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Lichens from Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevsehir Provinces (Turkey)

K. Yazici, A. Aslan, J. Etayo and P. Giordani
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A contribution to the lichen flora of Turkey is performed. A total of 171 lichen taxa (including 2 subspecies and 2 varieties) and 1 lichenicolous fungus are determined from 14 localities in Antalya, Çankiri, Konya and Nevsehir provinces of Turkey. Caloplaca scrobiculata H.Magn. is new to Turkey. Besides Caloplaca scrobiculata H.Magn. and Xanthoria sorediata (Vain.) Poelt were found for the second time in Asia. Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel was found to grow on Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll.Arg. while Muellerella pymaea (Körb.) D. Hawksw. var. athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel (lichenicolous fungus) on Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner as parasitic. All lichen taxa found in Çankiri are new to this province (92 intraspecific taxa), while 39 new to Nevsehir, 8 new to Konya and 5 new to Antalya provinces. For every each taxon, the habitat pattern and distribution data are presented.

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K. Yazici, A. Aslan, J. Etayo and P. Giordani, 2008. Lichens from Antalya, Cankiri, Konya and Nevsehir Provinces (Turkey). Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 11: 2201-2208.

DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2008.2201.2208



The lichens of Turkey were not studied as extensive as in many European countries Therefore the lichen flora of Turkey is still largely unknown. In the last year, many lichen taxa were reported for the lichen flora of Turkey (Boom Van Dam et al., 2007; Çobanoglu, 2007; Çobanogu and Yavuz, 2007; Dogru and Güvenç, 2007; Duman and Yurdakulol, 2007; Halici et al., 2007a, b; Kinalioglu, 2007a,b; Yazici and Aslan, 2007; Yazici and Aptroot, 2007; Yazici et al., 2007a, b; 2008). Nevertheless some literatures (Steiner, 1909; Karabulut and Özdemir, 1998; Nimis and John, 1998; Schindler, 1998; John et al., 2000; Güvenç, 2002; John, 1996, 2002; Breuss and John, 2004; Tufan et al., 2005; Halici et al., 2006; Çobanoglu, 2005, 2007; Çobanoglu and Sevgi, 2006; Verseghy, 1982; Çobanoglu and Yavuz, 2007) include lichens from the provinces presented in this study. Only 3 intraspecific lichen taxa (Bryoria capillaries (Ach.) Brodo and D. Hawksw., Megalaria laureri (Hepp ex Th. Fr.) Hafellner and Usnea czeczottiae Motyka) have been noted from Çankiri so far (Kalb and Plöbst, 1979; Steiner, 1916) while only 28 taxa from Nevsehir, 273 from Antalya and 130 from Konya.

The aim of the study is to contribute to the lichen flora of Çankiri and Nevsehir where there are no intensive studies and also to the lichen flora of Antalya and Konya for their areas which have not been largely studied.


The lichen samples were collected from 14 stations from 20 May 2005 to 20 April 2006 with altitudes of 100 to 1200 m (Table 1) in Antalya, Çankiri, Konya and Nevsehir provinces, Turkey. After dried at the room temperature, a stereo microscope, a light-microscope and the usual spot tests were used in the identification of the samples, together with the following references: Poelt (1974), Poelt and Vezda (1981), Purvis et al. (1992), Wirth (1995) and Brodo et al. (2001). Voucher specimens were deposited in the herbarium of the Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences and Arts, Karadeniz Technical University.

Descriptions of the study areas: In this study, lichens of provinces Antalya, Çankiri, Konya and Nevsehir (Fig. 1) were investigated. Çankiri, Konya and Nevsehir have a continental climate. Summers are hot and dry, while winters are cold and snowy. In Nevsehir mean annual temperature 10.6°C, Temperature ranges from a low of -23.6°C in depth of winter to 37.6°C on hottest day in summer. In general rainfall is not seen in July, August, September and October. Rainfall averages 429.4 mm per year, the highest precipitation is 570.1 mm, the lowest 289.3 mm (Akman, 1999). Cappadocia is a mountain area that was created from a series of volcanic eruptions. Nevsehir has a steppe plants and there is no tree communities. From time to time Quercus trees are seen in some areas. Salix, Populus and Juglans grow along valleys. Nevsehir has not high mountains and its aspect is high plateau form (Baytop and Denizci, 1963).

Fig. 1: Map of the study area with collecting sites (1: Çankiri, 2: Nevsehir, 3: Konya, 4: Antalya)

Table 1: Collecting sites

Antalya has a typical Mediterranean climate with mild winters and hot summers, with temperature often rising above 30°C in July and August. Summers are hot and dry, winters are warm and rainy. Average humidity is 64%. Mean annual temperature is 28-36°C in summer while the lowest 10-20°C in January (Akman, 1999). Antalya has a steppe vegetation and forest areas between 500-600 m while Cedrus sp., Juniperus sp., Picea orientalis (L.) Link, Pinus brutia Henry and Pinus nigra Arnold in upper altitudes (Baytop and Denizci, 1963).

In Çankiri the most of the forest areas have been destroyed so forest communities are seen only some fields. Abies sp., Cornus sp., Picea orientalis and Quercus sp. trees are present in high altitudes while Populus sp. and Salix sp. along streams and gardens (Baytop and Denizci, 1963).

Seydisehir (Konya), which is located on Seydisehir Plain, is surrounded by mountains. Mean annual rainfall is 750 mm while mean annual temperature 11-12°C (Akman, 1999). In high altitudes are seen Abies sp., Cedrus sp., Juniperus sp. and Pinus nigra while trees are poor in lowlands (Baytop and Denizci, 1963).


The taxonomic survey of Antalya, Çankiri, Konya and Nevsehir (Table 1) yielded 171 lichen taxa (including 2 subspecies and 2 varieties) belonging to 59 genera and 28 families in Ascomycota and 1 lichenicolous fungus from 14 localities. A total of 111 lichen taxa belong to Lecanoromycetes. Caloplaca scrobiculata H.Magn. is new record for Turkey. Besides, Caloplaca scrobiculata and Xanthoria sorediata (Vain.) Poelt were found for the second time in Turkey and Asia.

Caloplaca scrobiculata is a crustose species, to 1-3 (-5) cm diam., orange-yellow or pale orange-red ±continuous, wrinkled-plicate to±areolate centrally, ±plicate-radiate at margins, sometimes very thin, K+purple, saxicolous. Apothecia scattered, 0.2-1.2 mm diam, often numerous centrally, sessile to subpedicellate, rounded or contorted through mutual pressure; disc plane to subconvex, concolorous with thallus, matt to slightly roughened, margins prominent, entire, concolorous with thallus. Ascospores biseriate, 2-locular, fusiform (11-)12-17(-18) x 6.5-8.5 μm. It is a species of the southern Eurasiatic mountains, found on steeply inclined, compact limestone and dolomite.

The most diverse families were Teloschistaceae (30 intraspecific lichen taxa), Physciaceae (26 intraspecific taxa), Parmeliaceae (16 intraspecific taxa) and Verrucariaceae (12 intraspecific taxa), respectively. All lichen taxa found in Çankiri are new to this province (92 intraspecific taxa), while 39 new to Nevsehir, 8 new to Konya and 5 new to Antalya provinces (Table 2). On the other hand, all the taxa are new to their localities except Seydisehir (Konya), since the samples were collected from the 14 collecting sites for the first time.

Table 2: List of lichen taxa and lichenicolous fungi
?: New record for Turkey, [ÇA]: New to Çankiri, [KO]: New to Konya, [NE]: new to Nevsehir, [AN]: New to Antalya, !: lichenicolous fungus


In the study area all of the species were found on 20 substrata. Of the species, 118 are crustose, 46 are foliose, 6 are fruticose and 1 is leprose.

A total of 50 species were growing as epiphytes, 101 to be only saxicolous, 9 to be only terricolous, 4 to be epiphytic as well as saxicolous and 1 to be epiphytic as well as terricolous. Five species were seen to be growing on mosses only. Fourteen species were only growing on Pinus sp., and 15 growing only Prunus sp. and Prunus armeniaca L. while 35 species only deciduous trees. Carbonea vitellinaria (Nyl.) Hertel was found to growing on Candelariella vitellina (Hoffm.) Müll.Arg. while Muellerella pymaea (Körb.) D. Hawksw. var. Athallina (Müll. Arg.) Triebel (lichenicolous fungus) on Tephromela atra as parasitic.

In this study, 92 lichen intraspecific taxa were collected from Çankiri while 48 from Antalya, 47 from Nevsehir, 37 from Konya.

Station 7, in which 44 intraspecific taxa were defined, is the most intensive one in terms of diversity of species. The second is station 8, in which 38 intraspecific taxa were found. The next highest species-rich stations are 10, 9a, 13 and 5, respectively.

Only 3 intraspecific lichen taxa have been noted from Çankiri so far while only 28 taxa from Nevsehir, 273 from Antalya and 130 from Konya. Additionally a few researchers have reported lichen taxa from Antalya, Çankiri, Konya and Nevsehir provinces in previous studies (Table 3). Table 3 shows that 9 researchers have reported lichen taxa from Antalya while 6 from Konya. On the other hand Çankiri and Nevsehir have not been largely studied.

Table 3: Number of lichen taxa noted from Antalya, Çankiri, Konya and Nevsehir provinces in previous studies
-: Absent

Genera such as Acarospora, Caloplaca, Lecanora, Rinodina, Verrucaria and Xanthoria are the most common in the study area. Caloplaca, growing on both rocks and many deciduous trees, is the most common among them (23 taxa). On the other hand Acarospora, Lecanora, Rinodina and Verucaria were found always on calcareous rock and limestones. Crustose lichen species are identified more frequently than the others. It can be said that crustose species can grow on rocks, deciduous and coniferous trees.

All samples were collected from on 15 substrata (except Candelariella vitellina and Tephromela atra (Huds.) Hafellner substrata). Most of these specimens were endolithic. On the other hand some are seen on coniferous trees (only on Pinus sp.). But foliose and crustose species were epiphytic on nine different deciduous trees such as Acer sp., Amygdalus communis L., Fraxinus sp., Morus sp., Populus sp., Prunus sp., Pyrus sp., Quercus sp. and Robinia pseudoacacia L. Interestingly, most of the intraspecific taxa were grown significantly on limestones, especially in Nevsehir (Fig. 2). Nevsehir has a structure originated from a series of volcanic eruptions. Therefore the rocks are very soft and fragile.

Crustose species are very common in station 7, 8, 10. Especially Korgun (Çankiri) is very rich in respect to crustose species as a result of rocks-rich while Seydisehir (Konya) is poor with regard to substrata such tree and rock. Thus, Seydisehir (Konya) has a large of lowlands (Seydisehir Plain). Because of this only crustose species such as Placocarpus, Rhizocarpon, Rinodina, Toninia and Xanthoria on rocks and some foliose species on Salix sp. were found main-roadside in Seydisehir.

Interestingly that crustose genus with lirellate apothecia such as Graphis was only found in Çankiri on Populus sp. and Prunus sp., whereas species belonging Graphina, Opegrapha and Phaeographis were not seen in these stations Foliose species were mostly found on Pinus sp. (Antalya) and deciduous trees (Çankiri and Seydisehir). Species such as Xanthoparmelia conspersa (Ehrh. ex Ach.) Hale and X. stenophylla (Ach.) Ahti and D. Hawksw. were defined on rocks only Çankiri and Konya. Besides Physcia, Phaeophyscia and Physconia were seen always on Fraxinus sp., Morus sp., Prunus sp., Pyrus sp. and Quercus in Çankiri.

Fig. 2: Numerical distribution of lichen taxa on habitats (except Muellerella pygmaea var. athallina and Carbonea vitellinaria)

nterestingly genera such as Alectoria, Peltigera, Ramalina and Usnea were not found abundantly as expected. That`s because of as a result of deficiency of trees, especially coniferous and as well as bare fields.

As regards to choosing substrata Candelariella vitelina, Phaeophyscia orbicularis (Neck.) Moberg, Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Olivier and Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. were defined to be the least sensitive. Both Phaeophyscia orbicularis and Xanthoria parietina, growing on 4 different deciduous trees, were found in 4 stations. Candelariella vitellina and Physcia adscendens were growing on 3 different deciduous trees. Besides, the most common foliose species are Physcia adscendens, Protoparmeliopis muralis (Schreb.) M. Choisy and Xanthoria elegans (Link) Th. Fr.Station 12 and 13 is situated near a lime pit. Bagliettoa baldensis (A.Massal.) Vezda and Verrucaria calciseda DC., which are determined as indicator species of lime and calcareous substratum, was found only in this station. At the same station, saxicolous species such as Aspicilia calcarea (L.) Mudd, Verrucaria nigrescens Pers, Verrucaria calciseda and Verrucaria marmorea (Scop.) Arnold were also recorded.

Arthonia pinastri Anzi, Lecidea lapicida (Ach.) Ach var. pantherina Ach., Lecidea lithophila (Ach.) Ach., Phaeophyscia cernohorskyi (Nádv.) Essl., Protoparmeliopsis achariana (A.L. Sm.) Moberg and R. Sant., Rinodina guzzinii Jatta, Xanthoria sorediata (Vain.) Poelt and Verrucaria lecideoides (A.Massal.) Trevis. have been rarely defined in Turkey so far.

Cladonia rangiformis Hoffm Flavoparmelia caperata (L.) Hale, Hypogymina physodes (L.) Nyl., Peltigera canina (L.) Willd., Pseudevernia furfuracea (L.) Zopf var. ceratea (Ach.) D.Hawksw P. furfuracea (L.) Zopf var. Furfuracea, Ramalina farinacea (L.) Ach. and Xanthoria parietina, were also defined in the study area. It is known that these fungi are used among native population, but publications based on this subject are not intensive.

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