Determination of Some Heavy Metal Concentrations in Razor Clam (Solen brevis) from Tanjung Lumpur Coastal Waters, Pahang, Malaysia
B. Akbar John,
A. Siti Waznah,
An effort to analyze selected heavy metal accumulation by the razor clam (Solen brevis) from Tanjung Lumpur was conducted on January to April 2010. A total of fifty individuals of Razor clam Solen brevis were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganase (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) Concentrations were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Among the metals Fe occurred in elevated concentration in the soft tissue of razor clam followed by Zn. Cd was found to be in least concentration in the sample. Mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the soft tissue were 415.2±56.52, 87.74±11.85, 18.71±2.10, 8.64±1.75, 0.67±0.29 and 1.61±0.45 μg g-1 dw, respectively indicating that the bioaccumulation of essential metals in the soft tissue was greater than the non essential heavy metals. Metal accumulation in the soft tissue of razor clam followed Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Cd order in present study. The observed concentration of acute toxicity of metals in Solen brevis (Family: Solenidae) from Tanjung Lumpur Coastal waters was lower than the permissible limit recommended by National and international standards proved that this species could be utilized for human consumption.
to cite this article:
B.Y. Kamaruzzaman, M.S. Zahir, B. Akbar John, A. Siti Waznah, K.C.A. Jalal, S. Shahbudin, S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard, 2010. Determination of Some Heavy Metal Concentrations in Razor Clam (Solen brevis) from Tanjung Lumpur Coastal Waters, Pahang, Malaysia. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13: 1208-1213.
September 24, 2010; Accepted: November 08, 2010;
Published: December 01, 2010
Heavy metals pollution has been a hot issue in environmental studies for many
years. Even though, metals occur naturally in the environment but due to the
anthropogenic inputs which originate from various human activities the concentrations
have been rising. Heavy metals tend to accumulate in the food chain and eventually
will be consumed by organisms (Connell et al., 1999;
Franca et al., 2005). These impacts of anthropogenic
activities on marine environments can be determined by measuring various chemical
markers such as heavy metals in the water, biota and sediments (Audry
et al., 2006; Tuncel et al., 2007).
It was also observed that, among the pollutants found in coastal and estuarine
sediment, heavy metals are the most persistent because they cannot be destroyed
or broken down by natural or biological processes. Aquatic organisms living
in polluted ecosystem often bioconcentrate these metals into their tissues,
it has been argued widely that these organisms can be used as biomonitors indicating
the bioavailability of contaminants and the degree of pollutant (Luten
et al., 1986; Schuhmacher and Domingo, 1996).
Bivalve mollusks are wellknown to accumulate heavy metals and have been
widely used as bioindicator heavy metal pollution in an aquatic environment
(Lau et al., 1998). Filter feeding bivalves are
capable to accumulate heavy metals in their body parts from surrounding environment
and numerous studies were attributed for this purpose. Many studies have shown
that intertidal mollusks can be good biomonitoring organisms (Ismail,
2006). Their sessile natures, mode of feeding, ability to accumulate contaminants
from the environment and availability for human consumption were reported as
the criteria for bivalves to act as indicators (Phillips,
1976a, b). Among them Razor clams (Solen sp.)
are soft bottom dwelling infaunal marine bivalves with more or less narrow and
long shells, with gaps at both ends. There is very little documented information
available about the metal contents in Razor clam (Solen brevis) which
are locally known as ambal despite the popularity as a source of seafood item
(Kanakaraju et al., 2008a). Thus, this study
was undertaken to determine the amounts of selected heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb,
Zn, Fe and Mn) in the soft tissues of razor clam at Tanjung Lumpur coastal area
of Kuantan, Pahang.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sampling location: The study area is located at Kuantan estuary adjacent to Tanjung Lumpur mangrove area (Fig. 1). It is a traditional fishing village located along the mouth of the Kuantan estuary. This study area lies between longitude 103°1913.09 E to 103°2102.79 E and latitude 03°4846.34 N to 03°4734.82 N.
Sample collection and preparation: A total of 50 Solen brevis (Shell
length 5-8 cm) were collected randomly by hand picking during lowest low tide
time from January and April 2010 at sandy beaches of Tanjung Lumpur, Kuantan
Pahang to examine essential and Non essential heavy metal accumulation in the
soft tissue part. Collected mussels were placed in sterile plastic bags and
iced prior to laboratory analysis. The samples were brought to the Institute
of Oceanography and Maritime studies (INOCEM) lab and cleansed to remove the
mud or any attached particles and then washed with double distilled water. Soft
tissue (edible portion) from the shells were excised with a plastic knife and
wrapped with aluminum foil and dried in oven at 65°C for 72 h.
Tissue digestion procedure: Acid digestion method was performed to digest
the samples which involved heating of 0.5 g of dried tissues of razor clam in
Teflon beaker with mixed concentrated acids (Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2),
Nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid (HCl) ) and sulphuric acid
(H2SO4) in the ratio of 1:1 (Kamaruzzaman
et al., 2007). After the digestion process hundred times dilution
was performed using Mili-Q water then the samples were analyzed using Inductively
Coupled Plasma Spectrophotometer (ICP-MS). The values of the heavy metal concentrations
in the tissues were calculated based on dry weights as this discounts the variability
due to inner parts differences in the moisture content of organisms. The precision
assessed by replicate analyses was within ±3%. The analytical procedures
for the razor clam were checked with the Standard Reference Material (SRM) for
Oyster Tissue 1566b. The recoveries of all the metals were between 95-105% (Table
1). One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) statistical test was performed
to check the significance of p-value. The determined concentration of various
heavy metals were compared with previous study on the heavy metal accumulation
in the soft tissues of Solen regularis collected from Sabah, Malaysia
(Kanakaraju et al., 2008b).
|| Location of the study area showing sampling site at Tanjung
Lumpur Coastal area, Pahang
|| Percentage recovery test for Standard Reference Material
(SRM) oyster tissue 1566b
||Comparison of analyzed heavy metal concentrations (μg
g-1 dry weight) in the soft tissue of Razor clam (Solen brevis)
in the present study with similar studies on Solen regularis and
the permissible limits set by Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health
Organization (FAO/WHO) and Malaysian Food Regulation (MFR,
The concentration of analyzed metals (Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd) in the soft tissues of Solen brevis revealed that, Iron (Fe) concentration in the edible soft tissues of razor clam collected from study area (Tanjung Lumpur coastal area, Kuantan) was higher than the other metals with the mean concentration of 415.2±56.52 μg g-1 followed by Zinc (Zn) with mean concentration of 87.74±11.85 μg g-1. Mean concentration of Manganese (Mn) and Copper (Cu) in the soft tissue was 18.71±2.10 and 8.64±1.75 μg g-1, respectively. Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) were accumulated in lower concentration in the soft edible tissue of Solen brevis with the mean concentration range of 1.61±0.45 and 0.67±0.29 μg g-1, respectively. Present observation also revealed that the bioaccumulation level of essential metals is greater than the non-essential metals in the soft tissue of the organism. The order of metal accumulation in the soft tissue of S. brevis collected from Tanjung Lumpur coastal area, Kuantan was Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Cd in this present study (Table 2).
It was also observed that Fe, Cd accumulation in the soft tissue of razor clam collected from Tanjung Lumpur coastal area was lower than the razor clam samples from Serpan, Sabah but higher than Moyan, Sabah samples. Mn concentration in the soft tissue of razor clam in the present study was lower than the concentration of Mn from the Sabah samples but Cu concentration was comparatively elevated in the razor clams in the present study when compared with both Moyan and Sepan samples.
The knowledge of heavy metal concentrations in native species is very important
with respect to nature management, human consumption of these species and to
determine the most useful biomonitor species and the most polluted area. So,
the present study examined the concentrations of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Pb and Cd in
the soft tissue of razor clam collected from Tanjung Lumpur coastal area. It
is also to be noted that there are various factors influencing the metals accumulation
in bivalves. Among them metal bioavailability, season of sampling, size of the
sample, hydrodynamics of the environment and reproductive cycle of selected
organism are having direct influences on the metal accumulation in to the different
body tissues (Otchere, 2003; Kamaruzzaman
et al., 2008b). The elevated concentration of Fe in the soft tissue
of razor clam compared to the other metals in the present study might be due
to the major role played by this essential metal in maintaining the proper physiological
functions of the organism. This observation was well corresponded with the previous
study by Kanakaraju et al. (2008a) who postulated
that Fe plays an important role as an essential element in all living systems
from invertebrates to human, hence they tend to accumulate high concentration
of Fe from the surrounding environment. The high concentration of Fe in the
razor clam might also be due to the abundance of this element in substrate/
sediment. Furthermore, this occurrence also indices the natural capacity to
regulate and accumulate elevated concentration of Fe in bivalves (Kanakaraju
et al., 2008b).
Even though the Zn concentration was higher in the soft tissues of razor clam
when compared with other metals (except Fe), their accumulation produces no
risk to the aquatic organisms.
||Linear regression analysis shows relationship between shell
length (cm) and the amount of accumulation in the soft tissue of razor clam
(μg g-1 dw) collected from Tanjung Lumpur coastal waters
Similar observation was reported by Kamaruzzaman et
al. (2008a) in Asian green mussel Perna viridis indicating higher
accumulation of Zn concentration in the soft tissue compared to other toxic
metals studied. It was also observed that it plays a major role in the biosynthesis
of nucleic acids, DNA and RNA polymerases production and thus involved in the
healing processes of tissues in the body through various enzymatic reactions
The observed low concentration of Mn in the soft tissue of razor clam collected from Tanjung Lumpur coastal area compared with the earlier studies clearly showed that the sources of Mn in the study area was relatively limited. On the other hand, Cu accumulation in the samples from the present study was comparatively higher than the samples from other sampling locations indicating the source of Cu in Tanjung Lumpur coastal area was relatively higher than the other sampling sites. This observation might also be due to the physiologic condition of the razor clams that is influenced by the existing environmental factors which in-turn accelerates the Cu accumulation in faster rate.
In contrast, Cd is not an essential element for plants, animals and human beings
(Kamaruzzaman et al., 2010; Merian,
1990). Generally, the occurrence of Cd in the marine environment is rare.
Therefore, the impact of Cd on the environment is considerably small. As a result,
this study shows Cd as the least abundant metal in razor clam. It was reported
that normally bivalves do not regulate Cd, but they usually accumulate this
element (Kamaruzzaman et al., 2008a; Li
et al., 2006). Hence, razor clam might not be able to regulate Cd
in their body. It was also observed that Pb accumulation in the soft tissue
was also under permissible limit indicating the Tanjung Lumpur coastal area
is not polluted by lethal heavy metals such as Cd and Pb. Linear regression
analysis showed the shell length had no influence on the amount of heavy metal
accumulation by the razor clam for all the selected metals (except for Zn) and
it was also observed that razor clam with the shell length range between 6.5-7.5
cm accumulates more amount of heavy metals (Fig. 2).
Metals concentrations obtained in this study were compared with the international
standards for metals in mollusks/shellfish compiled by Food and Agricultural
Organization (FAO) of United Nation and Malaysian Food Regulation as shown in
Table 2. The obtained results showed that, all metals were
accumulated in lower concentration in the soft tissue than their respective
Maximum Permissible Limits (MPL). In comparison with previous study done by
Kanakaraju et al. (2008a), present study confirm
relatively higher concentration of Cu and Zn, whereas, Mn, Fe, Cd and Pb occur
in slightly lower concentrations in the soft tissue of Solen brevis.
Present study revealed that the concentration of heavy metals such as Fe, Zn
and Mn in the soft tissue of razor clam collected from Tanjung Lumpur coastal
waters found to be high in the samples from other sampling locations and the
least abundant element was Cd (Kanakaraju et al.,
2008b). The detected concentration of all the studied metals in the soft
tissue was fall within the regulatory limits set by FAO and Malaysian Government.
Thus, it can be concluded that the razor clam collected from Tanjung Lumpur
can be classified as safe for human consumption. In addition, by using Solen
brevis as a biomonitoring agent, the contamination of Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd
and Pb in this study area was found not be serious since Solen sp. accumulates
heavy metals in the soft tissues and constitutes one of the important food-chains
in the coastal environment, this information is therefore useful in predicting
metal contaminations in the coastal areas.
Audry, S., G. Blanc, J. Schafer, G. Chaillou and S. Robert, 2006. Early diagenesis of trace metals (Cd, Cu, Co, Ni, U, Mo, and V) in the freshwater reaches of a macrotidal estuary. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70: 2264-2268.
Direct Link |
Bodsworth, C., 1994. The Extraction and Refining of Metals. CRC Press, USA., pp: 348.
Connell, D., P. Lam, B. Richardson and R. Wu, 1999. Introduction to Ecotoxicology. Blackwell Science Ltd., UK., pp: 71.
Franca, S., C. Vinagre, I. Cacador and H.N. Cabral, 2005. Heavy metal concentrations in sediment, benthic invertebrates and fish in three salt marsh areas subjected to different pollution loads in the tagus estuary (Portugal). Mar. Poll. Bull., 50: 998-1003.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Ismail, A., 2006. The use of intertidal molluscs in the monitoring of heavy metals and organotin compounds in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Coast. Mar. Sci., 30: 401-406.
Direct Link |
Kamaruzzaman, B.Y., K. Zaleha, M.C. Ong and K.Y.S. Willison, 2007. Copper and zinc in three dominant brackish water fish species from paka estuary, terengganu, Malaysia. Malaysia J. Sci., 26: 65-70.
Direct Link |
Kamaruzzaman, B.Y., M.C. Ong and K.C.A. Jalal, 2008. Levels of copper, zinc and lead in fishes of mengabang Telipot River, terengganu, Malaysia. J. Boil. Sci., 8: 1181-1186.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Kamaruzzaman, B.Y., M.C. Ong, K. Zaleha and S. Shahbudin, 2008. Levels of heavy metals in green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (Linnaeus) from Muar Estuary, Johore, Malaysia. Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 11: 2249-2253.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Kamaruzzaman, B.Y., M.C. Ong, S.Z. Rina and B. Joseph, 2010. Levels of some heavy metals in fishes from pahang river estuary, Pahang, Malaysia. J. Biol. Sci., 10: 157-161.
Kanakaraju, D., C.A. Jios and S.M. Long, 2008. Heavy metal concentrations in the razor clams (Solen spp.) from muara tebas, sarawak. Malaysian J. Anal. Sci., 12: 53-58.
Direct Link |
Kanakaraju, D., F. Ibrahim and M.N. Berseli, 2008. Comparative study of heavy metal concentrations in razor clam (Solen regularis) in moyan and serpan, sarawak. Global J. Environ. Res., 2: 87-91.
Lau, S., M. Mohamed, A.T.C. Yen and S. Suut, 1998. Accumulation of heavy metals in freshwater molluscs. Sci. Total Environ., 214: 113-121.
CrossRef | PubMed | Direct Link |
Li, Y., Z. Yu, X. Song and Q. Mu, 2006. Trace metal concentrations in suspended particles, sediments and clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) from Jiaozhou bay of China. Environ. Monitoring Assess, 121: 491-501.
Luten, J.B., W. Bouquet, M.M. Burggraaf and J. Rus, 1986. Accumulation, elimination and speciation of cadmium and zinc in mussels, Mytilus edulis in the natural environment. Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 37: 579-586.
Direct Link |
MFR, 1985. Malaysian Law on Food and Drugs. Malaysia Law Publisher, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Merian, E., 1990. Metals and their Compounds in the Environment Occurrence, Analysis and Biological Relevance. Wiley-VCH, Germany.
Otchere, F.A., 2003. Heavy metals concentrations and burden in the bivalves (Anadara (Senilia) senilis, Crassostrea tulipa and Perna perna) from lagoons in Ghana: Model to describe mechanism of accumulation/excretion. Afr. J. Biotechnol., 2: 280-287.
Direct Link |
Phillips, D.J.H., 1976. The common mussel Mytilus edulis as an indicator of pollution by Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu. I. Effects of environmental variables on uptake of metals. Mar. Biol., 38: 59-69.
Direct Link |
Phillips, D.J.H., 1976. The common mussel Mytilus edulis as an indicator of pollution by Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu. II. Relationship of metals in the mussel to those discharged by industry. Mar. Biol., 38: 71-80.
Schuhmacher, M. and J.L. Domingo, 1996. Concentrations of selected elements in oysters (Crassostrea angulata) from the Spanish coast. Bull. Environ. Contamin. Toxicol., 56: 106-113.
CrossRef | Direct Link |
Tuncel, S.G., S. Tugrul and T. Topal, 2007. A case study on trace metals in surface sediments and dissolved inorganic nutrients in surface water of oludeniz lagoon-mediterranean, Turkey. Water Res., 41: 365-372.
WHO, 1982. Toxicological Evaluation of Certain Food Additives. World Health Organization, Geneva, ISBN: 978-92-4-120940-3, pp: 106.