have been continuously added to the soil for chili cultivation, values
of soil pH and organic matter percentages have increased. Whilst mean values
of soil nitrogen% (N), available phosphorus (P, ppm) and exchangeable potassium
(K, ppm) of field B (chemical fertilizers added soil), in most cases, possessed
higher mean values of NPK than Field A. The results suggested that NPK elements
contained in organic manure resources could have been much smaller in quantity
than that of the chemical fertilizers yet some larger amount of calcium ions
could have been found in manure resources, whilst in most complete chemical
fertilizers formulae, calcium sources were slightly added or even left out.
Thus organic manures possess greater advantages in improving soil conditions
for plant growth and development than chemical fertilizers since organic manures
released Ca2+ thus soil pH value is relatively high so it promotes
the flocculation of soil colloids and thus improves soil structure and the stability
of soil particles. This has been confirmed by a number of workers, e.g., Mengel
and Kirkby (1987), Miller and Donahue (1990), Suksri
et al. (1991), Suksri (1992, 1999),
Kasikranan (2003) and Pholsen (2003).
Therefore, organic manures possess important value in growing crop plants in
all soil series, particularly with the soils in the tropics where a high leaching
rate of soil nutrients occurred due to heavy rains or high rate of soil erosion.
Soil analysis results at the final harvest revealed that T1 and T2
attained lower values of soil pH and soil organic matter% than that of the initial
soil. This could have been attributed to the depletion of soil nutrients and
some certain amount could have been taken up by plants, particularly Ca2+
and perhaps the low values could have been due to a high leaching rate of soil
nutrients. Other treatments (T3 up to T6) gave higher
values than that of the initial values such as pH, organic matter and NPK. This
must be attributable to the added amounts of organic manures either cattle or
poultry. Furthermore, all treatments except both control treatments (T1
and T2) received additional amounts of fermented crop residues and
even those of chemical fertilizers treatments (T4 and T6)
were also added with fermented crop residues, hence soil conditions of the plots
When compare the results on plant height, total dry weight plant-1,
pod fresh weight and pod dry weight plant-1 in relation to previous
history of chili crop cultivation of both fields (both fields A and B) of the
control treatments (T1 and T2), it revealed that the land
area that had been continuously added with organic manures for chili cultivation
(field A) gave significantly higher values of all determined items. This must
be attributable to the improvement of soil property by organic manures where
soil structure and nutrient contents have been improved. Therefore, it may be
inferred that the use of animal manures and fermented crop residues could provide
sustainable agriculture. Furthermore, there is a high demand for chili pod production
being produced by organic agriculture. However, Suksri (1992)
stated that cattle manure and green manure gave significantly better growth
and yield of maize (Zea mays L.) when combined with chemical fertilizers,
particularly in combination with complete chemical fertilizers of high potassium
(K) formulae such as 13-13-21 (NPK).
In comparing the effects due to treatments among the organic manure treated
chili plants, i.e., T3 of field A is compared with T5
of field B. These two treatments received the same rates of both fermented crop
residues and fermented poultry manure. The results showed that in most cases,
T3 gave significantly higher values of plant height, total dry weight
plant-1, pod fresh weight and pod dry weight plant-1 than
T5. The results indicated that field A suited most for the growth
of chili plants due to its previous history of the plot where organic manures
had been used for chili cultivation for a number of years whereas field B had
been added with chemical fertilizers for chili pod production for a number of
years. Thus, organic manure added plots of each replication provided more suitable
soil conditions for growth of chili plants than chemical added plots. When comparing
the results of T4 to T6, these two treatments received
a similar amount of fermented crop residues but different chemical fertilizers
formulae and amounts of NPK elements. The two treatments were carried out as
a repeat of villagers practices. It was found that plant height was greater
for T6 (manures added soil) than T4 (chemical fertilizers
added soil), total dry weight plant-1 was slightly higher for T4
than T6 but statistically similar yet both fresh and dry weights
of pods were significantly greater for T4 than T6. This
must be attributable to the differences in the amounts of available phosphorus
and exchangeable potassium where both nutrients were much higher for T4
than T6 hence greater amount of leaf assimilates were produced by
chili plants of T4 greater than T6. Phosphorus has its
significant role in many respects, e.g., the production of energy of Adenosine
Tri-phosphate (ATP) and encouraging the production of flowers, while potassium
helps in transporting assimilates from sources (leaves) to sinks (pods) thus
higher pod yields could be attained in each sampling period (Mengel
and Kirkby, 1987; Suksri, 1999). Nevertheless, it was found that mean values
of available phosphorus (P) in all treatments were relatively high, particularly
the plots of Field B (T2, T4 and T5). This
must be attributable to the previous history of the plots where some high amount
of chemical phosphorus in any complete chemical fertilizers formulae had been
added to the soil. Whilst the mean values of exchangeable potassium (K) were,
in all cases, lesser than the required minimum amount of 80 ppm of exchangeable
K for optimum yields of many agronomic crops, e.g., maize, soybeans and others.
At the final sampling period, it was found that values of CO2 uptake and CO2 in leaves were significantly greater for T1 than T2. This could have been attributed to the differences in the rapid unloading of assimilates in leaves of chili plants of T1 greater than T2 hence pod yield was significantly higher. A similar trend was attained between T3 and T5 and between T4 and T6 where amounts of both CO2 in leaves and the uptake of chili plants are corresponded with pod yields, i.e., the higher the amounts of CO2 taken up and available in leaves the greater the pod yields of the chili plants.
With polyamines content in leaves of the chili plants, i.e., the chemical compounds
of putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm), these chemical compounds
possess its important role in the establishment of protein structure, enzyme
activities and others (Bagni and Pistocchi, 1992). When
any plants undergone stress conditions such as lack of water, high salts concentration,
hot and cold environments then the plants could produce more of Putrescine chemical
compound (Evan and Malmberg,1989). With this work, when
T1 compared with T2, it was found that T2,
in most cases, attained significantly greater amounts of the three chemical
compounds than T1and the highest value was found with putrescine
(Put). The results suggested that the chili plants of T2 could have
been subjected to soil environmental stresses, i.e., low values of soil pH and
organic matter% but with high amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), particularly
phosphorus where the amount reached a mean value of 61.29 ppm. This available
amount of P could be considered as an excessive amount in soil thus the chili
plants were subjected to a stress condition apart from the low soil pH value
and an inadequate amount of exchangeable K. The optimum mean value of available
P in soil should be in a range from 20 to 30 ppm (Suksri, 1999). The higher
level of P could cause toxic effect to plants. Teraphongtanakorn (2000) stated
that polyamines chemical compounds could be synthesized in plant cells and the
amount could be increased if grown under stress conditions. However, when compared
T3 (field A) to T5 (Field B), these two treatments are
comparable since each of them attained a similar amount of fermented crop residues,
organic manures and chemical fertilizers. The results turned out that initial
values of soil pH and organic matter% were much higher for T3 than
T5 yet initial values of soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
were much higher for T5 than T3, particularly phosphorus.
The results indicated that the chili plants of T5 should have subjected
to a severe stress due to high phosphorus, apart from the low mean value of
soil pH (3.97). The poor soil pH could have been affected the release of soil
nutrients since some amount of nutrients could have been fixed in clay minerals
(Mengel and Kirkby, 1987; Miller and
Donahue, 1990). Thus, the chili plants could have been subjected to a severe
stress of poor available nutrient. Another important factor is a relatively
high environmental temperature in the summer months, thus some of them could
have been severely wilted and unable to produce some large amount of polyamines
chemicals. Of overall effects due to treatments, it is evidently found that
field B of chemical fertilizer treated soil has an excessive amount of available
phosphorus, thus it may be inferred that this piece of land if many types of
crops are to be grown even chili crop then they may not be able to produce a
high tolerant sign of survival due to P toxicity. Therefore, to overcome the
problem, some large amount of fermented crop residues should be added to the
soil and at the same time some certain amount of potassium chemical fertilizer
should be added since all treatments attained mean values of exchangeable potassium
lesser than 80 ppm. Therefore, initial soil analysis data are needed before
organic manure or chemical fertilizer experiments are to be carried out. This
could avoid unnecessary amounts of chemical fertilizers to be added to the soil.
The results of this study indicated that many soil series in the tropics require
some large amount of organic manures in order to improve soil properties for
optimum output of crop yields.
Chili plant has its important role in the Thai economy both fresh and dry pods are enormously used for cooking and industrial purposes. Previous additional amounts of organic manures in field A for chili production gave much higher pH and organic matter% than field B of the chemical fertilizers yet field B gave much higher nitrogen% and available phosphorus (ppm) than field A and the high mean value of P is considered as an excessive amount of toxicity level. Both fields A and B contained an inadequate amount of potassium (K). This was found even at the end of the experimental period. Field A of fermented crop residues plus poultry manure (T3) gave highly significant differences on plant height, total dry weight plant-1, pod fresh and dry weights plant-1 than field B (T5). When Fields A of organic manures and B of chemical fertilizers were compared in terms of growth and yields of chili plants, it revealed that field A, in most cases, gave highly significant differences over field B, thus organic manures added plots of field A possess more advantages than Field B. CO2 uptake and in leaves were, in most cases, higher for field A than field B. Amounts of polyamines, i.e., putrescine (Put), spermidine (Spd) and spermine (Spm) of T2 were affected by stresses caused by previous chemical fertilizers added to the soil hence higher values of Put, Spd and Spm than T1 were attained. The high mean value of available phosphorus (P) in most treatments could have caused toxic effect to chili plants thus a trend on polyamines contents in leaves of the chili plants of all manures and chemical fertilizers treated plants was not cleared.
The authors wish to express their sincere thanks to the Thailand Research Fund for financial assistance and the Faculty of Agricultural Technology, Maha Sarakham Rajabhat University, Mahasarakham 48000, Thailand for laboratory facility provided.
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