Investigation Fauna and Density of Population of Spiders
in the Desert and Pomegranate Orchards in Tehran and Semnan Provinces
The present study was carried out to consideration the spider`s fauna and abundance of spiders in the desert and pomegranate orchards in Tehran and Semnan provinces, during 2007. Specimens were collected from desert and pomegranate orchards by pitfall trap, shaking tree, pans, bottle and aspirator and were taken to the laboratory after labeling. A total of 1231 specimens were classified in 45 species and 36 genera belonged to 17 families. Among them 4 spider species were new for Iranian spider fauna. The families Lycosidae, Linyphiidae, Gnaphosidae and Theridiidae had height population in the study areas. Specimens were immature in the winter and spring and they were adult in the summer. The dominant species in all of study regions was Pardosa agrestis (Westring).
Spiders have a wide insect host
range and thus can act as biological control agents of insect pests in
agro-ecosystems. Thirty five thousand species of spiders have been identified
in the world and a total of 244 species of spiders are known in Iran (Ghavami,
2006a, 2007a). Most of investigations on spiders are in agricultural ecosystems
in Iran. For instance, some researches were performed on spider fauna
and abundance of rice fields, in this study, twenty seven species of spiders
were reported (Mozaffarian et al., 2000). Spiders were one of the
most abundant predators in these fields (Ghavami, 2004). Forty five species
and 59 genera belonging to 19 families were recorded on the cotton fields.
Twenty eight species, 15 genera and 1 family of spiders were reported
as a first record of Iran. Through regular weekly visiting dominant species
were also determined with following species Cheiracanthium pennyi,
Aulonia albimana, Neoscona adianta and Thanatus formicinus
in Ardebil, Fars, Gholestan and Tehran, respectively. Host preference
and effects of the spider on major cotton insect pests were also studied
on the laboratory condition for the first time in Iran in 2004. Results
indicated that maximum predation occurred T. imperialis, O. salticus,
T. formicinus and C. pennyi on Empoasca decipiens in
Tehran and Ardebil provinces and A. albimana on Bemisia tabaci
in Fars province (Ghavami et al., 2004, 2007b, 2008; Ghavami,
2007b). Forty species and 34 genera of spiders were reported from citrus
orchards. Six species of spiders were recorded for the first time from
Iran (Ghavami, 2006c; Ghavami and Ghanadamooz, 2008). The most abundant
of spider species belonged to Linyphiidae and Araneidae families in these
orchards, respectively (Ghavami and Ghanadamooz, 2008). Forty five species
and 47 genera belonging to 18 families classified in the olive orchards.
Twenty-five species, 9 genera and 2 families were reported for the first
time from Iran, (Ghavami et al, 2007a; Ghavami, 2006b, 2007b).
Also, many studies have been done on spider fauna, abundance and their
role in pest control in many countries. In a study, Oecobius annulipes
was one of the important predators in the pomegranate orchards in California
(Carrol, 2005). Latrodectus Hesperus collected from pomegranate
orchards in San Joaquin in California, too (Hernandez, 2007). Icius
hamatus was found in a silk retreat inside top of pomegranate tree.
It was first record of this species in Poland (Tomasiewicz and Wesolowsk,
2006). The aim of present study was investigation spider fauna of desert
and pomegranate orcharads in the central part of Iran (Tehran and Semnan
provinces) during 2007.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Study area: Study areas situated
in the part of central region of Iran and included Tehran and Semnan provinces.
Tehran, placed in the South of Mazandaran and Alborz Mountains, East of
Semnan, North of Qum and Markazi and West of Ghazvin. North of Tehran
surrounding by mountains but South of that is plain and desert (Dasht
e Kavir). Latitude, Longitude and height of Tehran are 17` 51°- 33` 51°
and 37` 35°- 47` 35° and 1100-1500 m, respectively. Semnan located in
the east of Tehran, South of Alborz Mountains, Mazandaran and Golestan,
West of Khorasan and North of Esfahan provinces. The most areas of Semnan
are placed in the desert (Dasht e Kavir) and salt lake is located in the
South East of Semnan. Latitude, Longitude and height of Semnan are included
23`, 53°, 34`, 35° and 1132 m, respectively. We considered pomegranate
orchards were situated in the Dasht e Kvir and pomegranate orchards were
adjoining of that. Because, a part of Tehran (Varamin) and Semnan (Garmsar)
provinces situated in the Dasht e Kvir. In order to specimen collection,
one site of each province choosed as a study area and 5 places selected
in the desert and 5 places in the arable fields (pomegranate orchards)
randomly. Places situated between different landscapes.
Sampling method: Spider fauna will determined by pitfall trap,
hand catch, aspirator and stocking to the branches of trees every 15 days.
Specimens transferred to the lab and classified by spider identification
keys (Anonymous, 2002; Barrion and Litsinger, 1995; Borrer et al.,
1989; Kaston, 1970; Roberts, 1985).
Dispersal and dominant species assessed by pitfall trap.
In order to day and night activity, diurnal and nocturnal species, population
of species in day and night, migrated species of surrounding landscape,
migrated species by ballooning and dispersal pattern. Specimens collected
by put 3 pitfall traps in the each place. Pitfalls have diameter 4 cm
and were refilled with a formaldehyde, water and soap solution. Data of
population of species determined by calculated mean and percentage (Bonte
and Mailfait, 2001).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
In this study, true results revealed that there were a total
of 1231 specimens` 45 species and 36 genera were identified. Among them
4 spider species were new for Iranian spider fauna. The number of identified
spider species in Tehran and Semnan provinces was 32 and 37, respectively.
Most species were collected from Semnan and the fewest were collected
from Tehran desert. Characters of identified species, materials examined
and their distribution were shown in the Table 1.
Spiders had high population in the pomegranate orchards. The population
of them considered in three seasons (winter, spring and summer). The highest
population of spiders were in the spring and summer seasons. The population
of spiders was less in the desert (Dasht e Kavir) and many of species
didn`t find in this area. Most spider species were belonged to Lycosidae,
Linyphiidae and Theridiidae families in the pomegranate
The spider species that collected from the study
areas and distribution of them in the sites of collection
*: Species were new for Iranian spider fauna.
+: Site of distribution of species and genera
Monthly dispersion spider`s species in Tehran pomegranate
orchards in 2007
orchads and desert. Dominant species was Pardosa agrestis
(Westring) in all of study areas. The monthly population of spiders has
shown in the Table 2-5.
The most population of spider`s species belonged to Lycosidase, Theridiidae
and Gnaphosidae families in Tehran pomegranate orchards, respectively.
Monthly dispersion spider`s species in Semnan pomegranate
orchards in 2007
density of population of spiders in the winter was belonged
to Lycosidae and Theridiidae families. The highest population in the spring
was belonged to Lycosidae and Theridiidae families and most population
in the summer season were belonged to Gnaphosidae family (Table
The highest population of spider`s species was belonged
to Lycosidae, Theridiidae and Gnaphosidae families in Semnan pomegranate
orchards, respectively. Most of density of population of spiders in the
winter was belonged to Lycosidae and Salticidae families. Lycosidae and
Gnaphosidae families had highest population in the spring and Lycosidae,
Theridiidae and Gnaphosidae families had most population in the summer
season in these pomegranate orchards (Table 3).
A part of Tehran province located in the Dasht e Kavir. The most of pomegranate
orchards of Tehran situated in the Varamin. Some of pomegranate orchards
of Varamin are located in the Dasht e Kavir. Spider species belonged to
Lycosidae, Gnaphosidae and Theridiidae families had most population in
this region. The most spider species belonged to Lycosidae and Linyphiidae
families had highest population in the winter and species belonged to
Lycosidae, Linyphiidae and Theridiidae families had most density of population
in the spring. Also, Species belonged to Theridiidae and Linyphiidae families
had highest population in the summer in this area (Table
4).The desert of Semnan province is wider than desert of Tehran province.
The most pomegranate
Monthly dispersion of spider`s
species in Tehran Desert in 2007
Monthly dispersion of spider`s species in Semnan desert in
orchards of Semnan province situated in the Garmsar. The
most parts of Garmsar located in the Dasht e kavir. Most of spider`s species
in this area were belonged to Lycosidae, Theridiidae and Gnaphosidae families,
respectively. The highest population in the winter and spring were belonged
to Lycosidae family and the most population in the summer was belonged
to Lycosidae and Thomisidae families (Table 5).
Many of spider species are common in pomegranate orchards and other crops
in the study areas, such as cotton fields. Some species belonged to Lycosidae,
Theridiidae, Gnaphosidae and Araneidae families were found in the cotton
fields in Tehran province, too (Ghavami et al., 2007b; Ghavami,
2007b). The species belonged to Theridiidae family had high population
in the pomegranate orchards in the study areas. Also, Latrodectus hesperus
collected from pomegranate orchards in California and had high population
in these orchards (Hernandez, 2007). Species belonged to Salticidae family
were found in the pomegranate orchards in the study areas. They had high
population in these orchards and had an important role in pest control.
Icius hamatus was found on pomegranate trees in Poland, too (Tomasiewicz
and Wesolowsk, 2006).
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