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Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey)



Turan Ozdemir and Nevzat Batan
 
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ABSTRACT

Some moss specimens were collected from Gümüşhane Province between September and October 2008. As a result of field and laboratory studies, 92 taxa belonging to 22 families were identified. These taxa are presented in a list. All taxa are new to the study area (Gümüşhane Province). Eight taxa are (Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwaegr.) Hampe, Ditrichum pusillum (Hedw.) Hampe, Grimmia lisae De Not., Grimmia montana Bruch and Schimp., Herzogiella seligeri (Brid.) Z. Iwats., Leskea polycarpa Hedw., Pohlia melanodon (Brid.) J. Shaw, Trichostomum tenuirostre (Hook and Taylor) Lindb. var. tenuirostre) new records for A4 Square (40-42° N, 38-42° E) were determined. The aim of the study was to determine the moss taxa growing in Gümüşhane Province (Torul and Kürtün districts) and to make a contribution to the moss flora of Turkey.

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  How to cite this article:

Turan Ozdemir and Nevzat Batan, 2009. Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 12: 346-352.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2009.346.352

URL: https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjbs.2009.346.352
 

INTRODUCTION

Mosses are important components of forest ecosystems. They have important contributions on biological diversity providing wet habitats for much type of living organisms. The study on mosses in Turkey are not extensive as in many other countries, thus the moss flora of Turkey is still largely unknown. But in recent years there has been a substantial increase in the number of moss papers referring to the moss flora of Turkey (Blockeel et al., 2003; Erdağ et al., 2003; Papp and Sabovljevic, 2003; Uyar, 2003; Papp, 2004; Uyar and Cetin, 2004; Koz and Ozdemir, 2005; Ozdemir and Koz, 2006; Kurschner, 2004; Kurschner and Erdağ, 2005; Abay, 2006; Abay et al., 2006, 2007; Ozdemir, 2008a, b; Ozdemir and Batan, 2008; Batan and Ozdemir, 2008; Ozdemir and Koz, 2008, Ozdemir et al., 2008).

The study area is very interesting in respect to its natural structure, which encouraged us to conduct a study of the mosses (Musci). No moss records have been made in Gmşhane so far. The present study adds further information to the knowledge of the moss flora of this district of Turkey.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The material for the study was collected during the period of September-October of 2008 in Gmşhane Province in Turkey. The moss samples were incised by knife or spatula from the habitats. After cleaning, the specimens were preserved in bags, each plastic bag has been labeled a providing the information about the habitat of the area, such as the location of the collection, the name of the predominating plant in the surrounding vegetation, the medium where the samples was originally found (stone, branch of a tree, streambed, rotten, etc.).

Moss specimens identified according to the literature (Watson, 1981; Frey et al., 1995; Cortini-Pedrotti, 2001; Smith, 2004; Jimenez, 2006). Species status was evaluated for the region and Turkey by reviewing the related literature (Uyar and Cetin, 2004; Kurschner and Erdag, 2005; Ozdemir, 2008b; Handel- Mazzetti, 1909; Henderson, 1961, 1963; Baydar and Ozdemir, 1996; Ozdemir and Cetin, 1999; Ozdemir, 2001a, b; Abay and Cetin, 2003; Papp, 2004; Uyar and Cetin, 2004; Kurschner and Erdağ, 2005).

In the floristic list for each taxon, the numbers of the sites where they have been found are given, followed by the description of the habitat occupied in the study area. The samples were deposited at the Herbarium of Department of Biology at the Karadeniz Technical University.

Description of the study area: Gmşhane is a transitional area between the Black Sea and East Anatolia regions and this is reflected in its vegetation. Fagus L. sp., Pinus L. sp., Quercus L. sp. and Juniperus L. sp. forests are dominant above 1500 m altitude.

Image for - Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province  (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey)
Fig. 1: The study area (Gmşhane-Turkey) and the grid system adopted by Henderson (1961)

Image for - Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province  (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey)
Fig. 2:

Climatic diagram of the study area (Gmşhane Province)


Table 1: Details of the study area
Image for - Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province  (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey)

Gmşhane is located in the East Black Sea region and is surrounded by Bayburt, Giresun, Trabzon and Erzincan. The geographical position of Gmşhane is 38 45-40 12 East longitude, 39 45-40 50 North latitude and its altitude is about 1210 m. It covers 6575 km2 consisting of 60% mountainous, 29% plateau and 11% lowland areas (Fig. 1).

In general, the climate is quite dry in summer, rainy in autumn and spring and snowy in winter. The annual average temperature in Gmşhane and its surroundings is 10C and its climate has characteristics between the Eastern Anatolia and eastern Black Sea region climates. It can be seen the climatic data of Gmşhane (Fig. 2).

Sites details: The Moss specimens were collected in different localities in the study area (Table 1).

List of the moss taxa: Names of taxa are arranged alphabetically, the nomenclature is according to Smith (2004). After the name of each taxa information about its altitudinal distribution in the research area is given. For common and rare species, all localities in the area from which they are known are listed. The list comprises 48 genera, 89 species and 3 varieties (total 92 taxa) of Musci.

In the following records the taxa name is followed by the number of locations and substrate. The plant list is given according to the system proposed by Smith (2004). Species new to the A4 square are indicated with an asterisk (Table 2).

Table 2: List of taxa (Alphabetically)
Image for - Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province  (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey)
NT: Number of Taxa, Number of Station, HN: Herbarium Number

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

On various types of habitats in the areas of Gmşhane, we recorded the presence of 93 species and varieties of mosses. All species belong to the class of mosses (Bryopsida) and are classified into 48 genera and 22 families. In the mosses in the areas of Gmşhane province, the families with the highest number of taxa such are Pottiaceae (16 taxa) (17.4% of all taxa), Brachytheciaceae (13 taxa) (14.1% of all taxa), Grimmiaceae (9 taxa) (9.8% of all taxa), Bryaceae (8 taxa) (8.7% of all taxa), Hypnaceae (7 taxa) (7.6% of all taxa), Polytrichaceae (5 taxa) (5.4% of all taxa) and others families (35 taxa) (Table 3).

The genera with the highest number of taxa are Grimmia, with 6 taxa, Bryum, Brachythecium and Hypnum, with 5 taxa followed by the genera Didymodon and Thuidium, with 4 taxa. The remaining 7 genera are represented by only one species each (Table 4).

All taxa are new to Gmşhane Province. Eight taxa (Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwaegr.) Hampe, Ditrichum pusillum (Hedw.) Hampe, Grimmia lisae De Not., Grimmia montana Bruch and Schimp., Herzogiella seligeri (Brid.) Z. Iwats., Leskea polycarpa Hedw., Pohlia melanodon (Brid.) J. Shaw, Trichostomum tenuirostre (Hook and Taylor) Lindb. var. tenuirostre) are new to A4 square of Turkey depending on the square grid system adopted by Henderson (1961). In the record the species name is followed by the number of location and substrata.

Table 3: The distributions of the taxa according to the families
Image for - Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province  (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey)
NF: Number of Family, NT: Number of taxa, %: Percentage of taxa according to the total number of taxa

Table 4: The distribution of taxa in habitats
Image for - Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province  (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey)

NH: Number of Habitat, NT: Number of taxa

Forty three taxa were found growing on soil. The samples growing on soil are 46.74% all samples. These are Annomodon attenuatus (Hedw.) Hueb., Barbula unguiculata Hedw., Bartramia ithyphylla Brid., Brachythecium albicans (Hedw.) Schimp., Brachythecium mildeanum (Schimp.) Schimp., Brachythecium trachypodium (Brid.) Schimp., Bryum dichotomum Hedw., Calliergonella cuspidata (Hedw.) Loeske, Dicranum majus Turner, Dicranum scoparium Hedw., Ditrichum flexicaule (Schwaegr.) Hampe, Eurhynchium diversifolium Schimp., Grimmia lisae De Not., Grimmia longirostris Hook., Grimmia montana Bruch and Schimp., Grimmia pulvinata (Hedw.) Sm., Homalothecium sericeum (Hedw.) Schimp., Homolothecium lutescens (Hedw.) H. Rob., Hylocomium splendens (Hedw.) Schimp., Hypnum cupressiforme Hedw., Hypnum jutlandicum Holmen and Warncke, Hypnum resupinatum Taylor, Leskea polycarpa Hedw., Plagiomnium elatum (Bruch. and Schimp.) T.J. Kop., Plagiomnium undulatum (Hedw.) T. J. Kop., Plagiothecium succulentum (Wilson) Lindb., Pleurochaete squarrosa (Brid.) Lindb., Pogonatum urnigerum (Hedw.) P. Beauv., Polytrichastrum formosum (Hedw.) G. L. Sm., Polytrichum commune Hedw., Racomitrium elongatum Ehrh. ex Frisvoll, Rhyntidiadelphus squarrosus (Hedw.) Warnst., Rhyntidiadelphus triquetrus (Hedw.) Warnst., Scorpidium revolvens (Sw.) Hedenas, Syntrichia virescens (De. Not.) Ochyra, Thuidium assimile (Mitt.) A. Jaeger, Thuidium delicatulum (Hedw.) Schimp., Thuidium tamariscinum (Hedw.) Schimp., Tortella fragilis (Hook and Wilson) Limpr., Tortella tortuosa (Hedw.) Limpr., Tortula subulata var. subulata Hedw., Trichostomum brachydontium Bruch., Trichostomum tenuirostre (Hook and Taylor) Lindb. var. tenuirostre (Table 4).

Twenty-four taxa were found growing on the rocks and stones depending on data obtained from the study area. These are 26.09 % of all samples. These are Anomodon viticulosus (Hedw.) Hook. and Taylor, Atrichum undulatum (Hedw.) P. Beauv., Bartramia halleriana Hedw., Brachythecium glaerosum (Spruce) Schimp., Bryum capillare Hedw., Dicranum flexicaule Brid., Didymodon tophaceus (Brid.) Lisa, Didymodon vinealis (Brid.) R. H. Zander, Ditrichum pusillum (Hedw.) Hampe, Eucladium verticillatum Brid., Grimmia ovalis (Hedw.) Lindb., Grimmia trichophylla Grew., Hypnum cupressiforme Brid var. tectorum, Mnium thomsonii Schimp., Pohlia cruda (Hedw.) Lindb., Pohlia melanodon (Brid.) J. Shaw, Racomitrium aquaticum (Brid. ex Shrad) Brid., Racomitrium ericoides (F. Weber ex Brid.) Brid., Rhizomnium punctatum (Hedw.) Kop., Rhynchostegium murale (Hedw.) Schimp., Syntrichia intermedia Brid., Syntrichia ruralis (Hedw.) F. Weber and D. Mohr, Thuidium abietinum (Hedw.) Schimp., Tortula princeps De. Not. (Table 4).

Eleven taxa were found growing on wet rock and stones. These are 11.96 % of all samples. These are Bryum imbricatum (Schwaegr.) Bruch and Schimp., Climacium dendroides Weber and Mohr., Ctenidium molluscum (Hedw.) Mitt., Dicranella heteromalla (Hedw.) Schimp., Didymodon insulanus (De Not.) Hill, Hypnum lacunosum (Brid.) Holffman, Philonotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid., Plagiothecium undulatum (Hedw.) Schimp., Platyhypnidium riparioides (Hedw.) Dixon, Polytrichum alpinum Hedw., Pseudoleskea patens (Lindb.) Kindb. (Table 4).

Six specimens were detected on fresh tree body (Didymodon rigidulus Hedw., Eurhynchium striatum (Schreb. ex Hedw.) Schimp., Homalothecium philippeanum Schimp., Isothecium alopecuroides (Dubois) Isoviita, Leucodon sciuroides Hedw. var. sciuroides, Neckera crispa Hedw.) These are 6,52 % in all samples (Table 4).

Four taxa were found growing on wet soil (Bryum laevifilum Syed., Bryum pallescens Schleich. ex Schwaegr., Fissidens adianthoides Hedw., Philonotis tomentella Molendo.) These are 4.35% of all taxa (Table 4).

Four taxa were detected growing on died tree body (Brachythecium populeum (Hedw.) Schimp., Epiptrygium tozeri (Grew.) Lindb., Herzogiella seligeri (Brid.) Iwats., Thamnobryum alopecurum (Hedw.) Gangulee). The taxa growing on tree body are 4.35 of all taxa (Table 4).

It can be seen a comparison the present study with the other studies (Contributions to the Moss flora of Giresun region (aebinkarahisar and Alucra district) (Ozdemir and Batan, 2008), The Bryophyte flora of Yenice Forest (Karabk, Turkey) (Uyar et al., 2007 ), Contribution to the Moss Flora of Western Turkey: Moss Flora of the Kaz Mountain (Balikesir, Turkey) (Erdağ and Yayintas, 1999) and Contributions to the Moss flora of Giresun region (Hatila Valley National Park-Turkey) (Batan and Ozdemir, 2008) in Table 5. As shown in Table 5, Pottiaceae, Brachytheciaceae, Grimmiaceae and Bryaceae have the highest number of taxa. Hylocomium, Anomodontaceae, Leskeaceae and Plagiotheciaceae have the limited number of taxa in all studies (Table 5). Grimmia, Bryum, Brachythecium and Hypnum have highest number of species in all studies in Table 6.

Table 5: A comparison of the study according to species with the other some studies in Turkey
Image for - Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province  (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey)
NT: Number of taxa, 1: Present study, 2: Contributions to the Moss flora of Giresun region (aebinkarahisar and Alucra district, 3: The Bryophyte flora of Yenice Forest (Karabk, Turkey), 4: Contribution to the Moss Flora of Western Turkey: Moss Flora of the Kaz Mountain (Balikesir, Turkey), 5: Contributions to the Moss flora of Giresun region (Hatila Valley National Park-Turkey)

Table 6: A comparison of the study according to the genera with the other some studies in Turkey
Image for - Contributions to the Moss Flora of Gumushane Province  (Torul and Kurtun Districts, Turkey)
NT: Number of taxa, 1: Present study, 2: Contributions to the Moss flora of Giresun region (aebinkarahisar and Alucra district), 3: The Bryophyte flora of Yenice Forest (Karabk, Turkey), 4: Contribution to the Moss Flora of Western Turkey: Moss Flora of the Kaz Mountain (Balikesir, Turkey), 5: Contributions to the Moss flora of Giresun region (Hatila Valley National Park-Turkey)

It was defined that the families with pleurocarpic features are more common than the acrocarpics as a result of comparing with both the samples in the study area and also the previous studies in the Black Sea region of Turkey. This is because the fact that the region has a rainy climate and vast forest lands. Although Black Sea region of Turkey is very adaptable fort he development of Bryophytes and with their convenient ground and climatic conditions, the numbers of taxa are not rich as to be ezpected. It means that in the Black Sea region the numbers of the taxa are low but they are very common in respect to Bryophytes, these results from both the similar area and climate characteristics (Table 5, 6).

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